This chapter consist of the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations, scape of the study and operational definition. 1. 1 BACGROUND OF THE STURDY When a counting is faced with challenges of ensuring the provision of child care services becomes too wide for the state . In this case foster care and more extensive adoption programe are preferred to be practiced.

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However, there will always be situation where there is a shortage of forster parent and you will be requiring orphanage to provide care for the children. Most charity homes that have provided children services for example; Mama Ngina children Home and Dada Mary children Rehabilation center increasingly focusing their effort on community based care to keep them in the extended families. Due to profound changes in Kenya in the mid 80’s has been the formation of street to children who run away from their families to the streets.

This 21’st century extra ordinary episodes are seeminly related to the degeneration social value and socio-economic hardship of the day. Research by Vonda sharnk to Herman (1992) has shorwn that there is maltreatment of children. Parents as care takes era legally responsible for supporting and providing for children. But in the absence of these or any relatives willingly to care for the children they become award of the state. By looking at the number of children seen on the roaming on the streets there raising a need to find out the root course so that a lasting solution is found.

AVERT international organization (2005) describes the rnumber of orphans and vulnerable children in the past three decades in Africa as an explosion. AVERT estimate the number at 46% of all children in“need of care and protection” as AIDS orphans. AVERT further agues that family structures in Africa can not cope because of numbe of orphans and vunrable children. It is likely that at this time the situation is unbearable and there is need to conduct a research to find out the real effect of child abuse on performance on ECDE center in Tingolo Zone . It appears that the exodus of children to urban areas is related to child abuse.

According to the Republic of Kenya (2007) every child should have a right to life, survival, development , parent care, name and nationality registration at birth , on discrimination protection from all forms of abuse, education, privacy, leisure, priper and adequate nutrition, health care and parental spiritual guidance. But in the absence of the above rights, the child feels being abused and neglected hence performance of the child reduces. It has been noticed that members of the community and individual look the request knowledge about child rights hence resulting into cases received in the media on child abuse.

In urban as well as rural areas, the number of working children is alarming seemingly these large numbers tells of children dropping out of school or never given a chance to join ECDE center in the first place. These group of children are likely not to join school unless something is done to rescuer this from the streets. The crime and prostitution rate already being practiced in the society is done this from the streets. The crime and prostitution rate already being practiced in the society is soar. The implication of pre-mature deaths from drug abuse, police shootings and HIV/AIDS.

Mr Njenga says that we shall be gong to waste as we stand to loose a generation that would have given back to the society. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that child abuse is issure in the society that need to be investigated 1. 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. It has been noticed that ECO children learn a great deal through observation and imitation. Parents take a bigger fraction of child’s environment hence they have a significant role in determining what a child learn especially through odservation and imitation at it forms behavior. This is according to skinner behaviorism theory of learning.

Parents should display traits and behaviour that can be imitated by the children yet some of them may not be in a position to possess qualiies that are desirable for learners to emulate. Besides that they may not provide for the child’s holistic devolopement because of ignorance that that only a certain amount of education can remove in this regard it is assumed that a parent with reasonable education should be able to nurture a child into asocially acceptable human being. It has been observed that many children from parents thought of as having some educationseem not to get adequate care in early stages of life.

This study wil therefore be dsigned to try to determine the effect of child abuse early development and education in Tingolo Zone Busia county. 1. 3 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of child abuse on perfomancce in ECD centers in Tingolo Zone Busia county. 1. 4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study wil be guided dy the following objectives; I. To find out the cause of the child abuse in Tingolo Zone Busia county. II. To investigate incicideence of child abuse in early childhood Development Education center in Tingolo Zone Busia county. III.

To determine the effects of child abuse of performance in Tingolo Zone Busia county. 1. 5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS. I. What are some of the causes of child abuse in Tingolo Zone Busia county? II. Which incidence of child are observed or reported in ECDE center? III. How dose child abuse affect the performance of children in ECDE centers? 1. 6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY. The study will be conducted in Tiongolo Zone Busia county. The research study will collect information in 10 pre-school and lower primary. 1. 7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY. The researcher will find it hard to prepare and do research study in time due to; I.

Luck of enough funds to carry out the research since it will involve a lot of movement. II. Poor weather conditions, that is alote of rain leading poor transportation network III. The researcher may face the problemof uncoperativeness in that most of the people in the area of the study may not be free to axpress their views due to fear of the people in the area. IV. The researcher may also face a problem of hostility among some community in the area of the study. V. The researcher may also face the problem of language barrier hence 1. 8 DELIMITATION To delimit these problems;

I. The researcher will use her own means of transport so as to eliminate extra transport. II. The researcher will cary out the study during the day. III. The resaecher will communicate easily with the subject under the study by use of their native language. 1. 9 ABREVIATION OF TERMS. ECDE: Early Childhood Development Education HIV : Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome FPE : Free Primary Education. NU : United Nation UK : United Kingdom CDF : Constituency Development Funds IDP : Iternally Displaced Person

CRISP: Child Right International surport prigram CCO : Community Child Organization Center GOK : Government Of Kenya. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIWE 2. 1 INTRODUCTION The chapter focused and review of literature by other people and their contribution on the effect of child abuse on ECDE Centre, the incidents of child abuse in ECDE, causes of child abuse in ECDE and effect of child abuse performance in ECDE 2. 2 THEORIES OF CHILD ABUSE Mumbi (2004) quotes the minister for health Mrs. Charity Ngilu say that there should be basic hygiene. According to Mrs.

Ngilu parents and other care takers should be sensitized on the need of providing nutritious food and clean water to their children so as to enable their children grow healthy which in turn improve their academic performance in there learning environment Swift C. R (1984) says that poverty iss often associated with under ntririon, poor medical care and pre-maturity which in turn are associated with above average incidences of psychological maladjustments. Psychological stress in life may contribute to the onset of illness which may affect performance of the child both in playground in accademics.

Murithi (2005) argues thst Kenya has been pushed into a great situation of distinction between the rich and poor. This discrimination has affected the performance of the children. However the GOK has tried to find povety in the county by disbursing C. D. F to help the development project for both adults and children. The gorverment has slso through CRISP disbursed financial assistance to primary and C . C. O center to select districts in the county to umprove infrastructure and learning materials in their institutions. These are effects to cental poverty in our constituency and county.

Despite the government’s effort to eradicate poverty and provide basic needs to children the provisions is still found to be serious problem and other stakeholders in the education are called uporn to join hands in this process. 2. 3 INCIDDENCES OF CHILD ABUSE Many incidence of child abuse may be silently taking place in child institution, homes and families without anybody realizing. The standard ( Nov. 19, 2008)- The Helpline Director and children department reported that over 300 child abuse cause were handled in three months’ time and ten percent of the causes handled were boys related.

Daily Nation (Nov. 19, 2008) states that more boys in the post have been rescued from streets than ever before. There are more boys than there are girls on the streets which means that boys are being abused more at homes. As though this was not enough, the standard (March 11, 2008) reported that the Roman catholic church in the US paid out 615 million dollars in 2009 for child sex abuse case involving members of the allergy, or fifty four percent more than the previous years.

Likely new of boys being abused tends to be reported in many cases because they are openly seen on the streets than there are girls. There might be a lot happening on girls silently and not being voiced by the suffers for fear of losing some privilages enjoyed and even being threatened for dire consequences, The study will found a large rate of exploitation and abuse, slave, child ponography, sexual assult, child prostitution and child trafficking. Brian ( Daily Nation, Nov. 9, 2008) states that the civil society organization have crcked the whip on people who abuse girls so often and had that result has been that child abusers has shifted their on welcome attention to boys. But on the country, it’s likely that girls may be undergoing some bitter moments in the hands of friends, parents and relatives. Weke ( Daily Nation, Nov. 19, 2008) says that incidents of sexual abuse on boys have increasedin the past few months. A number of sodomy cases have been received from school and other institution and even rehabilitation center.

It is likely that a lot is happening silently and these children may be undergoing a terminating period in their lifetime perpetrators may even be changing their tactics of committing the crime. Contradiction is brought between the statistics in the children’s department and those in the county education office on children in ECDE centers. Statistics shows that few girls have been enrolled in ECDE centers in Tingolo Zone as compared to the total population of children in Tingolo Zone. There are 5,000 children under age of eight years in Tingolo Zone of which more than half are boys.

Staistics in ECDE officr, Busia county shows that more boys than girls have been enrollde in ECDE center in Tingolo Zone. This contradicts what Brian sy that child abuses have shifted their attention to boys. It is most likely that girls are silently being destroyed without anybody’s knowledge. 2. 4 CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE According to the Numerous Foundation ( 1995) many children run away from home due to problems with their families may be this seems to be due to violence in the family, peer pressure, problems at the school, separation of parents or arrival of step parents.

Sreets are just a replacement of these problems that children run away from and this takes differen wsys like sexual abuse, development of criminal, traits in children and the raise of leading to child labour. Children trafficking and deaths from deaths from malnutrition and mob justice, transmission of disease like HIV/AIDS. However, few of these cases are reported due to stigmatization, fear of reprisal or fear of the tedious process of seeking justice in Kenya.

Wisdom (1989) child abuse is manifested in various forms like sexual abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and emotional. It is more likely that in Kenya not every suspicion or situation is child maltreatment. Abuse and neglect is reported to the authorities. As a result the number of reports likely under reprensents the number of result the number of reports likely urnder represents the number of children who actualy suffer from maltreatement, abuse and neglect.

Nairobi African Network for the preventation and protection against chld abuse (2000) notes that many African communities, povety and lack of proper parentating skills play a major role in child maltreatment abuse and neglect ( Japheth, Daily Nation ). 2. 5 THE EFFECTS OF CHILD ABUSE ON PERFORMANCE IN ECDE. Network (2000) children suffering abuse develop arrange of maladaptive, anti-social and self-destructive behavior and thoughts by trying to cope with the abuse by trying to understand the situation and why the abuse is happening.

They come up with ideas about what they did to cause the abuse and what they do differently to avoid the abuse. Children also develop a range of maladaptive behavior which can become pathological problems. It is likely that freezing and disassociates response behave demonstrated by some toddlers and pre-scholar are associated with maltreatment of these children. The study done response to maltreatment in which individuals separate their painful experiences from conscious awareness. The use of disassociation protects the children against overwhelming emotions and thoughts about maltreatment.

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