Data shows that low socioeconomic, low parental involvement, and poor support from administrators and educators are among the most important factors that contribute the rise to high school dropout rates. Classrooms are overcrowded and that leaves students without the proper attention from teachers, which leads to students that cannot understand the curriculum to fall behind. A great percentage of students get discouraged and leave school before graduation.

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In order for students to get attention that is required for them to stay in school and graduate, parents need to become involved in their children’s education and demand personal attention from educators which is required to help students stay in school. Administrators, counselors, and community leaders need to come together and involved to target at-risk students so that they can graduate from High school.

Research has shown that there is still much work to be done in order to decrease the drop-out rates in the United States and the responsibility does not fall on only one factor, but it falls on society as a whole. Source: Microsoft Abstract High school dropout rates keep increasing year after year and society as a whole needs to become aware and find solutions for this social problem. This literature review examines areas in which educators, community leaders, counselors, administrators, and parents can become involved in order to help students stay in school and graduate.

Some issues that will be considered are; is low socioeconomic in families a factor in school dropouts, can overcrowded classrooms and large schools influence students to dropout, will keeping students in schools help unemployment and crime rates to decrease, and will showing personal interest from teachers, parents, and if extracurricular activities will influence students to graduate. HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS; A SOCIAL CONCERN INTODUCTION High school dropout rates keep increasing year after year and the reasons are not yet understood completely.

Although the rates vary from different studies, most studies show that approximately one fourth of students drop out before graduation. While much effort is being done to assist students to graduate, educators, administrators, counselors, and community leaders need to commit to encourage students to stay in school by not only giving personal attention to influence the social structure and the environment within the schools but also by providing a number of incentives for students to remain in schools, and involving parents in students education.

By keeping students in schools, educators and administrators are reducing unemployment and crime rates which can be a burdensome on the economy and everyone in the communities. This literature review concentrates on some important questions that can help one understand and bring a possible solution to this social problem: 1. Is low socioeconomic an important factor in student dropout? 2. Can large schools and overcrowded classrooms influence students to lose interest? 3.

Will keeping students in schools help reduce unemployment and crime in our communities? 4. Will sincere personal interest from educators, parental involvement, and extracurricular activities influence students to stay in school and graduate? Understanding why students drop out of high school and what can be done to encourage students to remain in school and graduate is very important to society as a whole, in order to reduce unemployment and crime within the communities of the United States.

Is Low Socioeconomic an Important Factor in Student Dropout? In order to understand if low socioeconomic is an important factor in student dropping out from high schools, it is important to acknowledge what the authors Rumberger, et al, (ix) claim in the that although the research to date has been useful in identifying the wide range of factors associated with dropping out, many of these factors are descriptive or structural and thus reveal little about the underlying processes that actually lead to dropout behavior.

For example, numerous studies have shown that family background, particularly socioeconomic status (SES), exerts a considerable influence on educational attainment in general, as well as on dropout behavior. That is, students from families of lower SES, when such status is often measured by parental education or family income, exhibit higher dropout rates than do students from families of higher SES.

To mention another point of view, Alspaugh, a professor of education at the University of Missouri-Columbia states (i) although there is a tendency to think of dropping out of school as a phenomenon of low socioeconomic communities, recent studies have indicated that that may not always be the case. ” Not all of high school drop outs come from low socioeconomic families, there are other important factors to consider, but one cannot deny that this issue does affect a great percentage of students.

Professor Alspaugh states in his article also that “approximately one-fourth of ninth-grade students in the United States drop out before graduating from high school. It is generally accepted that drop-out rates are a reflection of the schools and the communities they serve” (i). It is wise not to undermine the importance of paying attention to the different living situations of the student’s families within the school communities in order to reduce dropout rates.

Schools have a great challenge in trying to help students to stay in schools and graduate. One can look upon the different factors that contribute to students to drop out early without receiving a diploma, and school’s size can also be an important one. Can Large Schools and Overcrowded Classrooms Influence Students to Lose Interest? Much research has been done to understand why students drop out of school, but little attention has been brought to the school size. Classrooms are vercrowded in large schools and this leaves students without the proper attention from teachers, which leads students that cannot understand the curriculum to fall behind and give up. A high percentage of students get discouraged and leave school before graduating. A number of students felt overwhelmed by their school, specifically by its size and climate. Students perceived teachers as uncaring and not interested in their learning, school counselors were described as busy, overloaded, and unable to provide personal attention or support (vii).

Some researchers suggest that there is an influence on the school size that impacts the dropout rates. With smaller communities to attend, educators, administrators, and counselors will be able to assess family’s needs and target those at-risk students and families before they fall between the cracks. According to Pittman & Houghwout, it was found that: The end result was that most students in large schools assumed a passive role in and felt little commitment to-school activities.

Small schools, on the other hand, provided more opportunities to participate independent of talent, and in fact seemed to foster ‘responsibility’ to participate, even among marginal students. According to a model, dropout behavior presented these factors increases identity with the school, which reduces the likelihood of leaving school. (viii) Studies were done to assess the effect of school size and dropout rates. The method used for this study was quantitative, and the sample below will show its findings.

Analysis of variance results on school dropout rate by high school size High school size number of schools Average dropout rate (%) F p-value Less than 6671526. 4 668-11501498. 5 1,151-1,5721499. 312. 48. 000 1,573-2,09014811. 4 Greater than 2,09114612. 1 Note. The sample used was the schools which participated in the High School and Beyond study of the National Center of Educational statistics. High School and Beyond is a longitudinal study of a national sample of students who were high school seniors or sophomores during spring 1980. viii) Smaller schools would mean that there can be a better opportunity for students to receive personal attention and there would be better opportunities for extracurricular activities, not to mention higher parental involvement. It is critical to keep students in schools since this can be the difference between them being able to find an adequate job and not end up unemployed or worse yet, involved in criminal acts. Will Keeping Students in Schools help Unemployment and Crime in our Communities?

High school dropout prevention programs are costly; however, when students leave schools without graduating, this can become an even higher cost on society. Dropout statistics are particularly alarming because jobs that pay living wages and benefits virtually disappeared for youth without a high school diploma. (iv) In recent years, the competition for high paying jobs is over the roof, and if one cannot present itself with a degree of some sort, at least a high school diploma, the possibilities for attaining such an employment is very low.

The authors of American Educational research Association state the following: For society, the costs of dropout are staggering, estimated in the billions of dollars in lost revenues, welfare programs, unemployment programs underemployment, and crime prevention and prosecution. Given these individual and societal consequences, facilitating school completion for all students must be a critical concern for researchers, policymakers, and educators across the country. (iv) When students find themselves among the 1. million dropouts in the United States, statistics show that the chances of getting a well-paying job are very low. Dropping out of school without graduating is much serious than students can imagine. They can find themselves in poverty and worse yet, committing a crime in order to survive. Research shows that jobs that require relatively little education are increasingly done by machines or shipped overseas, and individuals who fail to earn a high school diploma are at a great disadvantage when it comes to finding a good-paying job. ii) The increase of High school dropout rates can have a high impact on society as a whole and it is a great disadvantage for social programs geared to reduce these rates. The economy is damaged by having so many dropouts in welfare systems. [Dropouts] are more at risk of tangling with the criminal justice system, and even more likely to need social welfare assistance. Even more tragic, their children are more likely to become high school dropouts themselves, as are their children’s children, and so on, in an endless cycle of poverty.

High school dropouts influence a community’s economic, social, and civic health as well. (ii) High schools around the nation cannot afford to lose millions of students before they graduate, they need to ensure that adequate attention is given to the matter in order to reduce unemployment and crime. In support to the above research, an article named Catching drop-outs (iii) states the following: One thing is certain: without a high school diploma, thousands of our children will be relegated to the bottom rung of the economic ladder, unemployed or underemployed; living lives in poverty and crime.

We can’t let that happen. We all lose when children fail. We can’t let our schools let them down. (iii) Society needs to put forth effort to come together and ensure that students find a reason to stay in school and graduate, even if it means making changes that were not traditional in the past years. When traditionally accepted programming is no longer effective, it is time to re-examine assumptions and consider alternatives. (xii) When one program does not work, it is ultimately important to make changes that allow room for success.

Some solutions that need to be addressed in order to reduce such high amount of dropouts, are personal interest from educators, administrators, community leaders, and most importantly, increment parental involvement. Will sincere personal interest from educators, parental involvement, and extracurricular activities influence students to stay in school and graduate? Studies show that there is not just one solution that fits all to solve the issue of high school dropouts in the United States.

Many studies show that there are different routes to take to decrease the rates of High school drop-outs and to target at-risk students before they decide to leave school without a graduate diploma. Parental involvement in the education of students is crucial in order to influence students to stay in school. Children from families in which family relations are ‘good’ and in which parents more closely monitor the activities and whereabouts of their children are less likely to drop out of school than are other children. ix) Parents need to pay attention to their children and become involved in their lives every day, because if things are not going well at home, they are high risk that student’s education will suffer. When it comes to reducing dropout, counselors and other professionals need to identify models that can be used earlier in the educational process to guide intervention. (xi) Also, educators, counselors, and administrators can show personal interest by becoming involved in improving the students’ relationships with everyone that has contact with them.

Counselors could also develop interventions that teach communication skills and conflict resolutions skills, thus leading to improved family relationship and student-teacher relationships for these at-risk students who are likely to experience relationship problems at home and in school. (xi) When students feel the support coming in harmony from their educators, counselors and their families, they tend to become more interested in their education’s well-being and tend to try harder to stay in school and graduate.

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