1. Explain what is meant by the term ’dementia’ Dementia is a non-specific illness syndrome with serious loss of global cognitive ability. It can be static or progressive. More common above the age of 65 but can occur before that age, when it’s called „early on set dementia”. It can occur becouse of a brain injury (e. g. stroke) or with a disease or damage in the body (e. g. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease). The main signs and symptoms are short term memory loss, mental and behavioral problems, language problems, decreased problem solving. 2. Describe the key functions of the brain that are affercted by dementia Frontal lobe
Loss of spontaneity. , flexibilty, concentration. Changes in mood, personality, behaviour. Decreased ability of compley movements. Difficulty with language, communication, problem solving. Parietal lobe Difficulties with communication, hand- and eye coordination ? therefor problems with reading, writing or drawing. Problems to discern left side from right.
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Problems with concentration. Lack of awarness of surrounding space. Temporal lobe Difficulty with identification even with familiar faces. Problems with speech and/ or understanding spoken words. Short term memory loss. Agressive behaviour.
Changes in sexual behaviour. Occipital lobe Difficulty with colours, locating object, reading and writing. Can couse hallucinations. Cerebellum Loss of ability to walk, fine movements, compley movements. Tremors and vertigo. As loss of ability of fine movements can affect speech too. 3. Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia Depression: Due to similiar symptoms like changes in mood and interest, problems with memory, changes in sleeping habits, socialy isolated depression can be confused with dementia, but depression is caused by chemical imbalances in the brain.
Delirium: Due to similiar symptoms like confusion, changes in mood and behaviour, activity level, hallucination, but delirium is a medical condition and has short duration: can last from hours to weeks. Age related memory impairment: As the body getting older the functioning of the brain is also get reduced providing symptoms like being forgetful, missplacing objects, learning difficulties, memory problems. Outcome 2Understand key features of the theoretical models of dementia 1. Outline the medical model of dementia This model treats dementia as a medical issue, as a disease.
Focusing on the person with dementia as a problem. This model does not help the individual in it’s own life support but making it dependant. 2. Outline the social model of dementia This model focuses on the individual trying to arrange a valuable life for him/her considering the individual’s biography, life style, needs and circumstances. 3. Explain why dementia should be viewed as a disability Dementia is a mental imairment which has a substantial and long term effect on ability to perform a normal day-to-day activities beseem the criterions of The Equality Act 2010.
Becouse of the damage to the brain dementia cab affect different areas of functioning like physical, emotional impairment, problems with socializing, maintaining functions of daily routines, visual problems, communication problems. Outcome 3Know the most common types of dementia and their causes 1. List the common causes of dementia a) Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) b) Alzheimer’s disease c) Vascular dementia d) Frontotemporal dementia 2. Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia a) DLB: Lewy bodies are an abnormal collections of protein in the nerve cells.
Degeneration and death of nerve cells in the brain. People with DLB loose the ability to reason. It has effect on communication, short-term memory, concentration. Can also cause visual hallucinations. Mouscles become stiff. b) Caused by Alzheimer’s disease. Worsens as it progresses. Destroys the brain cells and the transmitters so the nerves can’t transport the messages. Symptoms are: getting forgetful, changing mood, dificulties with finding words. As it’s progresses the person forgets names, faces, events, will have problems to understand what is being said. The personality goes through changes.
The person can become completly dependand. c) The supply of oxygene reduce so the brain cells die which leading to a series of mini storkes, which leads to vascular dementia. It does not affect all of the brain. It is partially preventable. Symptoms are:problems with orientation. , attention, speech, incontinence and of course memory problems. d) Coused by a damage to the temporal and/or frontal parts of the brain. Symptoms are: changes in behaviour, losing their inhibitions, changes in personality like become agressive or socially withdrawn. But the person’s memory is still intact. 3.
Outline the risk factors for the most common causes of dementia Gender: Men have higher risk for heart disease and high blood pressure ? these are risk factors of the vascular dementia ? vascular dementia is more common in men than women. Women after the menopause, due to lack of oestrogen has higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Age: It is possible to develop dementia before the age of 65, but: getting older ? increase chance diseases as the body (including the brain) gets weaker ? develop the chance for dementia. Genetics: Family history of dementia is a high risk factor. Medical history: Specific medical conditions ?
heart disease, affect on blood circulation, sclerosis multiplex, Down’s syndrome, HIV, Huntington’s disease, trauma of the head, etc. ?risk factors of developing dementia. Environment and lifestyle: Unhealthy diet ? heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke ? can develop dementia. Smoking ? vascular disease ? stroke ? can couse vascular dementia. Alcohol ? drinking lot of alcohol for a long period of time ? damage on the brain ? risk to develop dementia. Lack of physical activity ? bad blood circulation ? risk of dementia. Aluminium ? toxic effect on the nervous system ? risk of Alzheimer’s disease. 4.
Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia Alzheimer’s disease: 62% Vascular dementia: 17% DLB: 4% Fronto-temporal dementia: 2% Mixed dementia: 10% Otcome 4Understand factors relating to an individual’s experience of dementia 1. Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age, type of dementia, and level of ability and disability Age: The chances of developing dementia increase significantly as we get older. Younger persons diagnosed with dementia may have mortgage, dependent children or other family member. It is also more fustrating losing skills at a young age.
Type of dementia: Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease. Over the time the individual will lose more and more skills and may become dependent in all his/her everyday tasks. Vascular dementia progress in a step like way and the memory loss may not appear till a later progression. This means that the individual can be more aware of hi/her stage. Individuals with Fronto-temporal dementia are less forgetful but their personality and behaviour changes a lot. DLB affect speech, memory and concentration with tremors and speech difficulties. Level of ability or disability: Individuals with learning difficulties (eg.
Down’s syndrome) are at a higher risk of developing dementia as they age than others. Individuals physical health can effect on their experiences of dementia as it can make it more difficult to face unfamiliar situations for example for a hearing impairment or somebody who has problems with mobilizing. 2. Outline the impact that the attitudes and behaviours of others may have on an individual with dementia Negative attitude: Can isolate the individual with dementia. It can make diseases more progressive, can make the individual more anxious and also can turn agressive behaviour even worse.
Negative attitudes only make the individula’s life harder and unacceptable for the individual, make dementia more progressive. Positive attitude: It is very essential to the individuals with dementia to meet positive attitudes. Positive behaviour can build up a relationship based on trust and respect. Positive attitudes gives the individual a sense of purpose, empowers him/her and reduces the levels of anxiety. It also can improve wellbeing and promotes a positive health issue. Also can help accepting and processing the symptoms of dementia, not only for the individual with dementia, but also for his/her family and other relations.