20th Century Fox Essay Research Paper Wilhelm
twentieth Century Fox Essay, Research Paper
Wilhelm Fried was born in Hungary of German-Jewish parents, and brought to America while still an baby in 1879. As William Fox, he would preside over a major Hollywood movie studio of the teens and ’20s & # 8212 ; one destined to make even greater highs in the ’30s and ’40s as 20th Century-Fox. In 1904 Fox purchased a Brooklyn penny arcade from life innovator J. Stuart Blackton, and with its net incomes shortly had a concatenation of New York City film houses. He began bring forthing movies in 1912, and in 1915 formed the Fox Film Corporation, which produced, distributed, and exhibited movies for the following 20 old ages. The first stars at Fox were the celebrated “ coquette, ” Theda Bara ( Carmen, 1915 ; Cleopatra, 1917 ; Salome, 1918 ) , rugged taking adult male William Farnum ( Les Miserables, 1918 ; A Phase Love affair, 1922 ) , and cowpuncher ace Tom Mix ( The Wilderness Trail, 1919 ; Just Tony, 1922 ; The Rainbow Trail, 1925 ) . Director John Ford worked entirely at Fox in the ’20s and made two acclaimed Horse operas in 1924, The Iron Horse and Three Bad Men, both starring his find George O’Brien.
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Ford besides made legion play, notably Cameo Kirby ( 1923 ) with John Gilbert and Four Sons ( 1928 ) . Howard Hawks directed the silent movies Fig Leaves ( 1926 ) with George O’Brien and A Girl In Every Port ( 1928 ) with Louise Brooks ; Frank Borzage directed Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell in the hit romantic play Seventh Heaven ( 1927 ) and Street Angel ( 1928 ) . Most notably, Fox imported German manager F.W. Murnau and author Carl Mayer, who made the authoritative play Sunrise ( 1927 ) with Gaynor and O’Brien. With General Electric, Fox developed Movietone, the first successful procedure for marrying a sound path straight onto movie. The studio ‘s early talking pictures include Ford ‘s The Black Watch ( 1929 ) with Victor McLaglen and Salute ( 1929 ) with George O’Brien ; the interracial love affairs Frozen Justice ( 1929 ) and South Sea Rose ( 1929 ) , both directed by Allan Dwan ; and the Western In Old Arizona ( 1929 ) , directed by Raoul Walsh and starring Warner Baxter as the Cisco Kid. Fox had been steadily purchasing film theatres, and by the terminal of the 1920s was one of the great “ incorporate big leagues, ” along with MGM, Paramount, RKO, and Warner Bros. But the stock-market prostration of 1929 crippled the studio, and William Fox was bought out by a group of bankers in 1930 ; Sidney R. Kent replaced him as president in 1932. At the new Fox, John Ford and author Dudley Nichols made the war drama The Lost Patrol ( 1934 ) with Victor McLaglen and the comedy Judge Priest ( 1934 ) with Will Rogers. Spencer Tracy starred in The Power And The Glory ( 1933 ) , written by Preston Sturges. Frank Lloyd helmed the hit Noel Coward version Cavalcade ( 1933 ) , and Henry King directed Janet Gaynor in State Fair ( 1933 ) . But the star who saved the studio in the mid ’30s was six-year-old Shirley Temple, get downing with Stand Up And Cheer ( 1934 ) .In 1935, Fox merged with twentieth Century, the production company of Joseph M. Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck, which had been distributed by United Artists. The new corporation, 20th Century-Fox, had Kent as president, Schenck as president of the board, and Zanuck as frailty president in charge of production. Shirley Temple remained the treasure in the studio ‘s Crown ; here vehicles included Wee Willie Winkie ( 1937 ) , directed by John Ford, and Heidi ( 1937 ) and Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm ( 1938 ) , both directed by Allan Dwan. Zanuck produced legion movies in his first old ages at the studio, including manager Ford ‘s The Prisoner Of Shark Island ( 1936 ) with Warner Baxter, written by Nunnally Johnson ; Call Of The Wild ( 1935 ) , directed by William A. Wellman and starring Clark Gable ; the actioner Under Two Flags ( 1936 ) , directed by Frank Lloyd and starring Ronald Colman ; the Alice Faye musical On The Avenue ( 1937 ) ; the Tyrone Power vehicles In Old Chicago ( 1938 ) , Alexander ‘s Ragtime Band ( 1938 ) , and Jesse James ( 1939 ) , all directed by Henry King ; and King ‘s Stanley And Livingston ( 1939 ) with Spencer Tracy. The late thirtiess besides saw Henry Fonda starring in two movies from Ford and author Lamar Trotti, Young Mr. Lincoln ( 1939 ) and the Revolutionary War play Drums Along The Mohawk ( 1939 ) . Less esteemed yet valuable to the studio were three series: the musicals of figure-skater Sonja Henie, get downing with One In A Million ( 1936 ) and Thin Ice ( 1937 ) ; the “ Mr. Moto ” enigmas, with Peter Lorre as the Nipponese investigator, which began with Think Fast, Mr. Moto ( 1937 ) ; and the “ Charlie Chan ” enigmas, with Warner Oland ( and subsequently, Sidney Toler ) as the Chinese investigator, begun by the old Fox and reactivated by the new studio with Charlie Chan In Paris ( 1935 ) . Schenck resigned in 1941, after he was arrested for revenue enhancement abnormalities and brotherhood payoffs. Kent died the undermentioned twelvemonth and Spyros Skouras became the studio ‘s president. Zanuck remained in charge of production, and 20th Century-Fox released many of its best movies in the ’40s. Zanuck ‘s productions included John Ford ‘s The Grapes Of Wrath ( 1940 ) , Tobacco Road ( 1941 ) , and How Green Was My Vally ( 1941 ) ; the remaking Blood And Sand ( 1941 ) with Tyrone Power, directed by Rouben Mamoulian ; the flagwaver Winged Victory ( 1944 ) , directed by George Cukor and written by Moss Hart ; and the Somerset Mauhgam version The Razor ‘s Edge ( 1946 ) , besides with Power. Zanuck astutely used the Alice Faye musicals to present new endowment. Brazilian vocalist Carmen Miranda became a star looking with Faye in That Night In Rio ( 1941 ) and Busby Berkeley ‘s authoritative The Gang ‘s All Here ( 1943 ) . After doing a hit opposite Faye in Tin Pan Alley ( 1940 ) , Betty Grable shortly became the prime musical star at Fox, with the hit 1943 musicals as Coney Island and Sweet Rosie O’Grady. Fritz Lang helmed the Westerns The Return Of Frank James ( 1940 ) and Western Union ( 1941 ) . William A. Wellman directed the comedy Roxie Hart ( 1942 ) , produced and written by Nunnally Johnson, and the authoritative lynch-mob play The Ox-Bow Incident ( 1943 ) , produced and written by Lamar Trotti. Alfred Hitchcock helmed the thriller Lifeboat ( 1943 ) , Henry King directed the spiritual play The Song Of Bernadette ( 1943 ) and the biopic Wilson ( 1944 ) , and John Ford made the authoritative Wyatt Earp Western My Darling Clementine ( 1946 ) with Henry Fonda. Producer/director Ernst Lubitsch made his last movies, Heaven Can Wait ( 1943 ) and Cluny Brown ( 1946 ) ; Otto Preminger had to finish the ailing Lubitsch ‘s That Lady In Ermine ( 1948 ) . As a producer/director himself, Preminger made the authoritative enigma Laura ( 1944 ) and the musical Centennial Summer ( 1946 ) . Gregory Peck became a star in the A.J. Cronin version The Keys Of The Kingdom ( 1944 ) , written and produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. As a manager, Mankiewicz went on to hit with the Gothic Dragonwyck ( 1946 ) and the comedy/drama A Letter To Three Wifes ( 1949 ) . Lewis Milestone directed Dana Andrews in the war-atrocity play The Purple Heart ( 1944 ) and the combat movie A Walk In The Sun ( 1946 ) . Elia Kazan directed his first characteristic, the household drama A Tree Grows In Brooklyn ( 1944 ) ; subsequently, with Zanuck bring forthing, he made landmark movies about antisemitism ( Gentlemen ‘s Agreement, 1947 ) and racism ( Pinky, 1949 ) . Producer Louis de Rochemont made the factual, documentary-style espionage films The House On 92nd Street ( 1945 ) and 13 Rue Madeleine ( 1947 ) , both directed by Henry Hathaway ; he besides produced the offense play Boomerang! ( 1946 ) , directed by Kazan. Important postwar movies from Fox include the comedy Miracle On 34th Street ( 1947 ) , written and directed by George Seaton ; Henry Hathaway ‘s offense movies Kiss Of Death ( 1947 ) and Call Northside 777 ( 1948 ) ; the last American comedies of writer/producer/director Preston Sturges, Unfaithfully Yours ( 1948 ) and The Beautiful Blonde From Bashful Bend ( 1949 ) ; the mental-institution play The Snake Pit ( 1948 ) with Olivia de Havilland ; the “ Mr. Belvedere ” comedies starring Clifton Webb, get downing with Siting Pretty ( 1948 ) ; and Howard Hawks ‘ travesty I Was A Male War Bride ( 1949 ) with Cary Grant. In the 1950s manager Henry King worked repeatedly with Gregory Peck, including three Zanuck productions: the war play Twelve O’Clock High ( 1950 ) , the scriptural heroic poem David And Bathsheba ( 1951 ) , and the Hemingway version The Snows Of Kilimanjaro ( 1952 ) . King and Peck besides made the landmark Western The Gunfighter ( 1950 ) , the romantic play Love Is A Many-Splendored Thing ( 1955 ) , and the F. Scott Fitzgerald biopic Beloved Infidel ( 1959 ) . Zanuck ‘s other of import productions included Joseph L. Mankiewicz ‘ authoritative Broadway comedy/drama All About Eve ( 1950 ) with Bette Davis ; Elia Kazan ‘s biopic Viva Zapata! ( 1951 ) with Marlon Brando ; and the Madison Avenue drama The Man In The Gray Flannel Suit ( 1956 ) , written and directed by Nunnally Johnson. The early ’50s proverb other notable productions from 20th Century-Fox, including war movies by John Ford ( When Willie
Semens Marching Home, 1950 ; What Price Glory, 1952 ) , Fritz Lang ( American Guerilla In The Philippines, 1950 ) , manager Anatole Livak ( Decision Before Dawn, 1951 ) , and writer/director Samuel Fuller ( Fixed Bayonets, 1951 ; Hell And High Water, 1954 ) . Elia Kazan helmed the thrillers Panic In The Streets ( 1950 ) and Man On A Tightrope ( 1952 ) , and Delmer Daves directed the Western Broken Arrow ( 1950 ) . Espionage narratives included Joseph L. Mankiewicz ‘ Five Fingers ( 1952 ) and Fuller ‘s Pickup on South Street ( 1953 ) . Marilyn Monroe starred in the comedies How To Marry A Millionaire ( 1953 ) , written and produced by Nunnally Johnson ; Gentlemen Prefer Blondes ( 1953 ) , directed by Howard Hawks ; and The Seven Year Itch ( 1955 ) , directed by Billy Wilder. Richard Burton became a star with two movies directed by Henry Koster: the Daphne du Maurier version My Cousin Rachel ( 1952 ) , written and produced by Nunnally Johnson, and the heroic poem The Robe ( 1953 ) , the first CinemaScope production. Ethel Merman and Donald O’Connor co-starred in the Irving Berlin musicals Name Me Madam ( 1953 ) and There ‘s No Business Like Show Business ( 1954 ) ; both were directed by Walter Lang, who besides helmed the hit musical The King And I ( 1956 ) . Otto Preminger produced and directed the Western River Of No Return ( 1954 ) with Marilyn Monroe and the all-black musical Carmen Jones ( 1954 ) with Dorothy Dandridge. Although Zanuck left 20th Century-Fox in 1956 to go an independent manufacturer, he ‘d do a release trade with the studio. After Island In The Sun ( 1957 ) , directed by Robert Rossen, most of his attempts were box-ofice letdowns. Zanuck in vain tried to do Gallic actress Juliette Greco into a star with the Hemingway version The Sun Besides Rises ( 1958 ) , directed by Henry King ; the Romain Gary version The Roots Of Heaven ( 1958 ) , directed by John Huston ; and the play Crack In The Mirror ( 1960 ) and The Big Gamble ( 1961 ) , both directed by Richard Fleischer. Buddy Adler replaced Zanuck as caput of production at Fox, and until his decease in 1960 the studio released many noteworthy movies. Edward Dmytryk directed the World War Two play The Young Lions ( 1957 ) with Marlon Brando and Montgomery Clift, and the Western Warlock ( 1958 ) with Henry Fonda and Anthony Quinn. John Huston directed Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison ( 1957 ) with Robert Mitchum and Deborah Kerr and The Barbarian And The Geisha ( 1958 ) with John Wayne and Eiko Ando. Samuel Fuller wrote, produced, and directed the war movie China Gate ( 1957 ) and the Western Forty Guns ( 1957 ) . Fred Zinnemann directed the drug-addiction play A Hatful Of Rain ( 1957 ) ; George Stevens produced and directed The Diary Of Anne Frank ( 1959 ) . Other Fox hits included the soap opera Peyton Place ( 1957 ) , produced by Jerry Wald ; the musical South Pacific ( 1958 ) , directed by Joshua Logan ; and the science-fictioner The Fly ( 1958 ) with Vincent Price. The early ’60s saw several of import Fox releases. Jerry Wald produced the D.H. Lawrence version Suns And Lovers ( 1960 ) , directed by Jack Cardiff, and the Marilyn Monroe musical Let ‘s Make Love ( 1960 ) directed by George Cukor. Elia Kazan produced and directed the Depression-era play Wild River ( 1960 ) with Montgomery Clift, and Robert Rossen produced and directed his authoritative expression at high-stakes pool, The Hustler ( 1961 ) with Paul Newman. But the endless shoot of the heroic poem Cleopatra ( 1963 ) , starring Elizabeth Taylor, hurt the studio ‘s repute. This tremendously expensive movie did n’t make good plenty at the box-office, and it cost Skouras his reign at Fox. Zanuck so came to the studio ‘s deliverance ; split from Greco, he poured all his energies into a monolithic diversion of D-Day, The Longest Day ( 1962 ) , and it was a knock. Zanuck became president of Fox in 1962 and made his boy Richard production head. In these old ages Fox had such sucessful movies as the Bette Davis thriller Hush … Hush, Sweet Charlotte ( 1964 ) , produced and directed by Robert Aldrich ; Zorba The Greek ( 1964 ) with Anthony Quinn, written, produced and directed by Michael Cacoyannis ; The Sound Of Music ( 1965 ) with Julie Andrews, produced and directed by Robert Wise ; the popular science-fictioners Antic Voyage ( 1966 ) , directed by Richard Fleischer, and Planet Of The Apes ( 1968 ) , directed by Franklin J. Schaffner ; Schaffner ‘s sweeping biopic Patton ( 1969 ) with George C. Scott ; and the Western Butch Cassidy And The Sundance Kid ( 1969 ) with Paul Newman and Robert Redford. Other big-budget attempts, nevertheless, failed to do a sufficient net income, and damaged the studio over the ’60s: the Michelangelo biopic The Agony And The Ecstasy ( 1965 ) with Charlton Heston, produced and directed by Carol Reed ; The Bible ( 1966 ) , directed by John Huston ; Wise ‘s musical Star! ( 1968 ) with Julie Andrews ; Fleischer ‘s musical Dr. Dolittle ( 1967 ) with Rex Harrison ; and the Barbra Streisand musical Hello, Dolly! ( 1969 ) , directed by Gene Kelly. In 1969 Zanuck became president of the board, and Richard was made president. But the following twelvemonth, he forced his boy out of the company, and so resigned in 1971 to go president emeritus. Dennis C. Stanfill so became president and CEO of 20th Century-Fox. The 1970s saw such Fox hits as manager Robert Altman ‘s Korean War sarcasm M*A*S*H ( 1970 ) ; the offense movie The Gallic Connection ( 1971 ) , directed by William Friedkin ; manufacturer Irwin Allen ‘s catastrophe films The Poseidon Adventure ( 1972 ) and The Towering Inferno ( 1974, a Fox/Warner Bros. co-production ) ; Mel Brooks ‘s horror lampoon Young Frankenstein ( 1974 ) ; the supernatural thriller The Omen ( 1976 ) and its subsequences ; the Bob Fosse musical All That Jazz ( 1979, a Columbia/Fox co-production ) ; and the science-fiction hair-raiser Alien ( 1979 ) with Sigourney Weaver. Above all, the studio was blessed with George Lucas ‘ mega-hit Star Wars ( 1977 ) . Fox besides released noteworthy smaller movies: Sounder ( 1972 ) and Norma Rae ( 1979 ) , both directed by Martin Ritt ; An Unmarried Woman ( 1978 ) with Jill Clayburgh, written and directed by Paul Mazursky ; and the bicycle-race comedy/drama Breaking Away ( 1979 ) . In the early ’80s, the studio ‘s lucks rose still higher with Lucas ‘ subsequences The Empire Strikes Back ( 1980 ) and Return Of The Jedi ( 1983 ) . Mr. Mom ( 1983 ) , written by John Hughes, was a box-office knock, as were other uncultivated comedies — Porky ‘s ( 1981 ) , The Cannonball Run ( 1981 ) , Revenge Of The Nerds ( 1984 ) , and their subsequences. They were large concern at Fox, overshadowing the black comedies The Stunt Man ( 1980 ) , directed by Richard Rush, and Prizzi ‘s Honor ( 1985 ) , directed by John Huston, every bit good as movies by such comedy experts as Mel Brooks ( History Of The World, Part 1, 1981 ) and Jerry Lewis ( Barely Working, 1981 ) . Fox ‘ of import play included the gay-themed Making Love ( 1982 ) ; the courtroom tale The Verdict ( 1982 ) , directed by Sidney Lumet ; manager Martin Scorsese ‘s The King Of Comedy ( 1983 ) with Robert De Niro ; the fact-based anti-nuke play Silkwood ( 1983 ) , directed by Mike Nichols ; and the acclaimed Paris, Texas ( 1984 ) , written by Sam Shepard and directed by Wim Wenders. The large box-office went to the romantic actioners Wooing The Stone ( 1984 ) and The Jewel Of The Nile ( 1985 ) , both with Kathleen Turner and Michael Douglas ; manager Ron Howard ‘s greening phantasy Cocoon ( 1985 ) ; and the shoot-’em-up Commando ( 1985 ) with Arnold Schwarzenegger. Marvin Davis bought Fox in 1981, doing Alan J. Hirschfield president and CEO ; in 1985, Davis sold the company to Australian publishing house Rupert Murdoch, who formed Fox, Inc. , dwelling of 20th Century-Fox Film Corp. , Fox Television Stations, Inc. , and Fox Broadcasting Company. The late ’80s saw such of import Fox releases as the horror films The Fly ( 1986 ) and Dead Ringers ( 1988 ) , both directed and co-scripted by David Cronenberg ; the science-fiction subsequence Aliens ( 1986 ) ; the Coen Brothers ‘ comedy Raising Arizona ( 1987 ) ; writer/director Oliver Stone ‘s Wall Street ( 1987 ) with Michael Douglas ; the amusing phantasy Big ( 1988 ) with Tom Hanks, directed by Penny Marshall ; and the Bruce Willis actioner Die Hard ( 1988 ) and its ’90s subsequences. Joe Roth became president of 20th Century-Fox Film Corp. in 1989, and before his surrender in 1992 brought Fox to what was so its biggest moneymaker since Star Wars, the comedy Home Alone ( 1990 ) produced and written by John Hughes — which besides yielded Hughes ‘ enormously successful Home Alone 2: Lost In New York ( 1992 ) . Other early-’90s Fox hits were Sleeping With The Enemy ( 1991 ) , Aliens3 ( 1992 ) , and My Cousin Vinny ( 1992 ) . Peter Chernin replaced Roth, and Fox has struck gold with the Robin Williams comedy Mrs. Doubtfire ( 1993 ) and the 1994 actioners Speed and True Lies. The most recent of the studio ‘s hits are the science-fictioner Independence Day ( 1996 ) , the second-highest-grossing movie of all clip, and the re-issue of Lucas ‘ Star Wars trilogy. Whoever guides 20th Century-Fox into the twenty-first century, they will preside over an celebrated history every bit good as a critical nowadays.