A History Of Marine Science Essay Research
A History Of Marine Science Essay, Research Paper
Sept. 09, 2000
Ch.2 A History of Marine Science
The early history of Marine scientific discipline started about 11,000 old ages ago. Nomads began sailing into east and cardinal Europe, and across the fields of cardinal Asia. They journeyed to the shores of northeasterly Asia and crossed the Bering Sea into North America and South America. Most traveled on pes except for those who were talented in raft edifice or pilotage. Any coastal civilization with these endowments had large economical advantages and greater entree to nutrient or supplies. But when European adventurers set out to happen the universe, they were met by island-dwellers at about every ball of land they found.
The first grounds of sailing comes from records of trade in the Mediterranean Sea. The Greeks started to research outside the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic Ocean around 900-700 b.c. The Greeks thought the ocean was a immense river because they noticed currents that ran from north to south. The Phoenicians were besides native to theses Waterss but chose non to venture out of sight of land. Smart crewmans started entering the location of stones, landmarks, and the way of currents to do their ocean trips safer.
These first chart shapers were Mediterranean bargainers.
These were non the lone civilizations making their prep at the clip. The Chinese began to engineer an extended system of inland waterways, some of which connected to the Pacific Ocean to do conveyance of goods easier. The Polynesian people were traveling along the islands off the seashore of Southeast Asia and Indonesia for old ages and began to
settle the mid-pacific islands. These early adventurers were able to state way by the stars and Sun. They spread from island to island until the large and accessible islands had been colonized. This resulted in overpopulation and depletion of resources. Groups of people scattered in every way including Hawaii. The Hawaiian Islands are 2,000 stat mis from any important island, doing that a dangerous journey. These lucky innovators colonized Hawaii some clip between 450 and 650 a.d. Within a hundred old ages of their reaching, they were directing big vass on regular return trips to the Marquesas and the Society Islands.
Advancement in ocean scientific discipline began at the Library of Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander the Great founded it in the 3rd century. It was known as the first university in the universe. When any ship entered the seaport, the books it contained were lawfully removed and brought to the Library to be copied. The features of states, trade, natural admirations, artistic accomplishments, tourer sights, and other points of involvement were catalogued and filed. For 600 hundred old ages, it was the greatest and most influential establishment of larning in the universe. One of the bibliothecs was Eratosthenes of Cyrene. He was the first to cipher the perimeter of the Earth. Celestial Navigation was discovered here and latitude and longitude were invented by Eratosthenes. The last librarian at Alexandria was a adult female named Hypathia. A rabble badly killed her and burned the Library down with all of its contents in A.D.415. The academic loss was incalculable ; we will ne’er cognize the true extent and influence of its aggregation of over 700,000 unreplaceable coils.
On the other side of the Earth, the Vikings were over powering Eve
ry settlement they came in contact on their manner down the seashore of Europe. As the Gallic, Irish, and British
defences became stronger the Vikings traveled west to Iceland and Greenland. Old ages subsequently Prince Henry started the survey of Marine scientific discipline and pilotage at Sagres. Henry ventured south into the undiscovered and opened the west seashore of Africa to commerce. His crew used the compass. Another great seaman was Christopher Columbus. He was familiar with Henry? s work and knew the Earth was spherical. He set out to detect the new universe and confused it to be India or Japan. Other adventurers rapidly followed, and Columbus? s mistake was shortly corrected. James Cook, a adept sailing master verified computations of planetal orbits. He and his work forces found New Zealand and charted Australia? s Great Barrier Reef. They made notes of history and recorded critical info. He was the first to compass the universe at high height. Cook charted Tonga and Easter Islands and subsequently, the west seashore of North America. On his last journey he departed a dinner with the head of Hawaii. He or his crew someway angered the Hawaiians and were attacked by the crowd. Cook was killed amongst others. He is remembered as an outstanding sailing master and his charts were so great that they used them in World War 2.
In 1838 the United States Exploring Expedition was launched. The work aboard the ship Vincennes and the expedition? s five other vass helped set up the natural scientific disciplines as good professions in America. They left for four old ages with ends of mineral assemblage, charting the east Antarctic seashore, and pure geographic expedition. The crew was lead by Lt. Charles Wilkes. The work forces returned with many specimens and artefacts, which formed
the freshly established Smithsonian Institute in D.C. Wilkes prepared a concluding study numbering 19 volumes of maps, text, and illustrations. His study is a landmark in the history of scientific accomplishment.
At about the clip Wilkes returned from sea, Matthew Maury became interested in larning more about air currents and currents. Maury was the first individual to feel the worldwide form of surface air currents and currents. He created shorter paths to legion locations salvaging every bit much as 20 yearss of seafaring. He is considered by many to be the male parent of physical oceanology.
On December 21, the HMS Challenger set canvas on a four-year journey to detect the life and decease in the deepnesss of the ocean. Scientists took salt, temperature, and H2O denseness measurings during these soundings. Each reading contributed to a turning image of the physical form of the ocean floor.
In the United States, the three outstanding oceanographic institutes are the Woods Hole Institute on Cape Cod, founded in 1930. Here they established the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries in 1971. Next was the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, founded in La Jolla, California. This institute started as a research lab in a collapsible shelter until founded by William Ritter. Last was the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, founded in 1949.
NASA has besides become an of import subscriber to marine scientific discipline. For four months in 1978, NASA? S Seasat, the first oceanographic orbiter, beamed oceanographic informations to Earth. These same orbiters are now able to find moving ridge tallness, fluctuations in the seas contour and temperature, and other of import Marine info.
Oceanography, 3rd edition, Tom Garrison