A History Of Women
& # 8217 ; s Suffrage Essay, Research Paper
Woman right to vote is the right of adult females to vote. Today, adult females in about all states have the same vote rights as work forces. But they did non get down to derive such rights until the early 1900 & # 8217 ; s, and they had to get the better of strong resistance to acquire them. The work forces and adult females who supported the thrust for adult female right to vote were called suffragists.
During colonial times, the right to vote was limited to adult males who owned belongings. Many people thought belongings proprietors had the strongest involvement in good authorities and so were best qualified to do determinations. Most adult females could non vote, though some settlements gave the ballot to widows who owned belongings.
By the mid-1700 & # 8217 ; s, many colonial leaders were get downing to believe that all citizens should hold a voice in authorities. They expressed this belief in such mottos as & # 8220 ; No Taxation Without Representation & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; Government by the Consent of the Governed. & # 8221 ;
After the United States became an independent state, the Constitution gave the provinces the right to make up one’s mind who could vote. One by one, the provinces abolished belongings demands and, by 1830, all white male grownups could vote. Merely New Jersey gave adult females the ballot, but in 1807, that province besides limited voting rights to work forces.
Beginnings of the motion. Changing societal conditions for adult females during the early 1800 & # 8217 ; s, combined with the thought of equality, led to the birth of the adult female right to vote motion. For illustration, adult females started to have more instruction and to take portion in reform motions, which involved them in political relations. As a consequence, adult females started to inquire why they were non besides allowed to vote.
One of the first public entreaties for adult female right to vote came in 1848. Two reformists, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, called a adult females & # 8217 ; s rights convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y. , where Stanton lived. The work forces and adult females at the convention adopted a Declaration of Sentiments that called for adult females to hold equal rights in instruction, belongings, vote, and other affairs. The declaration, which used the Declaration of Independence as a theoretical account, said, & # 8220 ; We hold these truths to be axiomatic: that all work forces and adult females are created equal. & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ;
Suffrage rapidly became the main end of the adult females & # 8217 ; s rights motion. Leaderships of the motion believed that if adult females had the ballot, they could utilize it to derive other rights. But the suffragists faced strong resistance.
Most people who opposed adult female right to vote believed that adult females were less intelligent and less able to do political determinations than work forces. Oppositions argued that work forces could stand for their married womans better than the married womans could stand for themselves. Some people feared that adult females & # 8217 ; s engagement in political relations would take to the terminal of household life.
Growth of the motion. The thrust for adult female right to vote gained strength after the transition of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which gave the ballot to black work forces but non to any adult females. In 1869, suffragists formed two national organisations to work for the right to vote. One was the National Woman Suffrage Association, and the other was the American Woman Suffrage Association.
The National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Stanton an
vitamin D another suffragist named Susan B. Anthony, was the more extremist of the two organisations. Its main end was an amendment to the Constitution giving adult females the ballot. In 1872, Anthony and a group of adult females voted in the presidential election in Rochester, N.Y. She was arrested and fined for voting illicitly. At her test, which attracted countrywide attending, she made a rousing address that ended with the slogan “Resistance to Tyranny Is Obedience to God.”
The American Woman Suffrage Association, led by the suffragist Lucy Stone and her hubby, Henry Blackwell, was more conservative. Its chief end was to bring on single provinces to give the ballot to adult females. The two organisations united in 1890 to organize the National American Woman Suffrage Association. The Woman & # 8217 ; s Christian Temperance Union and other organisations besides made adult female suffrage a end.
During the early 1900 & # 8217 ; s, a new coevals of leaders brought a fresh spirit to the adult female right to vote motion. Some of them, including Carrie Chapman Catt and Maud Wood Park, were skilled organisers who received much of their support from middle-class adult females. These leaders stressed forming in every congressional territory and lobbying in the state & # 8217 ; s capital. Other leaders, including Lucy Burns, Alice Paul, and Stanton & # 8217 ; s girl Harriot E. Blatch, appealed to immature people, groups, and propertyless adult females. This group of leaders devoted most of their attempts to Marches, picketing, and other active signifiers of protest. Paul and her followings even chained themselves to the White House fencing. The suffragists were frequently arrested and sent to gaol, where many of them went on hungriness work stoppages.
Action by single provinces. In 1869, the Territory of Wyoming gave adult females the right to vote. The Utah Territory did so a twelvemonth subsequently. Wyoming entered the Union in 1890 and became the first province with adult female right to vote. Colorado adopted adult female right to vote in 1893, and Idaho in 1896. By 1920, 15 provinces & # 8211 ; most of them in the West & # 8211 ; had granted full vote privileges to adult females. Twelve other provinces allowed adult females to vote in presidential elections, and two provinces let them vote in primary elections.
The 19th Amendment. A adult female right to vote amendment was foremost introduced in Congress in 1878. It failed to go through but was reintroduced in every session of Congress for the following 40 old ages.
During World War I ( 1914-1918 ) , the parts of adult females to the war attempt increased support for a right to vote amendment. In 1918, the House of Representatives held another ballot on the issue. Spectators packed the galleries, and several congresswomans came to vote despite unwellness. One congresswoman was brought in on a stretcher. Representative Frederick C. Hicks of New York left his married woman & # 8217 ; s deathbed & # 8211 ; at her petition & # 8211 ; to vote for the amendment. The House approved the amendment, but the Senate defeated it. In 1919, the Senate eventually passed the amendment and sent it to the provinces for blessing.
By late August 1920, the needed figure of provinces had ratified what became the 19th Amendment. The amendment says, & # 8220 ; The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall non be denied or abridged by the United States or by any province on history of sex. & # 8221 ; Women now had the right to vote.