A Research About Reasons
Although you learnt it and it may be not a very hard word to recognize, you still cannot be able to speak that word out or write it down. It seems disappear mysteriously and never exists in your head. “Vocabulary is a very important element within a language as the overwhelming majority of meaning is carried lexically. There are certainly other elements such as: grammar, stress, rhythm, intonation, tone of voice, pauses, hesitations or silences, not to mention the use of non-vocal phenomena: kinesics and proteomics features” (Rosa M. .
In my point of view, we cannot learn any languages without knowing the vocabulary of it. It is obviously that how we can express our statuses, our feelings and how we can communicate with no word even in speaking or writing. In 1990, MAC Scratchy stated, “no matter how well the student learn the lessons grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of LA are mastered, without words to express a wide range of meanings, communication in an LA Just cannot happen in any meaningful way. ” (LA-second language).Therefore, to find problems of being difficult to use vocabulary is one of the most necessary things to solve. Although the other factors are also important, vocabulary is definitely the first section which must be done well for learners. You must have been embarrassed at least once and felt stuck when o cannot speak the LA word out in public.
So you have to replace it to another word that is not as excellent as the one before. It’s all because you didn’t remember that word. After reading this material, you will discover causes and solutions to defeat your vocabulary weakness.In general, the “Solution for Using English Vocabulary in Speaking and Writing” is completely useful for all high school students and nonprofessional English university students. However, the other university students can also apply this research in their study. As everybody seems to underestimate earning vocabulary, we usually think Just learn by heart and understand new words, that’s enough. But it is wrong! Nowadays, when the standard of life is more and more increasing, people pay less attention into worrying about what to eat or what to wear anymore, conversely, they have turned to worry about their knowledge.
Particularly, parents who want their children have the best education at school and they always attempt to do it, so learning second language should be a typical example of this tendency. Many years ago, Vietnamese started learning other languages like Chinese, French and above all others was English. Nevertheless, it was not popular as present and learners mainly taught themselves studying. Thank to modernization, newly imported cultures of foreign countries, we have more chance to approach and adapt it how to it becomes our advantages.Therefore, the government is trying to make LA become a criterion for citizen to raise our country’s position higher in the world. For that reason, learning other language is very essential and vocabulary should merely be taken heed the most. Lacking awareness about vocabulary importance is actually one main cause making us feel bored and hard to ND then they forget for a while.
Because teachers also force them learn grammar by heart more, but require them to be good at both, Just learning and learning, they don’t have time to acquire what they have Just learned.During the research process, I made a study of this and realize that there are more different methods to teach a student improve his or her learning skills. This will help us evaluate our ways to learn from the past until now, to find out which is good to develop it more and which is bad to stop and to erase from our habits. Students in Viet Name are almost good at rammer, yet they always feel they can’t speak or write their LA frequently. Therefore, this research aims to a very cause – vocabulary. After you improve your vocabulary knowledge, it is for sure you won’t never fear this problem anymore.However, in spite of the importance of this element, vocabulary is often the least systematized and the most neglected of all the aspects of learning second language.
For that reason, why do people underestimate vocabulary the English element? And How to change this thought of learners to improve their speaking and writing skills? Chapter 2: Literature Review Before we start finding the efficient ways to use vocabulary in speaking and writing, we need to clarify some questions, find out the main reason to solve it totally and then we will be better at these two skills. What is a vocabulary?According to the Collins Cobbled English Language Dictionary (1989: 1629), “the vocabulary of a language is the total number of words in it” and in the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (New Eighth Edition, 2012: 1722), is all the words that a person knows or uses”. About word, it is defined, “a single unit of language which means something and can be spoken or written. ” Some people sauntered between vocabulary and word, they think they are similar, but actually not. To simplify those definitions, we can understand that vocabulary is all of the words we know and use to communicate effectively.Some of them we use in speaking or learn from reading books, some we regions when listening from the others. There are two types of vocabulary: A.
Use vocabulary (active vocabulary): words you can remember and use easily. Students learn vocabulary indirectly when they hear and see words used in many different contexts, for example, through conversations with adults, through being read to,… B. Recognition vocabulary (passive vocabulary): words you knew in advance but for some reasons, it’s hard to spell or to pronounce correctly, and you need something remind.Students learn vocabulary directly when they are explicitly taught both individual words and word-learning strategies.
In fact, the use vocabulary is as large as your recognition vocabulary and when you speak or write, you do not use as many words as when you recognize it from hearing and reading at all. This is information which tells us that if we can draw the recognition and the use one together, how remarkably our speaking and writing are improved! As a student, the researcher has been through many years at school, most vocabulary I learned and varied were from English textbook (grade 6 to grade 12).However, I actually could use half of them in practicing and all of my friends were the same with me or some were even worse. According to Beck & McKeon in 1991 , “Early vocabulary researchers reported figures ranging from 2,500 to 26,000 words in the vocabularies of typical grade 1 students and from 19,000 to 200,000 words for college graduate students. ” And in two decades ago, there was considerable consensus among researchers that students added approximately 2,000 to 3,500 extinct words yearly to their reading vocabularies (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Angling, 1993; Beck and Smoke, 1991; White et al. , 1990).At the present time, the vocabulary size of each student must have increasing that figure more and more thanks to the help of modern technology.
This is right and wrong. Although students have varied their vocabulary greatly but they are hindered partly by tissues such as types of vocabularies being considered (e. G. Active and passive vocabulary). Moreover, students have more subjects to study and to be good at all that subjects either. They o not only learn by heart other subjects’ theories but they also have to acquire an amount of vocabularies and grammar structures which are their second language.Therefore, learning vocabulary may become a burden for almost students and they will be bored with foreign language’s lessons.
The importance of vocabulary Everybody knows vocabulary knowledge plays an essential part to have a good basement when he or she learns a new language. Because it is obviously that without a basic amount of vocabulary, you cannot study language of any country well even if you are really good at its grammar. In 1997, Ellis stated, “knowing the words in a piece of discourse facilitates understanding which in turn allows the grammatical patterning to become more transparent. However, course books and teachers try to focus on grammar and make it become more important than the other elements. Additionally, foreigners can catch your speech with an imperfect grammar and an enough known vocabulary. But not many people get this point, they try to study hard in grammar skill, as the results, there are many people who learn vocabulary, still underestimate the importance of it. ” Students need both of a great many words in heir vocabularies and the ability to use various strategies to establish the meaning of new words when they encounter them” (Fran L.
, Jean O. ND Alfred H. ) Knowing a lot of words is good but not enough, all of it will be useless if you can’t be able to use it appropriately and effectively. Think about some practical cases like when you want to write or speak an interesting sentence in your writing or your speech and you try to find the best word to apply in that sentence because you can’t find out or can’t remember it. Cannot find it out: you didn’t know that word; Cannot remember it: you re lack of ability to use it immediately. Even if your grammar structure of this sentence is excellent, do not have vocabulary it still have nothing.As McCarthy stated, , “No matter how well the student learn the lessons grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of LA are mastered, without words to express a wide range of Scratchy is the author who did many researches about the importance level of vocabulary, and this status above surely prove that “words of LA” is the most necessary element for every learners.
Thus, I believe that we should raise the awareness of students about the importance of vocabulary. And then when students aware by themselves, they can easily improve this element and have their own motivation to learn how to use it in any situation effectively.Word Poverty – Main reason causing difficulties in our speaking and writing A. Word poverty: Researcher Louisa Moats refers to the gap in word knowledge between advantaged and disadvantaged children as “word poverty’. In her study of the language abilities of kindergarten students in a large city district, Moat found that many children were unable to name pictures that showed the meanings of words such as sewing or parachute. (Moats, 2001) It is clear that learning vocabulary is not Just about memorizing lists of words, but it also depends on methods of each learner so that they will be good or bad at their study.For that reason, vocabulary is a main root of a studying new language process, if the root is not healthy and weak, its tree-truck definitely will be wheeling and underdeveloped.
It is the same with learners who are easily distracted or they approach their second language in a wrong way. Like the research above, children and students learn a numerous new words everyday but when they are asked about any word of their vocabulary knowledge, hey may not remember it. Most cases have started in learning vocabulary which is the first important mile, there have different levels to divide learners into different types of Word Poverty.B. Level 1 – inappropriate vocabulary: using vocabulary incorrectly in given situations such as speaking or writing. This level is not too bad, those students have relative knowledge of vocabulary. However, English is a various language for learners to totally understand and acquire it, it is very difficult to get all principles of it.
Therefore, in some circumstances, learners can make mistakes and apply the word in wrong position. For instance, “right/left” are normally used for indicating direction, but these words will not be appropriate on a ship, according to the Nautical Terms, “right/left” must be “starboard/port”.Level 2 – wrong level of formality. This common error can occur to any learner. We usually use conversational English in spite of academic English in formal situations, because it’s hard for us to choose right words to apply our utterances or our speeches. An typical example is “sit down” in informal situation and “be seated, ladies and gentlemen” of formality. Level 3 – meaningless vocabulary.
There are some learners use words in a sentence improperly for two reasons. First, they translate it word to word by their mother tongue; second, they misunderstand its meaning without looking up in dictionary.The worse things are wrong grammar forms, wrong spelling or pronunciation. Word poverty will affect your speaking and writing very much if you don’t change this now. Lack of vocabulary or using it illogically obviously will make your speech or your writing underestimated. Vocabulary Development Building vocabulary is a powerful way to enhance your life and career. Because articulator situations in which the learner finds himself, or might find himself”, according to Wallace (1988: 16).
1. How to improve and expand vocabulary of your own. There are many ways helping you develop your vocabulary knowledge.Nevertheless, because of so many methods and so much direction which make you feel confusing to choose, in this research, I gladly give you the most six effective approaches to enhance your vocabulary. 1. Keep Learning New Words This is the great technique which many people use to develop their vocabulary knowledge. You must have known about the technique, it has one only rule: have to earn at least a word a day.
Thus, if you count these numbers of words you have learnt over a years, it will support you a lot of words. Moreover, you will be more responsible for your study. . In the book Learning English Effectively, Nagyn Too Sins M. A in Bowie State University, Maryland gives us a very new ways to learn vocabulary which bases on the traditional one. He named it Percentage Formula, this method emphasizes that although there are a great amount of new words you try to learn, you also forget some of the so many words. Main reason is your brain always accounts some percentages of the total vocabulary you have Just learnt.
Do not believe in the ability of memorizing of your brain totally, but cooperate with it wisely.For example, you learn 10 words a day, if you forget 20% of them, you will remember 8 words. With someone learns 15 words, if he forget 15%, he still remain 10 words. Compare with the one who learn 10 and who learn 15 words, you can realize that the more new words we learn, the less words we will miss due to the discount of your brain. Similarly, if you learn 20 and forget 40%, you will remember 12 of those words; hen you try to learn 30 or 40 words per day and you may even loose 50 or 60%, you still get 15 and 16 words in your memory. . Keep a vocabulary notebook of your own is also a good way to learn new words.
Wherever you are, if you suddenly discover a strange or interesting word, you can write it down in you notebook. “Obviously, you must decide what words to put in and what to say about them. Should you translate them, give definitions, give grammatical information? The decision is yours. ” Remy and Richard, More Than Words). 1. 2 Independent Learning This technique is probably the most efficient for learners in their long run of tidying a new language.Because it is sure that we are always apply what teacher taught us effectively, sometimes what we are self-learned is more easier for us to apply.
Villa Goodies suggested five ways to study vocabulary in context: Jigsaw Readings, Guessing Meaning, Narrow Reading, Conversation, Concordance Lines. These are suitable ways to improve your vocabulary knowledge at home. He also noted that Repetition is really important for learners to do some activities so that we can remember the new words for a long time. 1. 3 Use Various Techniques (Multiple Techniques)There are some techniques such as dictionary work, word unit analysis, mnemonic devices, semantic elaboration, collocations and lexical phrases, oral production. However, if you think these ways are too complex to apply in your study, Entertainment is also a tool for both studying and relaxing, you can learn vocabularies by foreign films, songs, games..
. Reading famous novels or books can As normally, we use dictionary to look up a new word, but it is not enough for taking full advantage of it. You must have your own dictionary which depends on your currently English level.Then circle the words you look up and it is necessary to read the entire for the word you will check. One more thing is Be Aware of Words. Some people read a lot to expand their vocabulary knowledge, but they are told having a small amount of vocabularies. It is because you are not really aware of the new and hard words when you read, so you skip it.
This will not give you a good result although you have been reading all the time. 1. 5 Motivation This definition is quite abstract but very essential for learners who are studying a new language.The most important factor is a successful vocabulary building tool. It is clear that without motivation, your work will not be done well or if the work can be completed, it absolutely will have no effect. Thus, when you determine what your purpose and your motivation are, I know you can enhance your vocabulary as far as you want. Vocabulary is totally an essential part of learning English.
Thus, when students can control and keep expanding their knowledge of it every day, there is no door to be less confident of practicing Speaking and Writing skills anymore.Chapter 3: Methodology Subject: It is Junior high school students, and university students who don’t major in English. They are almost good at grammar but lack of vocabulary which is the main reason why they can speak and write English well. These learners are the very important human resources of our country in future and their second language is good or not which will affect their future Jobs very much. Therefore, I made up my mind to choose them are my objectives. There has the same character about the research’s subjects, that is almost them take care of their second language – English.Research procedure: After observing and discovering weaknesses of students about their second language-English in general.
Particularly in newspaper, television news, social network pages,.. And by my friends, my acquaintances. I realized a big gap of learning English which is underestimated by most students, vocabulary knowledge. Then, I made a research and collected information about this problem from books, Internet, statistics As a result, I decided to survey a number of students in my area, The; D(RCA district, Hippie Bin high school and another number of nonprofessional English students in HГ¶Eng BГEng University.Because these two subjects are familiar to me, they are also easy for me to survey and analyze my research. After I had the result of what I had studied, I found main reasons causing difficulties for students when they write or speak English.
By particular numbers and statistics I surveyed, it proved what I had mentioned before is right. Next, I drew all information from the materials and my own experiences together, then, I made a list of tips for learners to use vocabulary more effective in speaking and writing.Sample selection: The sample technique I used to support my research is Stratified Sample. As I nonprofessional English students in university, I decided to choose my school, HГ¶Eng BГEng University and Hippie Bin high school which I used to study at in order to carried out my research. In HГ¶Eng BГEng University, I focus on faculties taking more interest in learning English such as business administration, information technology, finance banking, foreign relationship. In Hippie Bin high school, I made a survey with advanced classes and normal classes.Sample techniques: Stratified Sample method which is dividing the population into subgroups and then randomly selecting from among these subgroups.
In this direction, I followed two important criteria, materials and method. My primary materials I used to support the research are my computer with Microsoft Excel, I chose this software to help me draw diagram more exactly and clearly; a questionnaire I made by myself with eight questions; a mathematical model is my calculator; especially is my real subjects, the students at school, without them, my research paper would be meaningless and valueless.Data collection: Through a process, I collected much information and I did surveys by myself which I use to support my research. Therefore, my data has a clear origin and it is valuable. The way I selected and collected my data is quite simple. After searching for many sources related to my topic, I went on carrying out some analyses by questionnaire, tests, observation,..
. In order to make clear problems and find the best solutions for it. The locations where took place my surveys were HГ¶Eng BГEng university and Hippie Bin high school.Consequently, almost all objectives take their interest in my research (94. 4%). There are more than 75% who also agree the main reason causing difficulties in their speaking and writing skills is Lack of Vocabulary. And there are more than 80% people think their two skills will be nearly perfect if they improve the vocabulary knowledge.
Reliability and Validity: My research paper is mainly for high school students and nonprofessional English students at university, but it can also inspire the other levels of learners.First, the validity of my research’s results and applicability is suitable and general for every learner because its particular objectives are Just a manner so that I can take more focus on and narrow my topic. For that reason, there is not only high school or nonprofessional English students can approach this research, but there are also appropriate for secondary students or advanced English students whoever has the name trouble at his speaking and writing skills. Second, this is an issue of our national education now.When students are very good at English grammar and others elements, but they cannot apply it on practice and real situations. So the research will be useful for numerous learners in our country, and it will help them a good direction in their studying. About the reliability, I make sure that my research paper is trustworthy.
Because I did it by my best and my real ability. Sources, books, websites, and surveys are on the research which proved that it is totally from my studying process.Finally, if you depend on the results and the capability, you will realize my new ideas and easily apply in reality. Obviously in English, speaking and writing is two factors which every learner want to be good at the most. However, to be master these factors, there are some elements that the learners must control well like vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar…
And the result below will show you what high school and nonprofessional English university students think about their two skills. [pick] With the question, ‘Are you good at these two skills? (speaking and writing skills), he majority of students choose “so so” as their final answer. There are 66,7% high school students and 50% university students who feel they are at average of speaking and writing English. Especially in the “yes” button answer, there are 25% high school students think they can control these skills, in the contrary, no university student is confident that they are good at both. You can see in the diagram, half of university students are so so and the other half totally think they speak and write English badly.Meanwhile, there are Just 8. 3% high school students less confidence of speaking and writing English.
What is the reason why they cannot remember the word that they used to know or read before when they need it? Relating to the result above, the very annoying trouble which students meet is they are usually stuck when speaking and writing English sentence because of not knowing how to describe it by vocabulary. [pick] There are High school students and total nonprofessional English university students admit their weakness.However, some high school students can overcome this difficulty with 16,7% of them. The first and second diagram can be explained the reason why not all students easily say they are good at Speaking and Writing skills UT half of them think they are ‘so so’ and there are even worse because of 50% say- no university students. The cause is only for lacking Vocabulary. Majority of students English, they know about grammar and some rules of it but lack of words makes them lessen their confidence and also feel hard to practice the skills.With the big number of nonprofessional English university students, who entirely answer ‘no’ toward being good at Speaking and Writing skill, because there are many factors effecting them at the high education school – university.
Vocabulary knowledge is an essential element f learning this foreign language but there are more other fundamentals they need to concern either. At this position of university students, they realize grammar and rules that are Just a part not whole learning English. Next diagram and statistical numbers below will show the elements effecting learners when they study English. pick] There are five main factors in learning English, they are Vocabulary, Grammar, Pronunciation, Stress, Intonation and some extra features. At the first sight, we can find out the strongest influent element which was chosen by students at high school and University, that is Lack of Vocabulary. With 75% and 88. 9% of high school and university students’ choices, this percentage shows that almost students are aware of their knowledge of vocabulary.
They know and understand about the element effects on their English studying time, because Vocabulary is the most basic thing when you learn a language.