A Spy Among Us Essay Research Paper

8 August 2017

A Spy Among Us Essay, Research Paper

In 1951, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of

go throughing information to the Union of Soviet Socialist

Democracies ( USSR ) refering the building of atomic

arms. In 1953, the United States Government executed

them. Some say, the Rosenbergs received their merely

penalty. Many historiographers feel that the test was unjust,

and that international claims for mildness were wrongly

ignored. These historiographers claim that the Rosenbergs were

assassinated by the US authorities. This study will be an

analysis of the test, the events which led up to it, and its

wake. What Led to the Arrest? The first hint America

had that a Russian undercover agent pealing existed in the US was the

find of a KGB codebook on the Finnish battleground

during World War II. When compared with Germany & # 8217 ; s

machine-scrambled codifications, the codification appeared to be

comparatively crude ; a certain set of Numberss corresponded

to a word, missive, or indispensable phrase.

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There was a small

gimmick though ; the codebook was to be read with a

matching page that every KGB officer was given.

Because the American cyphers did non hold the

matching page, there were an infinite figure of

possibilities that could hold corresponded to the book,

doing decoding it impossible. ( Milton 7 ) Klaus Fuchs

In 1944, the FBI raided the New York offices of the

Soviet Government Purchasing Commission, a known forepart

for the KGB industrial espionage operations. When the

FBI began to travel through what they had taken, they found

that many KGB officers did non adhere to their orders

diligently. They were told to dispose of all their

& # 8220 ; matching sheets. & # 8221 ; Many memos and other letters

were heedlessly stored off, alternatively of being destroyed

after their usage. After much perusal of all the confiscated

letters of the KGB, including the new sheets, the cyphers

were now able to clarify some of the codebook they had

found before. In 1949, a study by Klaus Fuchs was

deciphered. This was America & # 8217 ; s first solid grounds that

there was a spy ring operating within the US. boundary lines. The

American governments had some uncertainties, nevertheless. It was

possible that Fuchs was non a undercover agent and somehow the KGB

had obtained his study. After much probe, the FBI

arrested Fuchs. Along with other grounds, a missive

deciphered by the FBI had a mention to a British atomic

undercover agent, whose sister was go toing an American University.

Fuchs sister, Kristel, had been a pupil at Swarthmore

College at that clip. The FBI appointed James Skardon to

confront Fuchs. Skardon was a celebrated spy-catcher,

who had obtained confessions from many, including the

treasonist William Joyce. On December 21 1949, Skardon

went to speak with Fuchs in his research lab at the Harwell

Atomic Research Establishment. To Skardon & # 8217 ; s surprise,

Fuchs was eager to speak. Apparently, Fuchs wanted to speak

because he was really disquieted with the Soviet Union & # 8217 ; s postwar

policy in Eastern Europe. He did non state everything, but it

was a start. After many meetings, Skardon was able to acquire

Fuchs to unwrap even more. Fuchs thought that if he

owned up to his yesteryear, it would be forgotten, or at least

forgiven. He was incorrect. Fuchs said, & # 8220 ; At first I thought that

all I would make was inform the Russian governments that work

on the atomic bomb was traveling on? I did what I consider

the worst that I could hold done, viz. to give

information about the rule of the design of the

Pu bomb. & # 8221 ; The FBI subsequently found out from Fuchs that

his contact was & # 8220 ; Raymond. & # 8221 ; They had merely met a smattering of

times and Fuchs did non cognize much about him. On March

1, 1950, Fuchs was put on test. After a test that lasted

merely an hr and a half, he was convicted of four histories

of espionage and sentenced to 14 old ages in gaol. The ground

he was non killed was that he gave secrets to an ally. If he

had given the same information to an enemy, he would hold

been condemned to decease. ( This contrasts with the current

US intervention of Jonathan Pollard & # 8211 ; another undercover agent on behalf

of a US ally, Israel. ) The FBI now had the first nexus in the

concatenation ; the following measure was happening Raymond. ( Eisenhower

223 ) Fuchs, in 1945, had been transferred to the

theoretical division of the chief Manhattan Undertaking

installing at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Fuchs so left,

without stating his Soviet control that he was go forthing. After

Fuchs missed two meetings, Raymond grew really troubled,

so he went to his Soviet head, Anatoli Yakovlev, at the

Soviet consulate staff in New York. Yakovlev went

through Fuchs & # 8217 ; portfolio and found his sister & # 8217 ; s reference. He

so told Raymond to travel visit Fuchs sister, Kristal, in

Cambridge, Massachusetts. Raymond moving as an old

friend of Fuchs inquired as to his well being. Upon her

stating him that he had moved & # 8220 ; someplace down south, & # 8221 ; he

left his telephone figure. When Fuchs came place for a

holiday with his sister, she called Raymond. Raymond

instantly resumed their secret meetings. When the FBI

was seeking for & # 8220 ; Raymond & # 8221 ; , they asked Fuchs and

Kristal for descriptions. The FBI, with their two

descriptions from the Fuchs, researched into their ain files

and produced a suspect: Joseph Arnold Robbins, a

leftist chemical applied scientist who graduated from CCNY in

1941. After a background hunt on him, the FBI rejected

him as a informant. After more intense probe, two

other suspects were suggested, Abraham Brothmon and

Harry Gold. The FBI thought Gold was a stronger suspect

for multiple grounds, so, on May 9, Hoover ordered a

manhunt to happen Gold. On May 23 1950, Gold was

arrested in Philadelphia. The importance the FBI attached

to the gaining control of Fuch & # 8217 ; s confederate was indicated by J.

Edgar Hoover, & # 8220 ; In all the history of the FBI there ne’er

was a more of import job than this one, ne’er another

instance where we felt under such force per unit area. The unknown adult male

merely had to be found. & # 8221 ; The force per unit area that Hoover was

mentioning to is unknown, but months merely prior to Gold & # 8217 ; s

arrest the FBI was criticized for allegedly botching

probes in the Redin, Amerasia, Eisler, and Coplon

instances. ( Milton 38 ) Harry Gold In 1915, Tom Black, an old

friend, offered Gold a occupation in the Manufacturing Company in

New Jersey. Gold instantly took the occupation. After working

at that place for a small piece, Black began to take Gold to

Communist meetings. Gradually, Gold became a committed

Soviet and when Black asked him ( in 1935 ) to assist the

Soviets and give them some information, Gold thirstily

agreed. Although, Gold was non pro-Communist, he was

pro-Soviet. The ground Gold liked the Soviets so much

was because he thought they were benevolent towards the

Hebrews. Sam Semenov, Gold & # 8217 ; s Soviet contact, suggested that

he do his ain contacts that had entree to more

information than he did. After working for the Soviets for

eight old ages, Semenov told Gold to interrupt all ties with his

former contacts. Gold was given new contacts, & # 8220 ; a group of

American scientists in New York. & # 8221 ; This was considered a

publicity, for Gold was assigned a contact who had

entree to a batch more information. This new individual was

Klaus Fuchs. After four old ages of working with Fuchs, Gold

stopped working for the Soviets and began to take a

normal life, cutting all ties he had with his contacts and the

Soviets. A twosome of months subsequently, one of Gold & # 8217 ; s contacts,

Abraham Brothmon called Gold franticly stating the FBI

questioned him and they were onto them. Days subsequently, the

FBI interrogated Gold. At first, Gold claimed the same

narrative as Brothmon, but after highly long questions

Gold was worn down, and by chance slipped, and the

FBI began to catch the incompatibilities in Gold & # 8217 ; s narrative. The

following hebdomad, they searched his house. In the center of the

hunt, Gold admitted to being the adult male to whom Klaus

Fuchs passed the information on atomic energy. Despite

Gold & # 8217 ; s efforts, after an wash uping hebdomad of question,

Gold slipped and mentioned old contact & # 8217 ; s and friend & # 8217 ; s

names, including his friend Tom Black and David

Greenglass. ( Allen 41 ) David & A ; Ethel Greenglass David

Greenglass was an American solider assigned as a

technician at Los Alamos. For $ 500 he gave Gold studies

of the system used to concentrate high explosive force per unit area moving ridges

that drove together packages of U and produced the

concatenation the concatenation reaction of atomic fission-the detonation of

the atomic bomb. David Greenglass & # 8217 ; sister was Ethel

Greenglass, subsequently to be Ethel Rosenberg. The Greenglass & # 8217 ; s

grew up in New York & # 8217 ; s Lower East Side, in a little

cramped flat. Ethel was superb. She graduated at

age 15 from Seward Park High School. Even in the hapless

economic system of that period, when there was an utmost

demand for occupations, she was able to happen work within a month

of having her sheepskin, at age 15. She was fired four

old ages subsequently when she organized a work stoppage of 150 adult females who

put down in the street barricading all the company & # 8217 ; s bringing

trucks. Ethel so filed a ailment with the National Labor

Relations Board, which she won. She succeeded at happening

a better occupation, for twice the wage of her old 1. Ethel

was known as a & # 8220 ; go-getter & # 8221 ; ; she did non halt until she was

satisfied. With some preparation, Ethel started to sing in choirs

and act in dramas in the eventides. One eventide, before Ethel

went on phase, she met the one and merely love of her life,

Julius Rosenberg. ( Milton 50 ) Julius Rosenberg Julius & # 8217 ;

background was similar to Ehtel & # 8217 ; s ; he grew up on New

York & # 8217 ; s East Side. He went to the same schools as Ethel,

Talmud Torah for in-between school, and Seward Park for high

school. Julius ne’er had to worry about money, and his

father wanted him to foster his spiritual propensities and

go a rabbi. In Julius & # 8217 ; senior twelvemonth, he grew more

interested in political relations and less interested in faith. After

Julius graduated from Seward, he went to the City College

of New York, where he majored in electrical technology.

This major was favored by politically cognizant pupils

because it entitled them to rank in the Federation of

Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians ( FAECT ) ,

a activist brotherhood for white collar professionals with a

pro-Communist leading. Julius shortly became a member

in the Steinmentz Club, a subdivision of the Young Communist

League, or YCL. Soon Julius became so involved in

political relations that his graduation was in hazard. At this clip,

Julius and Ethel were going really serious about each

other and Ethel made Julius come over to her house to

survey so that he would finally have his sheepskin.

Because Julius spent so much clip in Ethel & # 8217 ; s house, David

( Ethel & # 8217 ; s brother ) became really friendly with Julius. Julius

kindled David & # 8217 ; s involvement in political relations, converting him to fall in

the YCL. ( Allen 45 ) Julius and Ethel were married in 1939.

After fighting for a few old ages with no significant occupation,

Julius was hired as a civilian employee of the U.S. Army

Signal Corps in the autumn of 1942. In 1942, David married

Ruth Printz. In 1943, the Greenglasses joined the YCL,

and the Rosenbergs were full members of the Communist

Party. Julius was president of Branch 16B of the Party

Industrial Division and frequently held meetings in his house.

Party members were promoting everybody to make

everything they could to back up the wartime attempt. When

David was admitted to the American ground forces, he looked

frontward to assisting the Communist cause in any manner he

could. Julius, nevertheless, was physically unfit for the ground forces, so

he looked for other ways to assist his party. ( Milton 70 )

Harmonizing to Ruth Greenglass & # 8217 ; testimony, Julius and Ethel

dropped out of the Communist party in 1943 to take their

ain & # 8220 ; inaugural & # 8221 ; in assisting their party. She claims that Julius

told her that he began to organize contacts to assist him come in a

new sort of activity. David subsequently claimed that Julius

approached him about the topic of espionage. Even

without David Greenglass & # 8217 ; testimony, one can understand

why the Rosenbergs dropped out of the party. Ethel had

her first kid in early 1943, and Julius was working for the

authorities, so he was afraid he would lose his occupation if his

Communist associations were discovered. ( Eisenhower 224 )

In the beginning of 1945, Julius was dismissed from his occupation.

Sometime before this, the FBI had sent to the U.S. Army

Intelligence a transcript of a Communist Party rank card

demoing that in 1939, Julius had been involved in the Party.

The Army felt this was non sufficient grounds to disregard

Julius because there was no ground for them to presume it

was the same Julius Rosenberg who was their Signal Corps

employee. In the autumn of 1944, the FBI sent the Army more

information on Rosenberg, including his reference. This clip

the grounds sufficed and Julius was dismissed. ( Milton 83 )

On July 17, 1950, David told the FBI that Julius was

speaking freely about his & # 8220 ; secret work & # 8221 ; in order to do

David more comfy assisting him. Julius confided in

David that the first move he made in espionage was while

he was working as a signal corps inspector. Julius told

David that he knew that Soviet wirelesss and electronics were

floundering ( Dav

Idaho realized that Julius was speaking about

their radio detection and ranging engineering ) and had tried to assist the Soviets by

picking up transcripts of tubing manuals. David said that Julius

bragged to him many times about the web of contacts

he had built in Cleveland, Ohio, and upstate New York,

and about information about certain top secret arms.

( Milton 84 ) On July 16, 1950, two uniformed constabularies

officers, William Norton and John Harrington, came to

Julius & # 8217 ; flat and took him down for oppugning. Julius

remained really unagitated while being interrogated but refused to

let his flat to be checked without a warrant.

When Julius was taken to the base, Harrington asked him,

& # 8220 ; What would you state if we told you that your

brother-in-law said you asked him to provide information to

the Russians? & # 8221 ; Julius responded aggressively, & # 8220 ; Bring him here,

and I will name him a prevaricator to his face. & # 8221 ; ( Sharlitt 3 ) Soon after

being taken to the station, Julius asked to name his attorney.

When Victor Rabinowitz answered the telephone, his first

inquiry was, was he under apprehension. When they told Julius

that he had non been arrested, he instantly stood up and

walked out of the station. When Julius left the station, he

saw the newspapers shouting that Greenglass had been

arrested that twenty-four hours and was being held on $ 100,000 bond.

From the station, Julius went directly to Rabinowitz.

Rosenberg wanted the FAECT advocate to stand for him,

but because Rabinowitz had late defended the alleged

undercover agent Judith Coplon, he felt his engagement would be

detrimental for Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s instance, so he gave Rosenberg

another attorney, Emanuel Hirsch Bloch. Bloch was a really

high attorney ; he was a member in National Lawyer & # 8217 ; s

Guild and the Civil Rights Congress. He served on the

defence squad of Willie McGee and was besides functioning as one

of the three CRC lawyers assigned to the instance of the

Trenton Six. Bloch was besides good known for his

representation of Steve Nelson, a leader of the Communist

Party in Pittsburgh. The existent ground though, that Rabinowitz

appointed Bloch, was that Bloch was a good friend of O.

John Rogge and shared an office edifice with him. Rogge

was Greenglass & # 8217 ; lawyer and Rabinowitz wanted to remain

good informed of Greenglass & # 8217 ; state of affairs, and if possible,

prevent him from going a authorities informant. ( Sharlitt

6 ) The first clip Bloch met Rosenberg he thought this

would be a simple unfastened and unopen instance. He thought that if

Rosenberg would react to all inquiries with the Fifth

Amendment, so the prosecution & # 8217 ; s instance would go a

batch weaker. He missed some obvious intimations though, that

would hold led him to believe otherwise. For illustration,

Greenglass was nicknamed by the media as the

& # 8220 ; atom-spy. & # 8221 ; ( Sharlitt 6 ) After being released, Julius

continued his normal modus operandi while the FBI conducted what

they call a & # 8220 ; discreet surveillance. & # 8221 ; Agents Norton and

Harrington were for good assigned to Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s

instance. Without David Greenglass spread outing on his

accusals from June 15-16, they could non warrant

collaring him. There are different theories as to why Julius

did non prehend the opportunity to fly the FBI. One theory is that

he did non believe that David would interrupt down so far as to

reference even his ain household. Another theory is that it

would hold taken hebdomads to alarm some of his contacts

without taking the FBI to them. ( Meerpool 37 ) On July

12, Greenglass, with the goad of his attorneies, had his

2nd extradition hearing. This led the media to believe that

Greenglass was tilting towards pleading guilty. Harmonizing

to Ruth, David & # 8217 ; s married woman, Ethel visited her to happen out what

David & # 8217 ; s programs were and if he was traveling to indict her

hubby, Julius. ( Meerpool 42 ) The FBI, after Greenglass

made his statements, went to James McInerney of the

Justice Department, who agreed there was now plenty

grounds to bear down Julius Rosenberg with confederacy to

commit espionage. When Richard Whelan, helper particular

agent in charge of the New York office, heard McInerney & # 8217 ; s

opinion, he sent Norton to register a ailment before federal

justice John F. X. McGohey. Immediately after J. Edgar

Hoover heard that Whelan tried to detain the apprehension, he

grew infuriated. He suspected the ground for the hold was

in order to tip off the imperativeness so that the narrative would be

covered in the following twenty-four hours & # 8217 ; s documents. Hoover feared that when

the imperativeness found out, Rosenberg might be tipped-off and

flee at the last 2nd. ( Milton 92 ) On Tuesday, July 17,

1950, when Rosenberg was arrested, it was in full position of

his appalled household ; his two boies standing agape, watching

their male parent dragged out by two officers. Julius and Ethel

until the acrimonious terminal maintained their artlessness. They ne’er

pleaded guilty nor even considered it. The FBI, after

seeking Julius & # 8217 ; house, had grounds that the espionage

pealing that Greenglass talked about was true. In order to

force Rosenberg to unwrap names of other undercover agents, Hoover

suggetsed that Ethel be arrested, and be used as purchase

to coerce Julius to speak. ( Mitlon 93 ) Ethel Rosenberg On

August 11, Ethel Rosenberg was arrested and bond was set

at $ 100,000-the same immense sum as her hubby. Ethel & # 8217 ; s

attorney was Bloch & # 8217 ; s male parent, Alexander Bloch. The ground

for this was that when she was arrested, Manny Bloch was

non in the office, but his male parent was, so he rushed down to

the station to assist Ethel and so subsequently took her instance. The

Rosenberg kids were sent to Tessie Greenglass, who

really shortly complained to the tribunal she could non command

them and more significantly, could non afford them. The

tribunal sent them to the Hebrew Children & # 8217 ; s Home in the

Bronx. Most believe that the FBI arrested Ethel in order to

force her hubby into squealing. Others disagree and state

that Greenglass & # 8217 ; accusals proved true, and it is possible

that Ethel was a full spouse in her hubby & # 8217 ; s behaviors and she

was arrested strictly on her misbehaviors. ( Sharlitt 42 ) The

Test On March 6, 1951, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s test

began. Their instance attracted so much attending because this

was the most publicised undercover agent Hunt of all clip. Another

ground this instance received so much attending was that it

contained all the elements of a high play test. The instance

had a household feud already familiar to the populace, because the

Judaic Daily Forward had published a series of articles on

the Greenglasses. The test besides involved suspects who

steadfastly claimed their artlessness, and the possibility of

high atomic scientists attesting. ( Milton 98 ) United states

Attorney Irving Saypool was prosecuting the instance. Saypool

had made a really good repute for himself when he

prosecuted Communists, including Alger Hiss and the

eleven Smith Act suspects. From the oncoming of the test,

Saypool treated the suspects without the accustomed

tribunal properness. Irving R. Kaufman, the justice, chose the

jurymans himself in a twenty-four hours and a half. Kaufman read a list of

many parties, organisations, and nines and anybody

affiliated with any of them were excused. Then they were

asked if they were opposed to the decease punishment, the usage of

atomic-weapons in war, or felt that any information

refering the development of atomic energy should be

revealed to any Russian orbiter state. If they were, they

were excused. ( Burkholz 73 ) In Saypool & # 8217 ; s gap words,

he stated, & # 8220 ; The trueness and the commitment of the Rosenbergs

were non to the state but to Communism, Communism in

this state and throughout the world. & # 8221 ; Emanuel Bloch

instantly objected that Saypool & # 8217 ; s allusion to communism

was irrelevant because communism was non on test.

Kaufman said that communism would be allowed in the test

because it established motor. Saypool besides said that they

convinced David Greenglass to go a treasonist to his

state, & # 8220 ; a modern Benedict Arnorld. & # 8221 ; After Saypool & # 8217 ; s

really powerful gap statement, the populace began to speak

about capital penalty. ( Burkholz 75 ) It is about

impossible to convict person of lese majesty. It was such a

serious offense that the criterions of cogent evidence are really rigorous. On

the other manus, it is easy to acquire a strong belief for confederacy ;

it is even sometimes umpire to as the & # 8220 ; prosecuting officer & # 8217 ; s

friend. & # 8221 ; Hearsay testimony is admissible in test, and one time

the being of confederacy is established every plotter

may be held apt for the Acts of the Apostless of the others, even if he does

non hold any cognition of them. In add-on, in order to be

convicted, merely the confederacy had to be proven.

( Meerpool 176 ) The prosecution brought several really

damaging informants against the defence: Julius Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s

brother-in-law, David Greenglass, and his married woman Ruth Printz

Greenglass. Greenglass testified that he passed to his sister

and brother-in-law studies of the implosion lens, a critical

constituent of the Pu bomb. David Greenglass & # 8217 ; s

narrative was corroborated by his married woman and another undercover agent, Harry

Gold. Gold testified that he received information from

David Greenglass, and that he passed them on to the

Rosenbergs. These testimonies showed clearly that there

was a program to descry and to go through secrets. ( Milton 103 ) Soap

Elicher testified about a 2nd undercover agent pealing which Julius

Rosenberg headed. The 2nd ring was formed to

unwrap to the Soviets naval secrets refering to

communications instruments. He testified that Julius

Rosenberg recruited him to descry. Cipher knew about the

two confederacies except for Rosenberg ; he was the lone

connexion between the two. Although Elicher did non state

what information he gave to Rosenberg, it connected Julius

Rosenberg to two spy rings. None of Elicher & # 8217 ; s testimony

was refuted except by Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s denials. ( Milton 104 )

After a 14 twenty-four hours test, there was no grounds turn outing

the Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s artlessness so the jury decided to believe

David Greenglass & # 8217 ; , Harry Gold & # 8217 ; s, and Max Elicher & # 8217 ; s

testimonies. The prosecuting officers asked the Rosenbergs many

inquiries about their engagement in the Communist Party in

order to set up motivation. They answered most of the

inquiries with the Fifth Amendment so that their replies

would non imply them. This led many people, including

the jurymans, to experience really strongly about their guilt. Many

argue that the Rosenbergs were framed and that they were

the perfect people to be framed because of their

engagement in the Communist Party. There are a few

inquiries as to why Emanuel Bloch did certain things in the

test. For illustration, he did non cross-examine Harry Gold.

( Sharlitt 17 ) For collaborating with the prosecution,

Greenglass & # 8217 ; sentence was for 15 old ages of imprisonment,

Gold & # 8217 ; s for 30 and Fuch & # 8217 ; s for merely 14. The

Rosenbergs pled non guilty. In March 1951, they became

the first Americans to be sentenced to decease on a charge of

espionage in peacetime. ( Milton 103 ) Doubts on the Trial

Some historiographers say that the authorities framed the

Rosenbergs, and was taking for capital penalty. First,

they were non charged with espionage, instead they were

charged and convicted of confederacy to descry. This was to

the authorities & # 8217 ; s advantage because, as explained

antecedently, much less cogent evidence is necessary for a strong belief

for confederacy. A 2nd ground that historians think that

the authorities was out to kill the Rosenbergs was

because Saypool, Lane, Cohn, and Kilsheimer were all

assigned to the instance. This showed the authorities & # 8217 ; s strong

and particular involvement in the instance. In drumhead, the charge

against the Rosenbergs, the powerful prosecution, the

well-known anti-Communist prosecuting officers and the justice, all

support that the authorities & # 8217 ; s aim was to kill the

Rosenbergs. ( Sharlitt 23 ) The ground many people call the

Rosenberg & # 8217 ; s executings a legal and fatal mistake is simple. On

June 19, 1953, the federal authorities executed the

Rosenbergs. The Rosenbergs were charged, tried, and

convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917. In 1946, the

Atomic Energy Act was passed. It required that undercover agents who

passed atomic secrets be executed merely after a jury & # 8217 ; s

recommendations. From the twenty-four hours the Rosenbergs were

indicted to three yearss before their executing, this act was

ignored. Amazingly, cipher realized, including the

prosecuting officers, suspects, or any Judgess, that this was being

ignored. A attorney from the West Coast raised the issue

that suggested to person that the Rosenbergs were

being wrongly executed. Even after the issue was raised,

the Supreme Court ignored it and the Rosenbergs were

executed anyhow. Still today, there is an on-going and acrimonious

contention as to why the Rosenbergs were put to decease.

( Sharlitt 27 ) Bibliography Allen, Thomas, and Norman

Polmar. Merchants of Treason. New York: Delacorte

Imperativeness, 1988. Burkholz, Herbert, and Clifford Irving. Spy

The Story of Modern Espionage. New York: Macmillan

Printing Company, 1969. Eisenhower, Dwight. Mandate

For Change. Garden City: Doubleday & A ; Company, Inc. ,

1963. Milton, Joyce, and Ronald Rodash. The Rosenberg

File. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. Meeropol,

Michael, and Robert Meeropol. We Are Your Sons.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1975. Sharlitt,

Joseph. Fatal Error. New York: Macmillan Printing

Company, 1989.

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