A Statistical View Of European Rural Life
, 1600-1800 Essay, Research Paper
A Statistical View of European Rural Life, 1600-1800 Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the mean European s diets varied greatly due to natural causes. Most provincials lived in insanitary conditions, far off from conventional medical aid, and would populate in a individual room with a big household. Most husbandmans were illiterate particularly in Southern Europe and their agriculture engineering was non updated. Protestant Northern Europe had higher literacy rates because Protestantism encouraged single bible reading, while Catholic Southern Europe was extremely illiterate because the Catholic Church did non promote literacy in the least spot. The spread of instruction led to new thoughts and farming techniques which developed from the metropoliss and spread to rural countries of Europe. In different countries of Europe, the output ratios of wheat, rye, and barley would change ; the clime would be a large factor in finding the output ratio. Harmonizing to Document 1, Zone I, England, and the Low Countries would hold the high output ratios.
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In Zone II, France, Spain, and Italy were non far behind England in output ratios. In Zone III and IV, Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Russia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary the output ratios were really low, and from 1800-1820, they did non bring forth wheat, rye, or barley at all. States like England and the Netherlands had predictable conditions forms and were able to turn an copiousness of harvests. The farther East a state was, the lower its output would be due to hapless and unpredictable conditions. The mean European provincial & # 8217 ; s diet was hapless and non sufficient to human demands. Most diets included staff of life, cheese, and butter. Meat and veggies were rare and eaten perchance twice a twelvemonth. Most provincials were ever on the brink of famishment and ate anything comestible to last. The mean individual & # 8217 ; s demands are about 2,500 Calories to work usually. Few people even met the criterions ; most provincials were malnourished, since they did non run into all of the nutrient group demands needed for a healthy individual. In France, nutrient crops were affected by discrepancies in glacial motions, which caused alterations in temperatures, therefore impacting the harvest period. Harmonizing to Document 3, during the maximal glacier motion, the temperature was at its lowest, yet had the shortest clip of crop along with a rise in monetary values. Right after the glacial upper limit, the summer temperature would lift, therefore lengthening the harvest period, take downing the monetary value of grapes and wheat. For illustration, by matching chart 1 and 3 of papers 3, in 1712, wheat monetary values went sky high due to lower mean summer temperatures doing fewer sums of yearss to reap. Harmonizing to Document 4, The wage of the typical agricultural worker would stay reasonably inactive. The large job was that nutrient monetary values kept lifting, and shortly the worker did non do adequate money to purchase nutrient. There was much rebellion in respects to the sky high nutrient monetary values, ensuing in the Gallic Revolution. In Southern France, harmonizing to Document 5, the Plague killed more than half of the population in some countries. At this clip, the monetary values of wheat were rather low, as were the temperatures. This means that there were fewer people because of the pestilence, and with supply and demand force per unit areas off, it caused less competition for nutrient. Harmonizing to Document 5, epidemics in Southern France in some topographic points killed up to 64 per centum of the population, go forthing annihilating effects. Document 6 provinces that in Europe from 1740-1742, the mean one-year figure of deceases was up to 117, while births were merely at 100. The mean rate of births could non neutralize the deceases and caused the population to diminish. Marriages were even less frequent so births, which was besides a factor in the population lessening. Document 7 shows that in Bresles-en-Beauvais, France, during the late seventeenth century, births were less common than entombments. Harmonizing to the chart, when entombments were
at their peak, so were the prices of wheat. When births and deaths were fairly equal, wheat prices were reasonable. The life expectancy was around forty-five for most of the peasants of Europe. Different factors over the years would cause a decrease or increase in the average mortality rate. According to Document 8, the infant and child mortality in France during the 17th and 18th centuries varied from 580 to 672 deaths out of every 1000 births. Obviously, as sanitation, and technology spread, the infant and child mortality rates decreased. In document 9, we can see that the life expectancy in Colyton, England fluctuated dramatically between the 16th and 18th centuries due to natural causes, From 1538-1624, the High mortality age was 40.6 years and 45.8 for the low mortality age. But From 1625-1699, the high mortality age was 34.9 and the low mortality age was 38.9, here we see a great decrease due to the widespread deaths due to the Plague which occurred in the mid 1600 s. Finally, from 1700-1774, the high mortality age was 38.4 and the low mortality age was 45.1, during this period, the population was still recovering from the devastating after-effects of the Plague. In Document 10, the seasonal incidence of Mortality in rural areas of France during the 17th and 18th century is displayed. The months of February to April, and October had the highest mortality rates. October was during the harvest time, and perhaps people had the most contact with each other, causing them to be more vulnerable to spreading and catching diseases. During February to April, temperatures were freezing, and most probably many people would die of the cold, bad weather, and starvation. In Europe, the seasons would determine the tie of marriages and conceptions, due to weather, and traditional working hours. Documents 11 and 12 show the seasonal times of marriage and conception in France. The most popular months of marriage were February, November, and January. The least popular months were December, November, and January. November was at the end of harvest, and a convenient time for marriages, people also wanted to marry before December, the month of advent, while January and February are probably good marriage months because people were needed less for work. The first half of February before lent was also a popular marriage month because people would have to wait until after Lent for the next opportunity of marriage. On the other hand April, March, August, and December would be inconvenient months for marriage because April and March are the plantings times, while August is the harvesting time. Lent took up most of April, at time when the church would forbid marriages. December, during advent was the time of spiritual practice, and was also the month where everyone stayed home. Conceptions in France were at their peak whilst the crops were growing during June, May, and April while the most unpopular months of conception was October, August, and September. June, May, and April were the most popular months because people were together, and closest in contact with each other, while October, September, and August were the height of the harvest time, and people had little free time. In conclusion, many natural forces from the climate to diseases affected Europe s farming population causing famines, plagues, and other human disasters. The spread of education began reaching rural areas, thus improving farming techniques, transportation, and sanitation. With new farming techniques, farmers could grow more food per acre, protect it from diseases, and also used less manpower. Transportation was a major factor in that it allowed food to be transported across Europe, whereas before one region might starve while another region could be prosperous. Sanitation improved living circumstances and allowed more infants to survive to adulthood, increasing the population. All of these factors allowed Europe s illiterate, rural majority to escape the grip of natural forces