A Study on customer preference towards telecom network providers

Certified that this comprehensive project report titled “A study on customer preference towards telecom network providers” is the bonafied work of Jatin Sharma (Enr. No. 127290592154) and Abhishek Dwivedy (127290592041) who carried out the research under my supervision. I also certify further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or a work was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Date:

Place: Signature of the student It is certified that the work mentioned above is carried out under my guidance. Date: Place:Signature of the faculty guide ? Students’ Declaration We, Jatin Sharma (127290592154) and Abhishek Dwivedy (127290592041) hereby declare that the report for Comprehensive Project “A study on customer preference towards telecom network providers” is a result of our own work and our indebtedness to other work publications, references, if any, have been duly acknowledged. Date:Student Name: Place: PREFACE

Practical knowledge is an important suffix to theoretical knowledge; one cannot merely rely upon the theoretical knowledge. Classroom make the fundamental concept clear, but practical survey in a firm has significant role to play in a subject of Business Management to develop managerial skills, it is necessary that they combine their classroom learning with the knowledge of real business environment. I am extremely happy to place before the esteemed Teachers/Management the Report of project entitled “A study on customer preference towards telecom network providers”.

It has only helped me to understand telecommunication industry and I really enjoyed my research study and learn many new insights that probably I never had learn from classroom. Here, I have tried my level best to represent all the information and had expressed my deliberated efforts to make report clean and specific. ? ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Through this report, I take the opportunity to express and share my sincere gratitude and thankfulness to all those who helped me in my comprehensive project. First of all I would like to thank to Prof. Dr.

Siddarth Das who has provided me such an opportunity learn about the areas of mutual interest as a part of curriculum. As a part of curriculum at LJ MBA, the Comprehensive project aims at overall development of the students by providing them an opportunity to gain corporate exposure and space to apply their theoretical knowledge in practice. This Comprehensive project cannot be successful without the support of the people who keep themselves closely involved with the undergoing the project. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks and gratitude to my institute for giving me this learning opportunity and my mentor Prof.

Raji Bhavsar for his support & guidance. ? EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study is an attempt to understand consumer’s preference towards different mobile service providers existing in Ahmedabad city. 200 respondents comprising people of various age groups using convenience sampling from Ahmedabad were taken in to consideration to conduct the survey. To my Vodafone was the top preference which explains that most of the respondents in my survey are quality conscious and needs a uninterrupted network. More than 70% of respondents were using pre-paid SIM.

37% of respondents are using low calling cost plans. The number of WhatApp user is 41% and the Facebook users are 31%, which means WhatsApp is currently leading social networking platform. Around 40% of respondents want to buy a Vodafone SIM in future. 70% of respondents were found to be satisfied from their current network provider. ? TABLE OF CONTENT SERIAL NO. PARTICULARS PAGE NO. PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ch: 1RESEARCH METHEDOLOGY 1. 1 OBJECTIVE 1. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. 3 SCOPE 1. 4 METHODOLOGY 1. 5 HYPOTHESIS 1. 6 LIMITATION

Ch: 2INTRODUCTION OF TELECOM INDUSTRY 2. 1 HISTORY 2. 2 EVOLUTION 2. 3 TELECOM INDUSTRY IN INDIA Ch: 3TRAI 3. 1 INTRODUCTION 3. 2 PRE LIBERALISATION SCENARIO 3. 3 LIBERALISATION POLICY 3. 4 NATIONAL TELECOM PLOICY Ch:4 CURRENT SCENARIO OF TELECOM INDUSTRY 4. 1 CURRENT SCENARIO 4. 2 MNP 4. 3 FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT 4. 4 LEADING PLAYERS Ch: 5INDUSTRY PROFILE OF TELECOM SECTOR 5. 1 GREEN TELECOM 5. 2 3G 5. 3 VAS Ch: 6INDUSTRY ANALYSIS 6. 1 PEST ANALYSIS 6. 2 PORTERS FIVE FORCE Ch: 7RESEARCH ANALYSIS 7. 1 PIE CHART 7. 2 CROSS TABULATION 7. 3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING

FINDINGS CONCLUSION BIBILIOGRAPHY APPENDIX CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ? 1. 1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To study the brand priority of customers for Network Providers. To study the awareness and usage of different types of services and features. To know that which type of connection the respondents are using and the reason behind the same. To study the overall satisfaction level of respondents regarding their network provider. To know that which type of connection the respondents are using for data connectivity and the reason behind the same.

To understand the relation of demographics of a respondent and reason behind using a particular network. ? 1. 2 LITERATUREREVIEW STUDIES RELATED TO GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAN TELECOM SECTOR T. V. Ramachandran (2005) analysed performance of Indian Telecom Industry which is based on volumes rather than margins. The Indian consumer is extremely price sensitive. Various socio-demographic factors- high GDP growth, rising income levels, booming knowledge sector and growing urbanization have contributed towards tremendous growth of this sector.

The instrument that will tie these things together and deliver the mobile revolution to the masses will be 3 Generation (3G) services. RajanBharti Mittal (2005) explains the paradigm shift in the way people communicate. There are over 1. 5 billion mobile phone users in the world today, more than three times the number of PCOs. India today has the sixth largest telecom network in the world up from 14th in 1995, and second largest among the emerging economies. It is also the world? s 12th biggest market with a large pie of $ 6. 4 billion.

The telecom revolution is propelling the growth of India as an economic powerhouse while bridging the developed and the developing economics. STUDIES RELATED TO TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION IN TELECOM SECTOR According to Mather (2005) the challenge, of course, is that a competitor can show up in one of your established markets with new technology, better people, a better network of companies for support and a better management style and steal huge chunks of your business before you can respond. Staying at the forefront of all these issues will be the only way to stay successful.

P. S. Saran (2004) the telecom technology in India has transformed from manual and electro-mechanical systems to the digital systems. India has stepped into new millennium by having 100% electronic switching system. The technological changes have made way for new services and economics in the provision of telecom services. ? STUDIES RELATED TO INCREAING NUMBER OF SUBCRIBER IN INDIA Indian handset segment could be between US $ 13 billion and US $ 15 billion by 2016. It offers a great opportunity for equipment vendors to make India a manufacturing hub.

Indian infrastructure capital expenditure on cellular equipment will be between 10 to 20% of the investment that will be made by international operators by 2015. The other proposals included setting up of hardware manufacturing cluster parks, conforming to global standards and fiscal incentives for telecom manufacturing among others. STUDIES RELATING TO COMPETITION IN INDIAN TELECOM SERVICE SECTOR Shyamal Ghosh (2003) mentions that the most significant development since 1999 has been the progressive reduction in tariffs which has been facilitated by competition through multi operator environment.

The most dramatic reduction in tariff has been from very high Rs. 16 per minute to Rs. 2 per minute. N. M. Shanthi (2005) throws light on the factors that contributed to the growth of telecom sectors. The studies various initiatives take by government in lien of liberalization, privatization and de-monopolization initiatives. The trend is expected to continue in the segment as prices are falling as a result of competition in the segments. The beneficiaries of the competition are the consumers who are given a wide variety of services.

Kushan Mitra (2005) analyses various factors contributing to competition to Indian Telecom Industry. Besides lowering of prices, increased efficiency, greater innovation, highly tech industry better quality services are some of the reasons which are boosting competition amongst various telecom service providers. ? STUDIES RELATED TO CRM IN SERVICES SECTOR According to David L. Kurtz (2003) the purpose of relationship marketing is to build long-term connections between the company and its customers and to develop brand and firm loyalty.

Relationship marketing works well for services where transactions tend to be continuous and switching costs for customers are high. Firms operating in the customization and functional service quality sector do well with relationship marketing programs. The long-term goal of relationship marketing is to build brand loyalty. Personal interaction with service personnel is critical in the development of the long -term relationship. 1. 3 SCOPE The scope of the study covers the entire telecom industry consisting of all mobile handset and all network providers.

As far as my study is concerned I am mainly concentrating on the respondents of Ahmedabad city only. ? 1. 4 METHODOLOGY To do proper analysis and arrive at concrete conclusion, Interview will be conducted of different people. DATA SOURCES Primary sources: Sample unit: Ahmedabad Sampling method: Convenience sampling Sample size: 200 : – Confidence interval – 7 Confidence level – 95% Population – 500000 ss = Z2 * (p) * (1-p) ________________________________________ c2 Z = Z value = 1. 96 p = 0. 5 c = confidence interval = 7 SS = 196 ? 200

Secondary sources: Internet Articles Magazines Newspaper. ? 1. 5 HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis 1: H0: There is no significant difference in the preference of the respondents between Current SIM and the SIM card that you wish to buy in future. H1: There is significant difference between in the preference of the respondents between Current SIM and the SIM card that you wish to buy in future. Hypothesis 2: H0: Most of the respondents use a particular network because of the network coverage capacity of the telecom service provider. H1: Most of the

respondents do not give importance to the network coverage capacity of the telecom service provider. Hypothesis 3: H0: Most of the respondents use a particular network because it helps to increase the efficiency of their handset. H1: Most of the respondents do not believe that the efficiency of their handset has increased by using a particular network. Hypothesis 4: H0: Most of the respondents use a particular network because of its quality services. H1: Most of the respondents are do not focus on the level of services provided by their network provider. Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant difference between awareness of MNP and its usage. H1: There is significant difference between awareness of MNP and its usage. ? Hypothesis 6: H0: There is no significant difference between age of the respondents and network provider. H1: There is significant difference between age of the respondents and network provider. Hypothesis 7: H0: There is no significant difference between profession of the respondents and network provider. H1: There is significant difference between profession of the respondents and network provider. Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant difference between education level of the respondents and network provider. H1: There is significant difference between education level of the respondents and network provider. ? 1. 6 LIMITATION Collection and analyzing of the data is very time consuming. The survey will be conducted in Ahmedabad city only so it will not cover the preference of other areas. The sample size of the survey work will be 200 only and there will be chances of error in data analysis. The respondents may give bias information. ? CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION OF TELECOM INDUSTRY ? 2. 1 HISTORY

Started in 1851 when the first operational land lines were laid by the government near Calcutta (seat of British power). Telephone services were introduced in India in 1881. In1883 telephone services were merged with the postal system. Indian Radio Telegraph Company (IRT) was formed in 1923. After independence in 1947, all the foreign telecommunication companies were nationalized to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT), a monopoly run by the government’s Ministry of Communications. Telecom sector was considered as a strategic service and the government considered it best to bring under state’s control.

The first wind of reforms in telecommunications sector began to flow in 1980s when the private sector was allowed in telecommunications equipment manufacturing. In 1985, Department of Telecommunications (DOT) was established. It was an exclusive provider of domestic and long-distance service that would be its own regulator (separate from the postal system). In 1986, two wholly government-owned companies were created: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international telecommunications and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for service in metropolitan areas.

In 1990s, telecommunications sector benefited from the general opening up of the economy. Also, examples of telecom revolution in many other countries, which resulted in better quality of service and lower tariffs, led Indian policy makers to initiate a change process finally resulting in opening up of telecom services sector for the private sector. National Telecom Policy (NTP) 1994 was the first attempt to give a comprehensive roadmap for the Indian telecommunications sector. In 1997, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was created. TRAI was formed to act as a regulator to facilitate the growth of the telecom sector.

New National Telecom Policy was adopted in1999 and cellular services were also launched in the same year. Telecommunication sector in India can be divided into two segments: Fixed Service Provider (FSPs), and Cellular Services. Fixed line services consist of basic services, national or domestic long distance and international long distance services. The state operators (BSNL and MTNL), account for almost 90 per cent of revenues from basic services. Private sector services are presently available in selective urban areas, and collectively account for less than 5 per cent of subscriptions.

However, private services focus on the business/corporate sector, and offer reliable, high- end services, such as leased lines, ISDN, closed user group and videoconferencing. Cellular services can be further divided into two categories: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The GSM sector is dominated by Airtel, Vodafone-Hutch, and Idea Cellular, while the CDMA sector is dominated by Reliance and Tata Indicom. Opening up of international and domestic long distance telephony services are the major growth drivers for cellular industry.

Cellular operators get substantial revenue from these services, and compensate them for reduction in tariffs on airtime, which along with rental was the main source of revenue. The reduction in tariffs for airtime, national long distance, international long distance, and handset prices has driven demand. Birth of Telephone: Success of telegraph industry and rising electrical manufacturing businesses formed the context for the telephone. The electric telephone was invented in the 1870s, based on earlier work with harmonic (multi-signal) telegraphs.

The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. The first telephone switchboard was placed in service in New Haven, Connecticut, in early 1878, and demonstrated its greater efficiency over individual lines between each customer. The first use of telephone numbers and directories of telephone users appeared about the same time. Telephone exchanges (using many switchboards) appeared about two decades later. Telephone was largely the creation of Alexander Graham Bell, who received his first patent in March 1876.

Early development of the telephone was fraught with technical and financial problems. Alexander Graham Bell held the master patent for the telephone that was needed for such services in both countries. The technology grew quickly from this point, with inter-city lines being built and telephone exchanges in every major city of the United States by the mid-1880s. Restricted by crude technology to providing local service (initial iron wires rarely extended 100 miles), telephone service developed slowly before the Bell patents expired in 1893.

Initial Bell business strategy focused on licensing use of its patents and selling equipment to companies building systems in cities and towns, largely to serve business and the wealthy. ? 2. 2 EVOLUTION OF TELECOM INDUSTRY 1984 Manufacturing of subscriber terminal equipment opened to private sector. 1985 Telecom was constituted into a separate department with a separate board. 1986 MTNL and VSNL created as corporations. 1989 Telecom Commission formed. 1991 Telecom equipment manufacturing opened to private sector. Major international players like Alcatel, AT&T, Ericsson, Fujitsu, and Siemens entered equipment manufacturing market.

1992 VAS sector opened for private competition. 1993 Private networks allowed in industrial areas. 1994 Licenses for radio paging (27 cities) issued. September 1994 Broad guidelines for private operator entry into basic services announced. November 1994 Licenses for cellular mobiles for four metros issued. December 1994 Tenders floated for bids in cellular mobile services in 19 circles, excluding the four metros, on a duopoly basis. January 1995 Tenders floated for second operator in basic services on a circle basis. August 1995 Basic service tender bid opened; the bids caused lot of controversy. A majority of bids were considered low.

December 1995 LOIs issued to some operators for cellular mobile operations in circles. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) formed by ordinance. March 1997 The TRAI Act passed in Parliament. June 1998 Several VASs available through private operators. The first private basic service becomes operational. March 1999 Announcement of National Telecom Policy. January 2000 Amendment to the TRAI Act. August 2000 Announcement of Domestic Long Distance Competition Policy. October 2000 Planned Corporatization of Dot. August 2001 Communication Convergence Bill April 2002 Telephony on internet permitted

October 2003 Unified Access Service Licenses regime for basic and cellular services was introduced. July 2005 Regulation on Quality of Service August 2008 Mobile Number Portability. December 2008 3G was launched by TATA DOCOMO. 2012 4G was launched. 2013 Fiber Focus ? 2. 3 TELECOM INDUSTRY IN INDIA The Telecommunication Industry in India is one of the fastest developing sectors in the country and is estimated to become the second biggest international telecom market in the next few years. As per the Indian telecom online, the number of telephone subscribers in India increased to 936. 12 Million at the end of January 2012 as compared with 926.

53 million in December 2011, thereby registering a growth rate of 1. 04%. Wireless subscriber base increased from 893. 84 million in December 2011 to 903. 73 million at the end of January 2012, registering a growth of 1. 11%. The number of telephone subscribers in India increased from 903. 09 million at the end of June, 2013 to 904. 46 million at the end of July 2013, thereby showing a monthly growth rate of 0. 15%. The growth in industry was triggered by an increase in the revenues generated from both landline and mobile facilities. As per the Business Monitor International report, the nation is

all set to include 8 to 10 million cellular phone subscribers on monthly basis. At this pace the telecommunication industry is expected to encompass more than half of India’s population i. e. 612 million cellular phone subscribers by mid-2012. Telecom is the fifth largest and fastest growing industry in the world. Telecommunications play an important role in the world economy and the worldwide telecommunication industry’s revenue was estimated to be $3. 85 trillion in 2008. The service revenue of the global telecommunications industry was estimated to be $1. 7 trillion in 2008, and is expected to touch $2. 7 trillion by 2013.

The telecommunications industry can be classified as equipment sector and services sector. ? CHAPTER 3 TELECOM REGULATORY AUTHORITY OF INDIA ? 3. 1 INTRODUCTION OF TRAI The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI.

The entry of private service providers brought with it the inevitable need for independent regulation. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was, thus, established with effect from 20th February 1997 by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government. TRAI’s mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of

telecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society. One of the main objectives of TRAI is to provide a fair and transparent policy environment which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition. In pursuance of above objective TRAI has issued from time to time a large number of regulations, orders and directives to deal with issues coming before it and provided the required direction to the evolution of Indian telecom market from a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi service open competitive market.

The directions, orders and regulations issued cover a wide range of subjects including tariff, interconnection and quality of service as well as governance of the Authority. ? The functions allotted to the TRAI included: To recommend the need and timing for introduction of new service provider To protect the interest of customers of telecom services To settle disputes between service providers To recommend the terms and conditions of license to a service provider

To render advice to the Central government on matters relating to the development of telecommunication technology and any other matter applicable to the telecommunication industry in general. ? 3. 2 PRE-LIBERALISATION SCENARIO In the 1880s telephone services were merged with the postal system and the telecom services came under the monopoly of the Department of Post and Telegraph. The Indian telecom sector was entirely under government ownership till the 1980s. In 1984, the private sector was allowed only in telecommunication equipment manufacturing.

As a part of the early reforms, the government set up an autonomous body, the Centre for Development of Telemetric (C-DOT) in 1984, to develop the R&D activity in the telecom sector. It was set up to develop the state-of-the-art telecommunication technology to meet the needs of the Indian telecommunication network. The government separated the Department of Post and Telegraph in 1985 by setting up the Department of Post and the Department of Telecommunication (DoT). The DoT was established as a wholly-owned government operator for the entire telecom service operation in India.

The responsibility for managing the planning, engineering, installation, maintenance, management, and operations of telecom services lay with the DoT. In order to ease out DoT operations, the government set up two new public sector corporations, MTNL and VSNL, under the DoT in 1986, however, the government retained policy formulation and regulation decisions with the DoT. While MTNL was established to look after the operation of basic telephony services in metros such as Mumbai and New Delhi, VSNL was set up to operate, develop and accelerate international telecom services in India.

The Telecom Commission was set up in 1989 as an executive body to assist the DoT in policy regulation, licensing, wireless spectrum management, administrative monitoring of PSUs, research and development and standardisation/validation of equipment etc. ? 3. 3 LIBERALISATION POLICY 1991 In 1991, India adopted the new economic policy of liberalisation. The policy aimed at improving viability, competitiveness and efficiency of the Indian economy in the international market and also for enhancement and growth of international trade. To attain the objectives of new economic policy a telecom service of world class quality was essential.

Thus thrust in reforms in the telecommunication sector was witnessed during the 1990s along with the liberalisation of the economy. Liberalisation in telecommunication services began in 1992 when the telecom sector was deregulated with the Government unbundling the domestic basic services and the domestic value-added services (VAS) and allowing private sector participation in provision of value added system (VAS) such as cellular and paging services. The government paved the path for the entry of the private sector in telephone services by adopting the National Telecom Policy in 1994.

This policy aimed at bringing about universal service and qualitative improvement in telecom services. ? 3. 4 NATIONAL TELECOM POLICY 1994 (NTP-94) Introduction The new economic policy adopted by the Government aims at improving India’s competitiveness in the global market and rapid growth of exports. Another element of the new economic policy is attracting foreign direct investment and stimulating domestic investment. Telecommunication services of world class quality are necessary for the success of this policy. It is, therefore, necessary to give the highest priority to the development of telecom services in the country.

Objectives The objectives of the New Telecom Policy will be as follows: a. The focus of the Telecom Policy shall be telecommunication for all and telecommunication within the reach of all. This means ensuring the availability of telephone on demand as early as possible. b. Another objective will be to achieve universal service covering all villages as early as possible. What is meant by the expression universal service is the provision of access to all people for certain basic telecom services at affordable and reasonable prices. c.

The quality of telecom services should be of world standard. Removal of consumer complaints, dispute resolution and public interface will receive special attention. The objective will also be to provide widest permissible range of services to meet the customer’s demand at reasonable prices. d. Taking into account India’s size and development, it is necessary to ensure that India emerges as a major manufacturing base and major exporter of telecom equipment. e. The defense and security interests of the country will be protected. ? CHAPTER 4 CURRENT SCENARIO OF TELECOM INDUSTRY ? 4.

1 CURRENT SCENARIO It is a matter of proud to us that the Telecom industry of our India is the second largest emerging economies of Asia and third largest in whole world. Today, telecom sector of India is the fastest growing market in the world. Indian telecom industry has provided a robust thrust to the economic growth of country this year. Recent rapid growth in telecom in India Our telecom industry in facing a fast growth rate in current era as a result of various positive and proactive actions of government and by the fruitful combination of both public and private sector.

Liberal policies of the Government that provide easy market access for telecom equipment and a fair regulatory framework for offering telecom services to the Indian consumers at affordable prices has facilitated the rapid growth to Indian Telecom industry. Main sectors in telecom (wire line and wireless) Indian Telecom industry underwent a considerable change in term of wireless and landline phones and between public and private participation. Wireless phones are preferred in both sectors. Participation of the private players in the telecom sector is rapidly increasing rate there by offering the numerous growth opportunities.

There is a clear cut distinction between the Global Satellite Mobile Communication (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technologies used. GSM Service In terms of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) subscriber base this now Places India third after china, Russia, china had 401. 7 million GSM subscribers. CDMA Services CDMA technology was introduced in India as a limited mobility solution. The introduction of CDMA services has created competition, lowered tariffs and offered many citizens access to Communication services for the first time. CURRENT TRENDS

The Indian telecom sector became the second largest telephone network in the world, after China by registering exceptional growth during last nine years. The reasons for growth of telecom sector were reform measures by the Government of India, active participation of the private sector as well as wireless technology. National Telecom Policy-2012 (NTP-2012) was announced with an objective to maximize public good by facilitating reliable, secure and affordable telecommunication as well as broadband services in India. When NTP 2012 was implemented, a range of telephonic connections increased considerably.

The telephone connections in India till January 2013 were 893. 14 million. The rural telephone connections increased by around 10 million in the year 2012. Overall, the teledensity was 73. 07 percent till January 2013. Rural teledensity crossed the 40 percent mark. Comparatively, in March 2004, the overall teledensity was 7. 04 percent while the rural teledensity was 1. 7 percent. In case of mobile penetration, the preference of the use of wireless telephony increased considerably. As on 31 March 2012, the wireless telephones increased from 96. 62 percent to 96. 74 percent by June end 2012.

The share of landline phones increased from 3. 38 percent to 3. 44 percent from April to December 2012. The wireless subscriber base also increased from 33. 6 million in March 2004 to 864. 72 million till December 2012. The average tariff for every outgoing call per minute for GSM services went down from 2. 89 Rupees in March 2004 to 47paisa in December 2012. ? TELECOM TRENDS: 2013 1. Fiber focus: FTTX With bandwidth demands growing in enterprise networks, fiber-optic technology development is keeping pace. Fiber access is one of the most important technologies in the next generation network.

It increases the access layer bandwidth and builds a sustainable-development access layer network. From finding ways to minimize power-hungry LAN elements to more robust cabling to emerging new standards, optical communications technology should continue to offer an effective, efficient alternative to copper for a growing variety of enterprise network requirements. Service providers across the world therefore, are developing new network architectures to deliver high-bandwidth services to the last mile, which are included in the umbrella term FTTx.

This includes fibre-to-the-curb, fibre-to-the-node, fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) and fibre-to-the premises. 2. Arrival of 4G An acronym for Long Term Evolution, LTE is a 4G wireless communications standard developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) that’s designed to provide up to 10x the speeds of 3G networks for mobile devices such as smart phones, tablets, notebooks, notebooks and wireless hotspots. 4G technologies are designed to provide IP-based voice, data

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