A Study on the Concept of Green Building & Analysis of Its Practice in International and Domestic Levels
Table of Contents 1. Introduction9 2. Purpose9 3. Methodology9 4. What is Green Building? 10 5. Objectives of Green Building11 6. Why Build Green? 11 7. How do buildings affect climate change? 12 8. Benefits of Green Building12 9. Elements of Green Buildings13 9. 1. Siting and structure design efficiency13 9. 2. Energy efficiency14 9. 3. Water efficiency14 9. 4. Materials efficiency14 9. 5. Indoor environmental quality enhancement15 9. 6. Operations and maintenance optimization15 9. 7. Waste & Toxic Reduction15 9. 8. Occupant Health and Safety16 10. What building types can be green? 16 11. Critics of Green Building, Cost16 12. Green Home17 2. 1. Heating and Cooling18 12. 2. Lighting22 12. 3. Insulation, Air Sealing, and Weatherization23 12. 4. Windows, Skylights, and Exterior Doors23 12. 5. Hot Water Systems24 12. 6. Interior Walls and Ceilings25 12. 7. Air Cleaning25 12. 8. Exterior Finishes25 12. 9. Green Power for the Home25 13. Other Practices related to Green Home27 14. Green Building, practice at International Level28 14. 1. Non-synergic Practice28 14. 2. Synergic Practice, World Green Building Councils30 14. 2. 1. Vision30 14. 2. 2. Mission30 14. 2. 3. Goal31 14. 2. 4. The challenge32 14. 2. 5. The solution32 14. 2. 6. GBC Membership, How to become a member? 33 14. . 7. Membership Types33 14. 2. 8. Present Members of GBC33 14. 2. 9. Green Building Rating Systems35 14. 3. United States Green Building Council36 14. 3. 1. About USGBC36 14. 3. 2. USGBC’s Mission36 14. 3. 3. USGBC’s Vision36 14. 3. 4. USGBC’s Headquarters36 14. 3. 5. USGBC Programs37 14. 3. 6. Certified Buildings of US GBC (details at appendix)38 14. 4. Indian Green Building Council39 14. 4. 1. About IGBC39 14. 4. 2. Rating Systems of IGBC39 14. 4. 3. Membership in IGBC41 14. 4. 4. IGBC Programs41 14. 4. 5. Certified buildings of IGBC42 15. Green Building, practice in Bangladesh43 15. 1. Case 01: Solar Panel at PM Office, March’1043 5. 2. Case 02: Solar Panel at Bangladesh Bank HO, March’1043 15. 3. Case 03: Green Building solution in the new office of Viyellatex , Feb’1043 15. 4. Green Home, practice in Bangladesh46 15. 5. Recommendations46 16. Conclusion47 17. Bibliography48 Appendix A, UGBC Project Profile (2 projects) Appendix B, Presentation Slides Executive Summary Green Building is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction.
It is also known as green construction or sustainable building or high performance building. Objectives of Green Building are: •Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources •Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity •Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation It has several benefits like: •Environmental benefits •Economic benefits •Social benefits Green Building also contributes in slowing down the pace of global climate change by reducing the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions produced by buildings.
Green Home, the prototype of Green Building concept, focuses on the objectives of Green Building at micro level. This covers the following aspects of a home: •Heating and Cooling •Lighting •Insulation, Air Sealing, and Weatherization etc. The concept of Green Building is being practiced worldwide through two different approaches: Non-Synergic (like ISO 21931) and Synergic (Green Building Councils). The World Green Building Council (WGBC) is promoting the concept by opening chapters in several countries of the world in a synergic way. In Bangladesh, Green Building is not being practiced in either non-synergic or synergic way.
Along with the long use case of some Green Home practices, recently in 2010, three isolated instances of ‘partial practice of Green Building’ have been observed in Bangladesh. To attain benefits of Green Building in Bangladesh, we have recommended: Local Perspectives •Promotion of Green Building concepts by government •Opening of the ‘Bangladesh Chapter of World Green Building Council (wgbc)’ •Educating and creating service professionals through specialized courses on relevant engineering and environmental sciences International Perspectives Exporting services of Green Building professionals We have also recommended for the following to build a Greener Globe: • Green Practices at micro level, Green Home is the starter. • Chapters of WGBC need to be opened and practiced in all countries to ensure synergy in activities and sharing know-how and technologies from the same ground. • Bringing synergy in the non-synergic initiatives of Green Building concept so that ultimate objective of having a greener globe remains same. A study on the concept of Green Building & analysis of its practice in international and domestic levels . Introduction In the present time of ‘critical environmental and climate issues’ and growing threat of ‘shortening storage of fuel and energy resources’, the inhabitants of the globe are bound to think seriously on the sustainability of the environment and ensuring livable conditions for the next generations. The time has come to practice the concept of Green Building as one of the measures of protecting the environment which promotes building infrastructure in a way that is environmentally responsible and efficient in energy utilization.
In this term paper after going through detail study of this concept we have analyzed its practices across the globe. With a special focus on the practice of this concept in Bangladesh context, we have recommended on how the same can be made more effective from both Bangladesh and global perspectives. 2. Purpose Purpose of this term paper is to study the concept of ‘Green Building’ and analyze its practice in international and domestic levels. 3. Methodology Date Source: Data has been collected from relevant internet resources which are categorized as secondary source of information.
Sampling Plan: Study didn’t require conducting through any statistical sampling plan. Limitation of the Study: Reliability only on the secondary source of information. Report Preview: The concept of Green Building has been studied at the first part of the report. In the second part, we have analyzed the practice of it internationally, at different countries of the world and at the last part we have analyzed the same for Bangladesh. Study was not required to conduct through any statistical sampling plan. Part-I Green Building, the concept and other details 4. What is Green Building?
Green Building, also known as green construction or sustainable building or high performance building, is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. pic] [pic] 5. Objectives of Green Building Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation In other words, through Green Buildings following impacts are taken care: Aspects of Built |Consumption |Environmental Effects |Ultimate Effects | |Environment | | | | |Siting |Energy |Waste |Harm to Human Health | |Design |Water |Air pollution |Environment Degradation | |Construction |Materials |Water pollution |Loss of Resources | |Operation |Natural Resources |Indoor pollution | | |Maintenance | |Heat islands | | |Renovation | |Storm water runoff | | |Deconstruction | |Noise | | 6. Why Build Green? From a recent statistics published by EPA United States, buildings account for: • 39 percent of total energy use • 12 percent of the total water consumption 68 percent of total electricity consumption • 38 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions The built environment has a vast impact on the natural environment, human health, and the economy. By adopting green building strategies, maximization of both economic and environmental performance can be attained. Green construction methods can be integrated into buildings at any stage, from design and construction, to renovation and deconstruction. However, the most significant benefits can be obtained if the design and construction team takes an integrated approach from the earliest stages of a building project. 7. How do buildings affect climate change?
The energy used to heat and power our buildings leads to the consumption of large amounts of energy, mainly from burning fossil fuels – oil, natural gas and coal – which generate significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most widespread greenhouse gas. Buildings in the U. S. contribute 38. 1 percent of the nation’s total carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions produced by buildings is therefore fundamental to the effort to slow the pace of global climate change. Buildings may be associated with the release of greenhouse gases in other ways, for example, construction and demolition debris that degrades in landfills may generate methane, and the extraction and manufacturing of building materials may also generate greenhouse gas emissions. . Benefits of Green Building Potential benefits of green building can include: Environmental benefits • Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems • Improve air and water quality • Reduce waste streams • Conserve and restore natural resources • Reduce emission of CO2 Economic benefits • Reduce operating costs • Create, expand, and shape markets for green product and services • Improve occupant productivity • Optimize life-cycle economic performance Social benefits • Enhance occupant comfort and health • Heighten aesthetic qualities • Minimize strain on local infrastructure • Improve overall quality of life 9. Elements of Green Buildings
Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e. g. , using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well. While the practices, or technologies, employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region, there are fundamental principles that persist from which the method is derived: 1.
Siting and Structure Design Efficiency 2. Energy Efficiency 3. Water Efficiency 4. Materials Efficiency 5. Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement 6. Operations and Maintenance Optimization & 7. Waste and Toxics Reduction 8. Occupant Health and Safety The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. Also, with the proper synergistic design, individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect. On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site.
There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify ‘green’ building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy. 1. Siting and structure design efficiency The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and design stages. The concept stage, in fact, is one of the major steps in a project life cycle, as it has the largest impact on cost and performance. In designing environmentally optimal buildings, the objective function aims at minimizing the total environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building project. However, building as a process is not as streamlined as an industrial process, and varies from one building to the other, never repeating itself identically.
In addition, buildings are much more complex products, composed of a multitude of materials and components each constituting various design variables to be decided at the design stage. A variation of every design variable may affect the environment during all the building’s relevant life-cycle stages. 2. Energy efficiency Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy use. To increase the efficiency of the building envelope, (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space), they may use high efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors. Another strategy, passive solar building design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter.
In addition, effective window placement (day lighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy loads. Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. 3. Water efficiency Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives in sustainable building. One critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas of the country, the demands on the supplying aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself.
To the maximum extent feasible, facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected, used, purified, and reused on-site. The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles water in toilet flushing. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper, reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water quality and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation.
The use of non-sewage and grey water for on-site use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer. 4. Materials efficiency Building materials typically considered to be ‘green’ include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw, lumber from forests certified to be sustainable managed, ecology blocks, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable (e. g. Linoleum, sheep wool, panels made from paper flakes, compressed earth block, adobe, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, flax linen, sisal, sea grass, cork, expanded clay grains, coconut, wood fiber plates, calcium sand stone, oncrete (high and ultra high performance, roman self-healing concrete) , etc. Using recycled industrial goods, such as coal combustion products, foundry sand, and demolition debris in construction projects heavily reduces carbon emissions as well. Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation. Where possible, building elements should be manufactured off-site and delivered to site, to maximize benefits of off-site manufacture including minimizing waste, maximizing recycling (because manufacture is in one location), high quality elements, better OHS management, less noise and dust. 5. Indoor environmental quality enhancement
During the design and construction process choosing construction materials and interior finish products with zero or low emissions will improve Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ). Many building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit toxic gases, such as VOC’s and formaldehyde. These gases can have a detrimental impact on occupants’ health and productivity as well. Avoiding these products will increase a building’s IEQ. Personal temperature and airflow control over the HVAC system coupled with a properly designed building envelope will also aid in increasing a building’s thermal quality. Creating a high performance luminous environment through the careful integration of natural and artificial light sources will improve on the lighting quality of a structure. 6. Operations and maintenance optimization
No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction, it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly. Ensuring operations and maintenance (O) personnel are part of the project’s planning and development process will help retain the green criteria designed at the onset of the project. Every aspect of green building is integrated into the O&M phase of a building’s life. The addition of new green technologies also falls on the O staff. Although the goal of waste reduction may be applied during the design, construction and demolition phases of a building’s life-cycle, it is in the O&M phase that green practices such as recycling and air quality enhancement take place. 7.
Waste & Toxic Reduction Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and materials used during construction. During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills. To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. “Grey water”, wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e. g. to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes. 8. Occupant Health and Safety Choose construction materials and interior finish products with zero or low emissions to improve indoor air quality. Many building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit toxic gases, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC) and formaldehyde. These gases can have a detrimental impact on occupants’ health and productivity. Provide adequate ventilation and a high-efficiency, in-duct filtration system. Heating and cooling systems that ensure adequate ventilation and proper filtration can have a dramatic and positive impact on indoor air quality.
Prevent indoor microbial contamination through selection of materials resistant to microbial growth, provide effective drainage from the roof and surrounding landscape, install adequate ventilation in bathrooms, allow proper drainage of air-conditioning coils, and design other building systems to control humidity. 10. What building types can be green? Any type of building has the potential to become a green or sustainable building, however every building type has different design and efficiency needs depending on its particular function. New buildings may be designed, built and operated to be green buildings. Existing building can also become green through remodeling, retrofitting and improved operations. 11. Critics of Green Building, Cost The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly buildings is the price. Photovoltaic, new appliances and modern technologies tend to cost more money. Most green buildings cost a premium of