Academic performance of working students

7 July 2016

Introduction Many people are familiar with the concept of “work-life balance”- the ongoing struggle to keep a healthy split between times spent on your professional time. For grad students who work full-time, it’s more accurate to talk about “work-study-life balance. ” And that’s a mouthful; it’s even more of a handful. While it is technically possible to work full-time while studying full-time, it can be a bit like fighting a two-front war- both areas important and require constant attention, and ignoring either is something you do at your own peril- and meanwhile, you can ever forget your obligations on the “home front” either.

Parents work hard to give the best for their children. The government offers programs and solutions for the benefit and development of the people. And as an individual, students have responsibility to help themselves and be beneficial to others. Working students are those individuals who find ways to make things possible for them and to others. Student’s jobs have become a sort of trend among students around the world, who want to work while studying. In short, the term that suits this trend is “Earn and Learn” policy.

Academic performance of working students Essay Example

Other reasons why student jobs are popular among students is they help to cope up with the constant increase in tuition fees, and a way to afford further educations. The problem has been developed with the question as to have the corresponding workloads and required working hours of working students affect their academic performance. Working in full time while attending school creates time shortages and the students requires highly developed time management skill in order to handle school and work.

The research aims to provide encouragement and motivation to all students especially those financially distressed to pursue and finish a college degree in order to become competitive in the future and be able to realize their goals and aspirations. It may also provide learning’s, experiences and information to other students who are not working. Background of the Study This study deals with the Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Selected Working Students in Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Santa Rosa Campus.

The problem is what factors that working students affect their academic performance. And one of the negative effects typically arise because hours spent at work take time away from studying which may lead to lower grades and less attractive post college opportunities. And one of the choices to address and act on the problem is to balance work and study to help them succeed in college. This study serves as the basis to discover other factors to enhance student’s performance.

There are some obvious advantage to this work approach, from finishing school more quickly to maintain the current job and the associated income and benefits. Just be aware that by choosing to study and work full-time, you are essentially signing themselves up for a few very hectic years. Students should be very clear about the reasons to be a full-time student and worker. Working full-time while also studying full-time clearly requires a lot of effort. Putting so much of their mental and physical energy into this uneasy arrangement can quickly leave that feeling fatigued, stressed, or both.

While many grad students and workers routinely feel tired and stressed by their work, as a full-time student-worker you will likely encounter stress and fatigue levels well beyond those of most of your colleagues. Perhaps for the first time in their life, students may find themselves planning and accounting for every day, from the few hours you can block off for sleep to the 45 minutes of their commute their lunch break (both may become extra time for studying). Working full time allows them to maintain your job and salary associated benefits while also progressing in their studies.

Students may rely on their job for their own or for family’s health insurance or students may need the income for full time work to support themselves and still be able to afford grad school. Maybe students truly enjoy their job and know that staying involved there is part of their overall life trajectory just their degree is. Continuing to work full-time while commencing grad school may even have additional benefits, such as a chance to apply classroom learning in work settings and vice versa. A part-time job is a form of employment that carries fewer hours per week than a full-time job.

Workers are considered to be part time if they commonly work fewer than 30 or 35 hours per week. There are many reasons for working part time, including the desire to do so, having one’s hours cut back by an employer and being unable to find a full-time job. This study will help to determine the Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Selected Working Students. Theoretical Framework Academic Performance of the working students have attracted increased attention among the university teachers and students with the aim of knowing and understanding the reasons, problems and other factors affecting them.

This may empower them for lifelong learning to their journey to success hindered by their busy schedule and always no time to their study and academic performance. Determining the concepts of this research the study comes up with different theories. The theories that could be used are transactional model of stress and coping it is how a person copes with stressful events. Stressors are demands made by the internal or external environment that upset balance, thus affecting physical and psychological well being and requiring action to restore balance. (Lazarus & Cohen, 1977)

The work is a stressor that upset balance affecting the academic performance. Actions that may require restoring the balance may require the dropping of other subjects that they can focus on the others or just enroll the subjects suited to their schedules. Time management and proper approach on every situation are also helpful. According to Lazarus & Folkman cognitive-relational theory defines stress as a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being.

According to Albert Bandura is well regarded for his Social Cognitive Theory. It is a learning theory based on the ideas that people learn by watching what others do, and that human thought processes are central to understanding personality. This theory provides a framework for understanding, predicting and changing human behavior. Another theory is the theory of planned behavior and reasoned action (AJ Zen & Fishbein 1980); It is a theory that predicts deliberate behavior, because behavior can be deliberate and planned.

This theory suggests that a parent’s behavior is determined by his/her intention to perform the behavior and that this intention is in turn, a function of his/her subjective norm. The best predictor of behavior is intention, intention is the cognitive representation of a person’s readiness to perform a given behavior, and it is considered to be immediate antecedent of behavior. Conceptual Framework Fig. 1 Conceptual framework of the study The research paradigm illustrates the conceptual framework of the study that shows the relationship of the input, process and output of the topic.

This framework embodies the specific direction by which the research will have to be undertaken by describing the relationship between specific variables identified in the study. The input consists of the research method applied in conducting the research regarding the study habits and academic performance of the working students. Qualitative research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviors of individuals to explore a social or human problem and include methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation research and case studies.

The process on the other hand shows how the research being conducted through defining the problem/s of the research first and gather the required data relevant to the research from the respondents through answering the questionnaires. The output as a result, will indicate the general view of the situation on how the behavior and performance of a student relates on their study habit and academic performance. Conclusions are to be made to know and define the outcome of this study and give justification to the research.

Statement of the Problem 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of 1. 1 Age? 1. 2 Gender? 1. 3 General Average 2. How to improve the academic performance of the selected working students as regard to: 2. 1 Learning skills 2. 2 Study skills 3. Is there a significant relationship between the academic performance of the respondents and the profile of the students. Hypotheses There is no significant relationship between the academic performance of the respondents and the profile of the students. Scope and Delimitation

The present study and the profile and the academic performance of the working students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Rosa Campus S. Y 2013-2014. This study limits only to students who are currently enrolled and who are also working and also previously working. Only those working students are allowed to participate in the research. The researchers limit their study by giving questionnaire to the 50 working students of PUPSRC. The academic performance of working students did not affect due to time management, they can balance their study while working they still have time to study.

Significance of the Study The result of this study will provides basis to the students for awareness and better understanding of how their current work affect their academic performance. This study may also help the other students to understand the situation of colleagues who work and study. This study will also have a better understanding to the Professors of the situation of working students enrolled in their class, in providing them with alternative tasks and academic measures that will not sacrifice effectiveness of teaching methods and the quality of learning, whenever conflicts between work and studies arise.

The Future Researchers may be able to use the findings of the study for further research and investigation particularly related to the academic performance of working students since there are very limited local studies that can be found exploring this particular subject or concern. Definition Terms The explanation of the following terms would give enlightenment to the terminologies used in research: (Conceptually & Operationally) Academic Performance Refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different task given to them by their teachers. (Wikipedia) Part Time Workers who work for less than 48 hours.

Full time workers are those who work for 48 hours during the week. (Wikipedia) Students referring to all officially enrolled students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Working Student are those enrolled with their subjects but working or earning at the same time, they are not full time students. CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Studies The researchers have consulted a number of related literature and studies to examine what factors and variables were considered by other researchers in doing their respective studies, including the methods used and findings. Foreign Literature

Work- School Performance Relationship The following related literature discussed the different models used by previous researchers in explaining the impact of work on school performance. Zero-sum model The Zero-sum model was incorporated by Warren, et al (2007) in his study of the relation between student employment and academic outcomes. It may be, however, according to Warren, that the time and energy that students devote to employment can also be considered as a decrease in time and energy allotted to socialization, television watching, delinquency, or other less academically beneficial activities.

Using time as the measure or basis of the theory, it can be said that it tends to ignore the conscious and deliberate decision-making process that students (and perhaps parents) use when deciding whether and how intensively students should work. Work schedules (and employment status) may affect schooling outcomes, but employment activities may conceivably be affected by how well students are doing in school. Primary Orientation model In a review and criticism about the flaws of the zero-sum measure as a tool to describe the work-school relationship, Warren (2007) presented his alternative theory, the Primary Orientation Model.

Unlike the zero-sum model, this holds that students who are primarily oriented toward school do relatively well in school, regardless of how much they work; and students who are primarily oriented toward employment do poorly in school because formal education is only of secondary importance. Warren concluded in view of this perspective, employment intensity only matters if it is accompanied by disinterest in or disengagement from school. This means that schooling outcomes can also be due to students’ social psychological orientation toward work (vs.

toward school). Students’ employment intensity is merely an important indicator of the extent to which they are work oriented. Further, the alternative theory implied the following hypotheses: 1. Students who are oriented toward work are more likely to work. That is, if work is a central aspect of students’ lives, then they are more likely towork and towork more intensively. Conversely, students who are oriented toward school will work less frequently and less intensively. 2. Students who are oriented toward work do less well in school.

On the other hand, students are likely to do better in school if they are oriented toward school. 3. The association between employment intensity and school performance mostly or entirely disappears after controlling for whether school or work are central aspects of students’ lives. Student Retention Models: In connection to the foregoing articles, Riggert et al. (2006) collected and examined several studies, including theories attempting to explain the work-school relationship and its impact on student’s academic performance particularly on the aspect of student retention.

Tinto Model This concludes that employment not only limits the time one has for academic studies, it also severely limits one’s opportunities for interaction with other students and faculty. As a consequence, one’s social integration as well as one’s academic performance suffers. It also noted that the simple act of leaving (“dropping out”) can have “multiple and quite disparate meanings” (p. 4). While typically seen as negative, dropping out can be positive for both the student and the institution if the goals of the student and the institution are not consonant.

Tinto suggested that dropping out might reflect a student’s mature recognition that the college experience has not met his or her needs. The student’s goals and intentions in coming to the educational institution may not have included graduation. Thus maintaining enrollment for its own sake can be counterproductive for both student and institution. According to this model, the goal of college should not be schooling but, rather, education. Bean and Metzner Study This study primarily involved studies of student attrition/persistence (retention) in a traditional student population.

The review addressed a large number of retention-related student characteristics (including employment status) that had been empirically investigated. It hypothesized that decisions regarding attrition/persistence are the consequence of numerous interrelated factors that are unique to each individual. In their model, factors such as background/demographics and personal goals and characteristics, environmental variables, academic variables, and student “intent to leave” are integrated with psychological variables, academic outcomes, and social integration variables.

The interrelationship of these variables results in the student decision regarding attrition–persistence (i. e. , dropping out, not dropping out, or “stopping out”—simply not attending classes without officially dropping out). Astin Model This model led to the development of an “input-environment-output” (I-E-O) model which focused on evaluating the impact of environmental factors on development of the student. Astin examined the characteristics of the individual at entry to college relative to the characteristics of the same individual following experiences with the college environment.

Astin noted the difficulty of identifying the relevant outcomes, inputs, and environmental experiences. Student employment is just one element in the constellation of student characteristics. Astin (1993) stressed that level of student involvement with the institution is predictive of persistence, positive affective outcomes, and academic performance. He noted that the most potent vehicles for student involvement are “academic involvement, involvement with faculty, and involvement with student peers. Riggart et.

Al (2006) mentioned that there has been considerable inconsistency and even contradiction in the empirical literature regarding the impact of work on the college experience brought about by differences in the investigational settings and challenges in the research methods. As the article summated, there have been studies how student characteristics, the college environment, and the nature of the work experience contribute to the individual’s academic success, personal growth, and educational attainment. Inconsistencies may be said to indicate that student employment has differential effects in differing locations and situations.

It was found out that the impact of student employment on academic measures (GPA, intellectual growth) has varied from positive to negative across studies. Most studies attempted to directly assess the student employment–higher education relationship through either GPA or retention but they fail to incorporate social, personal, and financial consequences of employment as they affect personal goals, intellectual capacities, institutional commitments, and student motivations resulting to inconsistencies to what outcome measures are to be used.

Hence, a question of validity may arise. The article also noted that no models exist that delineate theoretically the relationship between student employment and college outcomes. In view of these inconsistencies, the article has presented the findings and at the same time offered an appeal for further investigations about this topic. When used as a variable, retention appears to have a stronger relationship with student employment than those academic measures such as GPA.

It explained that when weekly work hours become high, the number of enrollment interruptions increases significantly and affects student’s retention in school. It also mentioned that although measures such as retention and GPA remain important outcomes, they are inadequate by themselves to represent the impact of work on student performance. In addition, future researchers were advised to consider basic issues such as age (which is often tied to social role), employment (e. g.

, amount, and whether it is on campus or off campus), and type of student (e. g. , full time or part time, residential or commuter) in discussing this topic. The use of descriptive and qualitative measures was emphasized as a need to build an informational basis for formulating the models or frameworks to use without going beyond the limits of their conclusions. Foreign Studies According to the Case of Ireland stated by McCoy and Smyth (2007) explored the nature and implications of secondary students’ participation in paid employment in Ireland.

It examined whether engaging in part-time employment while in secondary school has an impact on two educational outcomes – school dropout and examination performance. The study adopted the ‘propensity score matching’ technique, which aimed to examine the effect of part-time work on a particular outcome to make sure that the difference in results for non-working and working students are not overly estimate. The study also considered other characteristics, such as attitudes towards school or involvement in social activities in matching the subject groups with variables.

The article gathered its data from a national survey of schools in 1994. The survey, of which, collected detailed information on whether the student held a paid part-time job and the number of hours allotted to work at the time of the survey during their examination periods. Outcomes o be considered included the likelihood of dropping out from school and examination performance of the respondents. The study found out that the level of student employment in Ireland has increased in recent years in proportion to an increased allotment for working hours.

Results also showed that working students show less motivation towards education and school life. They tend to have less school satisfaction, lower school attendance and were more prone to being reprimanded by their teachers posing negative interaction and involvement with the class. In terms of school drop-out, the study’s findings in Irish context were in line with those findings from the USA and Australia which presented that part-time employment, particularly those involving longer hours, leads to increasing rate of school drop-outs as working students tend to draw away from studies because of their job.

The examination results were also considered in the study and showed that regardless of time allotment for studying and working, and the students’ attitudes to school, working students achieve lower grades than non-working students. To summarize the findings of the study, it can be said that part-time employment, particularly that involving long hours, reduces the amount of time available for schoolwork and leads to underperformance among student and increased school drop-outs. According to the Case of Berea College, Kentucky another point was raised by Stinebrickner (2003) in his study.

He used new sets of data in examining the relationship between working during school and academic performance. One important factor he considered was the presence of biases in choosing the type of work particularly the time allotted by the individual in working. A student’s decision of whether to work more hours is likely to depend to some extent on his enjoyment of the job Although results showed that work has a negative impact on academic performance of the respondents in Berea, it is suggested that it does not necessarily mean that such result will exist in other youth employment contexts.

In addition, the study also expressed that researchers should be cautious about drawing policy conclusions in situations where it is difficult to deal with the endogeneity issue in a satisfactory way. A related study conducted by Marsh and Kleitman (2005) showed that working during high school had negative effects on occupational and, in particular, educational aspirations and subsequent employment. This negative impact is not present among continuing students who worked during high school to save money for college and in fact had mostly favorable effects.

Findings from the study offered additional clues about the nature of the impact of working on subsequent unemployment. For example, the positive effect of working on subsequent unemployment was not mediated by other high school outcomes. Hence, high school accomplishments were unrelated to this effect. But since the study considered only students who graduated from high school, our results did not include the negative effects of part-time employment on high school graduation and implications for long-term employment among high school dropouts .

The research made use of selected variables for the investigation and were categorized as: |background demographic variables |outcome variables |postsecondary outcomes | |SES |standardized achievement tests, school grades,|educational attainment, educational | |Ethnicity |coursework selection, self-esteem, locus of |and occupational aspirations, | |Gender |control, attendance, staying out of trouble, |employment | |Prior educational experiences |educational and occupational aspirations | |

The study used a path-analytic approach to evaluate the effects of hours worked on a comprehensive set of high school and postsecondary outcomes. It specifically involved multiple regression analyses (linear, nonlinear, and interaction terms) to investigate the effects of hours worked on high school and postsecondary outcomes. Working in Grade 8, however, had negative effects on Grade 12 outcomes (lower grades, lower Carnegie units, lower occupational aspirations, more bad habits in Grade 12, and lower postsecondary occupational aspirations) beyond those mediated by earlier outcomes.

Similarly, working in Grade 10 had direct negative effects on Grade 12 outcomes (school grades, Carnegie units, school attendance, and bad habits) In summary, the results suggest that employment during high school had mostly small but consistently detrimental effects on a comprehensive set of postsecondary outcomes. The researchers, on the basis of the results of this investigation emphasized the need to be aware of the potentially negative consequences of employment during school. The only good reason which surfaced to hold a job during the school year is to save money for future education.

The study added that to divert income from education expenses to outings, to support bad habits such as tobacco or alcohol use, or even to contribute toward rent apparently has negative effects on many high school and postsecondary outcomes. Local Literature According to the national Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB) published that the full-time workers in July 2010 recorded a share of 64. 3 percent of the total employed while the part-time workers, 35. 0 percent. The number of underemployed persons in July 2010 was estimated at 6. 5 million, placing the current underemployment rate at 17. 9 percent.

More than half (58. 1%) of the total underemployed were reported as visibly underemployed or working less than 40 hours during the reference week. Those working for 40 hours or more accounted for 40. 4 percent. Most of the underemployed were working in the agriculture sector (46. 7%) and services sector (37. 8%). The underemployed in the industry sector accounted for 15. 5 percent. Only half of working students finish college: CHED MANILA, Philippines – About 216,000 students in the country are currently juggling school and work, according to latest data from the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).

The figure is about 8% of the total number of college students in the country. CHED said working students today are mostly into food service, entertainment and sales, apart from their usual stints as library and research assistants. “Dahil sa financial crisis, kailangan nila ng extra income,” said lawyer Julito Vitriolo, officer-in-charge at CHED’s office of the executive director. Vitriolo added that these students are forced to work because of higher commodity prices and tuition fees. Jerry Rontal, who delivers oxygen tanks in a hospital. Rontal is currently taking up Criminology, and needs to pay a tuition fee of P24,000 for this semester.

The amount does not include expenses for books, uniform and public transport. “Gusto kong umangat sa hirap. Kakayanin po, kailangan po eh. Kung hindi ako kikilos, walang mangyayari,” Rontal said. Despite their efforts, the pressure to balance work and school is just too much for many working students. The CHED said that only 50% of working students get to finish college, as many cannot cope and cannot concentrate on their studies, while some have poor health, while others give up because of insufficient funds. CHED advised working students to get jobs that are not that demanding, and that are more closely related to their courses.

— Report from Bernadette Sembrano, ABS-CBN News. Local Study In a research proposal established by Bagongon&Edpalina (2009), the researchers planned to investigate the possible relationship of study habits and the factors affecting it to the academic achievement of under graduate education students of Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan. They used Time management, learning skills, and study skills as independent variables to find out how it affects students’ study habits. The study also focuses on the factors affecting study habits, influencing the academic performance of the student.

In this view, the researchers wanted to study the factors in which affect the study habits. The study uses the descriptive survey design in its attempt to determine, describe and analyze relationships between time management, learning skills, and study skills and the dependent variable which is the study habits. It tries to find out if the independent variables significantly influence the dependent variable (study habits). Synthesis of the Review This study focuses on the academic performance of selected working students in Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Rosa Campus.

In educational institutions, success is measured by academic performance, or how well a student meets standards set out by local government and the institution itself. As career competition grows ever more fierce in the working world, the importance of students doing well in school has caught the attention of parents, legislators and government education departments alike. Although education is not the only road to success in the working world, much effort is made to identify, evaluate, track and encourage the progress of students in schools.

Parents care about their child’s academic performance because they believe good academic results will provide more career choices and job security. Schools, though invested in fostering good academic habits for the same reason, are also often influenced by concerns about the school’s reputation and the possibility of monetary aid from government institutions, which can hinge on the overall academic performance of the school. State and federal departments of education are charged with improving schools, and so devise methods of measuring success in order to create plans for improvement.

The tracking of academic performance fulfills a number of purposes. Areas of achievement and failure in a student’s academic career need to be evaluated in order to foster improvement and make full use of the learning process. Results provide a framework for talking about how students fare in school, and a constant standard to which all students are held. Performance results also allow students to be ranked and sorted on a scale that is numerically obvious, minimizing complaints by holding teachers and schools accountable for the components of each and every grade.

Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research method, research locale, the respondents, data gathering procedure, instruments and techniques and the statistical treatment to be used. Research Method The study will utilize the descriptive method as the research strategy which intends to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research.

This research is also cross-sectional because of limited time. This research is a study of a particular phenomenon (or phenomena) at a particular time. Accordingly, cross-sectional studies often employ the survey strategy, and they may be seeking to describe the incidence of a phenomenon or to compare factors in different organizations. Research Locale The researchers choose the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Rosa Campus to be the locale of their study.

The test was conducted in the mentioned institution. Specifically, the test was conducted inside the classroom of the respondnets, during their first period to assure the readiness to take the test and maintain the condusive classroom setup require in the study. Respondents This study will focus on 50 students who are currently enrolled in Polytechnic University of the Philippines Santa Rosa

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