In the US, about 3.1 million individuals above the age of 12 years were treated for drug abuse or alcohol abuse in the year 2000 (NHSDA, 2000).  The treatment may have to be held at more than one center for some people.

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Self-help groups (about 1.6 million), outpatient rehabilitation facilites (1.2 million), in-patent rehabilitation (0.87 million) and mental health centers (0.73 million) were the most common ways in which such individuals were managed.  Other treatment ways included hospital in-patient rehabilitation (0.71 million), private doctor’s office (0.44 million), emergency ward (0.3 million) and the jail (0.18 million).

In order for the treatment to be more effective, several factors such as individual factors, the specific drug misused and the type of drug disorder (such as abuse, addiction and dependence), have to be considered.  As addictive conduct change gradually over a period of time in stages, the treatment should be administered for a long period.

The stages should include pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance.  Throughout the course of treatment at the rehabilitation center, the individuals have to be continuously motivated to ensure that the addictive behavior is being changed (Jaffee, 2005).

The individual may have to get admitted at the rehabilitation center in order to treat any complication that arises as a result of substance abuse.  The treatment of alcohol abuse may not be successful if the individual finds it difficult to understand the content given at the sessions.  Short term psychotherapy may not provide much of long-term benefits.  The effects of such treatment usually last for a short period of time (Jefferson, J. W., 2004).

The organization providing treatment at the rehabilitation center should ensure that professionals are included to offer specialized services to the patients during their treatment.  Individuals having certain psychological problems especially require the help of professionals, as they may experience several issues during their treatment (which can be sorted out only by professionals).

The treatment is more effective if professionals are engaged, as it is seen that counselors and other professionals having very good skills, provide programs that aremore effective to the patients (with very good outcomes).

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Individuals having mild psychological problems benefit hugely from the programs conducted at the rehabilitation centers.   Frequently, it is seen that general programs benefit alcohol, tobacco and cannabis abusers better than it benefits those consuming illegal drugs (Jaffee, 2005).

Counselingsessions conducted individually or in groups for patients are very beneficial as they produce positive effects that last for a very long period.  Illegal drug users may benefit to a greater extent from programs demonstrating appropriate workplace and social skills, thus lowering drug inclinations and criminal tendencies (Jaffee, 2005).

Cocaine users frequently benefit from group therapy (such as interpersonal group therapy and modified dynamic group therapy).  In interpersonal group therapy, the individuals is demonstrated the behavior that helps to establish relationships and reduce distress.  Modified dynamic group therapy aims at improving self-respect, self-care and relationships with others.  The individual becomes more competent at handling problems and are emotionally more stable (Jaffee, 2005).

Community reinforcement approach (CRA) can be utilized for alcohol abuse, cocaine abuse and heroin abuse.  It was frequently utilized in the 1990’s.  It works on the principle of operant conditioning (the process of learning from the consequences of one’s actions), and considers that the environment plays a very important role in encouraging or discouraging behaviors.  The reinforcement that the individual receives that promotes abuse is recognized, and behaviors that are unsuited for abuse are identified and accordingly implemented.

Several methods such as couple or family interventions, improving work-based skills, recreational activities, social interactions, rewarding positive behavior, education, etc are employed (Jaffee, 2005).  Family interventions are particularly useful in adolescents.  An environment conducive to recovery from drug abuse should be created in the family.

CRA can be utilized in both inpatients and outpatients.  A study conducted by Hunt et al in 1973 demonstrated that individuals treated with CRA were less likely to consume alcohol than those treated with routinely utilized techniques.  The individuals also returned back to normal faster than those treated with other methods.  Individuals who receive CRA for drug abuse should be monitored closely with urine tests, and for every clean urine sample, they should be suitably rewarded and further motivated.

The results of CRA in cocaine abuse over routinely utilized techniques were similar to the results of alcohol abuse.  The treatment was also more likely to create abstinence from the drug than compared to routinely utilized tehcniquies (CASAA, 2006).

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