Administer medication to individuals and monitor the effects

8 August 2016

Examples of common types of medication that I have come across often in my care work are as follows- Cocodamol-This is used for pain relief and so is an analgesic and are prescribed/used when other pain killers such as asprin or paracetamol have not relieved the symptoms (pain). Possible side effects are constipation, skin rashes, nausea, shortness of breath,loss of short term memory, allergic reactions, bleeding, dry mouth or possible addiction. Metformin-This is an oral anti-diabetic drug and is commonly the first this to be prescribed by a GP for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, especially when people are overweight/overweight.

There are only a few possible side effects that can occur from taking metformin include gastrointestinal upset. Metformin has been associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and in cases of an overdose lactic acidosis which is a build-up of lactate in the blood which can be serious. Risperidone-This is an antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and the manic states associated with bipolar disorder. Side effects that can occur from taking risperidone include weight gain and some problems with a patient’s metabolism such as type 2 diabetes.

Administer medication to individuals and monitor the effects Essay Example

Other side effects are neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a life threatening neurological disorder caused by bad reaction to drugs like risperidone) Risperidone also increases the risk of death in patients who suffer from dementia. 2. 2 Identify medication which demands the measurement of specific physiological measurements Wafarin is a medication that demands physiological measurements. It is an anticoagulant prescribed and used to prevent a thrombosis and thromboembolism.

Patients on warfarin long term have a warfarin nurse who will monitor them and change the dosage (mg) of the warfarin accordingly making it imperative you keep aware of any changes and dispense the tablets accordingly. Patients have regular blood samples taken to make sure that they are taking a safe dose. Other medications that demand physiological measurements include insulin-like warfarin blood needs to be checked and the glucose level measured and insulin changed if needed. Digoxin is prescribed and used by patients to steady a fast heartbeat, the pulse is checked before administration of the drug. 2.

3 Describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriation action(s) required Common adverse reactions to medication include diarrhoea, constipation, rashes on the body, nausea and/or vomiting, dizziness, headaches, tiredness. With each of them showing up physically in a patient i. e. sickness etc. then they can usually be easily recognised, it is important to remember though that some patients may not be able to communicate how they are being affected by the drugs (could be a short term antibiotic prescribed for someone who cannot talk because of a stroke or explain they feel dizzy etc.

because of dementia etc. ) so as carers we must be aware of medications they are on and look for possible side effects that could be effecting them. In most cases the reactions are mild and if they do occur then first-hand you should consult the medicine box/bottle/DOMAR where it will state any possible side effects on the leaflet or possibly on the main label ir you see on some pain medication ‘’Caution-May make sleepy do not operate heavy machinery’’ etc. If on the leaflet (which should ALWAYS be kept near the drugs) it says that a medical professional should be contacted if some reactions occur (i. e. bleeding) then follow the instructions.

Some reactions may occur but no further medical help is required unless it becomes very bad (like the possible constipation with pain killers such as co codamol, paracetamol etc. ) 2. 4 Explain the different routes of medicine administration. The route in which a medication is administered is the ‘path’ that the drug/substance/fluid/poison is taken into the body these include:- Oral Administration-Taken by mouth i. e. tablet

Intravenous administration-Injected into the body via veins i. e. antibiotics Vaginally-The medication is applied inside the vagina Rectal-Administering drugs into the rectum are then become absorbed into the blood vessels and taken into the body. Intra-muscular-Injected directly into the muscle. Topical-This would be a type of medication applied to the surface/skin on the body i. e. creams, foams gels, lotions and ointments Outcome 3 Understand procedures and techniques for the administration of medication

Explain the types, purpose and function of materials and equipment needed for the administration of medication via the different routes. Oral Administration- Equipment used for oral administration of medication includes medicine pots (measure out liquid medicine) medicine pots can also be used to put tablets into once dispensed from the blister pack. It is vital to be aware that some drugs cannot come into contact with (certain) other drugs, also medicine spoons supplied with over the counter medicines i. e. cough linctus etc.

The purpose of this equipment is to safely transfer the medication to the patients hand (to then be put into mouth) or directly into mouth off the spoon. Intravenous administration-As the drugs go directly into the vein needles are needed to inject into the skin that are attached to a drip where the liquid drugs are then dispensed into the body via the veins. Other equipment used could include an IV pole for the bag to hang from to let gravity take the drugs down into the body. Vaginally/Rectal-The medication is applied inside the vagina/rectum and to apply any creams etc.

Then this can be applied (often by the patient themselves when prescribed by a dr or an over the counter medication) a health professional wearing the correct PPE, in this case gloves, when they could then apply the cream etc. Wearing gloves prevents the spread of any infection. To give medication Intra-muscularly then gloves must be worn and in every instance a sterile needle used. Wearing a glove and using sterile needles prevents any spread of disease or infection between people (patients)

Topical-Again correct PPE must be worn and so gloves need to be worn when applying the creams, ointments etc. to the skin, this again prevents the spread of any possible infections. The creams being applied could be for a contagious skin disease i. e. impetigo that can easily transfer between people if hands are not washed properly (or same towels used etc. ) Outcome 4 Prepare for the administration of medication 4. 2 Explain the appropriate timing of medication e. g. check that the individual has not taken any medication recently

Medication needs to be given to a person according to the details on the medication box (label printed by the dispensary) or by the details on the DOMAR (which must match up to the details on the medication) The details will advise how many a times a day the medication needs to be taken and how, although it gives the amount of times it doesn’t always give the time intervals to be left between each dosage, In my experience the the pharmacy would send the medication and note on the domar when meds needed to be taken i.e.

Morning, Dinner and Evening.. By doing this and following the set intervals on the DOMAR we can be sure when the medication has been taken and when it is next dues to be taken, this is helpful if a medication is required to help calm a person down-are the becoming irritable or other changes in behaviour, looking at the DOMAR would tell us that a next dose is due shortly. Some medications are needed frequently by some clients throughout the day, i. e.

pain killers including paracetamol can be taken four hours apart, two tablets at a time (but no more than 8 a day) If the medication wasn’t given frequently enough this could leave a client in pain and discomfort and with some people, especially those who cannot talk/write to communicate, they would be unable to tell us of their discomfort. Although paracetamols are important for pain and discomfort theres other conditions where medication prescribed is far more important including medication for epilepsy or diabetes that if not taken at the correct time can lead to real problems for the client.

They could have a epileptic fit or seizure which could see them hospitalised or in the worst case scenario be fatal. Diabetics need to take medication at the correct time each day to stay on top of their blood sugar levels and stay as healthy as possible. Also as a clients caregiver it is my duty aswel as their right to have medication that has been prescribed for a particular illness/ailment given to them exactly as per the DOMAR states. The DOMAR is a legal document and must be followed exactly.

It is also the clients right to be given medication prescribed to them in the correct form, the correct dosage and at the right time. Failure to do this for a client is neglectful and considered to be ‘abuse’ by the care giver by neglect, this can lead to fines or even imprisonment for the individual. Having the legal document of the DOMAR allows us to follow exactly what medication has been taken and when, whether there have been any problems with the medication or if a client has declined/refused to take the medication.

This must be filled out correctly all of the time, if for instance you were just to sign off that all medications on a clients DOMAR had been taken “because Iris ALWAYS takes her meds in a morning” but then you’ve left to go to the next client, these meds could get lost, picked up by some one else, Iris may think shes already had them and so bin the ones left in front of her-the outcome of this could be disaterous, if Iris became ill and an ambulance/hospital/dr needed they would look at the DOMAR and correctly presume meds had been taken because they had been signed off as been, they would then treat Iris accordingly presuming that said tablets were in her system.

Also if there is a gap where a signature should be, people would read this that it has not been given or taken and so may give that medication on the next time (i. e. give it at dinner when its usually given at lunch) which could have a disaterous effect, the medication could have been given at the correct time but the person may have forgotten to sign it off (which is also bad practice) this could lead to an overdose. There should never be a ‘gap’ in the DOMAR where a signature should be, there is a ‘key’ on the domar with appropriate letters to put in the space should the medication not be taken. If there ever was a space its imperative you question why and bring it up with your senior/line manager Outcome 5 Administer and monitor individuals’ medication.

Describe how to report any immediate problems with the administration Should any problems arise when administering medication with a patient refusing to take medication then I would document this on the MAR chart and make the supervisor on shift aware ready for handover onto the next shift.

Should this continue to be a problem then I would make contact with the prescribing dr/pharmacist and see if it could be prescribed in another way i. e. could a tablet the patient/client was struggling to swallow and so refusing to take be prescribed in a liquid form instead? Should there be a more serious problem with the administering of medication i. e. patient/client has been given too much medication-an overdose then a Dr or 999 would need to be called, this would depend on the medication and the reaction. Any problems must always be noted on the clients/patients legal documents i. e. the MAR chart and logbooks/care plans. 5. 5 Explain why it may be necessary to confirm that the individual actually takes the medication and does not pass the medication to others

It can be necessary to confirm that an individual has taken medication given to them (and hasn’t passed it onto others to possibly take/dispose of)as they could be in the habit of trying to avoid taking medication, from past experience I had a resident who would do this for attention as she would then have a staff member giving her their undivided attention for some time.

She would hide meds in her cheek also as she found the pain relief meds really hard to swallow or when taking water to swallow the medication sometimes spit the tablet back into the tumbler and pretend that she had swallowed. I would have to confirm she had taken the medication by checking her mouth and glass for any tablets. Also wearing gloves I would put tablets directly into her mouth and not her hand as she would try to pretend she had taken the tablets or drop them ‘accidentally’.

It needs to be confirmed that they have taken as they have been prescribed for a specific health complaint and if they are not been taken them the MAR chart needs to be documented accordingly so, should there be any changes to their health/behaviour/pain etc. then by looking at the MAR chart a Dr can see whether medications have been taken as they have been prescribed to be.

Describe how to dispose of out of date and part-used medications in accordance with legal and organisational requirements Out of date or unused medications must be returned to the dispensing pharmacy where they can then dispose of them. If you are returning them as a staff member as part of your job (i. e. carer) then you need a receipt with the pharmacy’s name, the date and what exactly it is you have returned to them should there be any questions later on to any missing drugs etc.

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