Plato’s   “Allegory of Cave” is a metaphor which contrasts the way in which we perceive and also believe in reality. The theory in this allegory is that we all perceive imperfect reflections of what Plato calls   “ultimate forms”. These ultimate forms reflect on truth and reality. Plato introduces us to prisoners who are already chained down and are forced to face the front wall of a cave. There are puppeteers which are casting shadows on the wall which the prisoners are supposed to use in perceiving reality.

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This means that the prisoners who are still unable to turn their heads will never know anything else except the shadows which they perceive to be their reality. Plato uses this allegory to show us that what seems to be real from birth is completely wrong because it is based on our defective interpretations of goodness and reality. A prisoner is released from the cave and then rays of light makes him to see the truth and reality of what surrounds him. The prisoner then blames the sun for all the darkness he has experienced in the cave. On returning to the cave other prisoners do not believe his story about the outside of the cave.

Plato says that it is upon this prisoner to show leadership for he is the only one who is aware of or conscious of goodness. Plato uses this allegory to show us the qualities of a solid leader. A good leader always governs from goodness and truth and also takes care of his fellow citizens by providing a just leadership (, 2000).

According to Plato a form is an abstract of quality or property. These forms are perceived to be transcendent because they don’t exist in time and space. The forms are also unchanging. They are also perceived to be pure because they do not mix with other properties. According to Plato material world is very similar to more real world of the forms. This is because material objects are copies or images of real objects. Plato uses the allegory of caveto illustrate the properties of the forms.  For instance the shadows on the cave wall are used to represent material objects while the forms are the objects seen to be passing before the fire.

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Forms are also perceived to be the propeller of our knowledge of all the worlds’objects for they contribute intelligibility and all order to objects. Things exist because they have form. Therefore form causes the existence of objects. Plato uses the metaphor of sun to explain forms and specifically the form of Good.  For instance the sun gives us light which we use to see objects on the other hand Good provides intelligibility and order to enable us in knowing objects. The sun acts as the provider of the energy growth and nourishment of all living things while the form of Good provides structure and order which happens to be the basis of existence of all things (, 2001).

Aristotle opposed the Plato’s views on the forms and account of good. He argues that one can never know the type of interactions which occurs between the two forms. Aristotle argued that the link between imaginary and real was erroneous because he did not see how real forms which are pure, eternal and unchanging could relate with material objections. Aristotle also argues that there is no way in which all the forms in the material world can be explained.

This is because Plato failed to explain how the greater form was controlled, how the form can control things and the presence or absence of energy in the forms. Aristotle argues that plate’s theory is not enough to explain the world physically, according to evolution and also according to the order of things.

Pluralism unlike monism believes that different types or systems of reasoning are equally good. Through epistemistic relativism pluralism holds the idea that different methods of thinking are best for different people and that different people belonging to different cultures apply varied concepts of cognitive evaluation. Pluralism recognizes two or more values that can never be reduced to a common origin or to each other. Monism refers to the idea that there is only one kind of ultimate substance in the whole universe. This kid of a substance is referred to as abstract or mind or matter. This substance cannot be defined by words.

James Scott’s book, “Seeing like a State” enlightens the reader about the practice of imposition or obligation of structure up on varied social elements. Scott highlights how political methods seek out to make what he called legible cultures, societies and practices that basically developed without strict hierarchical and geometrical order.  Scott intended to enlighten the readers about how the modern state tends to impose order upon the aspects of society that it needed to control and understand. According to Scott, order was imposed through the simplification of complex phenomena for example land ownership through various processes for example making of highly regular maps.

According to Aristotle there are two virtues of thought which are namely: prudence and wisdom. Prudence was perceived to be the logically acquired true beliefs relating to contingent facts about what is good for the society (us). Wisdom is perceived to be hypothetical of the necessary truths. Prudence and wisdom may seem to be unnecessary to somebody who is clever although these virtues are very productive. For instance prudence usually lifts up cleverness which is a natural virtue to a full virtue by focusing it to the good. Wisdom was productive in terms of happiness. Prudence is the virtue used when making decision in politics and ethics (Mattey, 2006).

Anti-rationalists claim that our knowledge and skills of the world originates from experience and also from the kind of information that we receive through our senses. They also believe that law of gravity is dependent on observations. They also believe that knowledge of things originates from the joining all the different parts of experience for one to arrive at an overall conclusion or explanations. Rationalists believe that we all get to understand the world better through reason.

Rationalists believe that we can acquire knowledge of the world through reasoning and logic. There are some similarities between rationalism and ant-rationalism. For instance they both offer us the vital understanding of our world. Both of them represent the furthest extremes of how we can acquire knowledge. Both rationalist and ant-rationalists were very keen on the inquiry of science because reiterating against some of the centuries old traditions which acted as a base of understanding the world through the ideas of Aristotle (Craig, 1998).

A society develops into a purposive association when it defines itself in terms of some universal enterprise, whether that enterprise be the spread of democracy all through the world, the backing of economic efficiency, or the quest of some vision of social justice. A purposive state is composed of persons connected in the pursuit of a universal interest or objective. In the untainted form of such an association there are no numerous purposes, but a solitary sovereign purpose.

The duty of leaders is to direct the pursuit of this objective and to direct individuals appropriately. A country might comprise many such purposive associations including business corporations. A nation of civil associations people are connected to one another not by a share a concrete goal, or a substantive task but by the acknowledgement of the authority of the authority under which they live. Reverence for the authority of the law does not however imply that every person supports each and very law. What orders respect in a civil association are both the law and the law-reforming process.

The laws detail provides the conditions to which every person pledges as each pursues his or her self-preferred life style. This type of association is hence a system of law and its jurisdiction. People are connected, not because they share identical substantive wants, but for the reason that they accept the similar conditions in seeking to follow their own goals as they consider best. Each is under a commitment to act impartially towards others, and every person enjoys identical status under the jurisdiction. The character of the law is perceived to be central. In both a purposive association and a civil association citizens are subject to set of laws of conduct although in an enterprise association the set of laws are instrumental to the quest of the common aim. In of civil association, the set of laws is moral requisites and not influential command (, 2008)


Craig, E. (1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Index, Volume. NY: Taylor & Francis. (2008). Civil Associations. Retrieved on May 27, 2010 from (2001) .Plato’s Republic. Retrieved on May 27, 2010 from (2000). Plato, the Allegory of the Cave. Retrieved on May 27, 2010 from
Mattey, G. (2006), Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Retrieved on May 27, 2010 from


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