Adolescence is a Critical Juncture

?Adolescence is a critical juncture in achievement due to new social and academic pressures that force adolescence to take on new and different roles. These new roles involve more responsibility than they have previously taken on in the past. Their achievement becomes so much more serious and they begin to see life in a different more “real” way now. Two approaches to used to understand motivation in adolescence are Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation emphasizes that students want to believe that what they are doing is because of their own decision or their own will and for no other reason. Students’ motivation and interest in school tasks increase when they have opportunities to makes their own choices and they take responsibility for their own learning. Students become more motivated to learn when given choices, apply themselves in challenges matching their skills, and want to do things for the informational value.

Extrinsic motivation factors are rewards and punishments and they were found to have many more negative outcomes on students achievements and commitments. What tended to have negative outcomes were when students were given framed goals, students that believed in obtaining good grades for the sole purpose of avoiding their parents’ approval, and students that seemed to have no independence in deciding their goals. Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a child’s paternity (genetic father) or a person’s ancestry.

Normally, every person carries two copies of every gene (with the exception of genes related to sex-linked traits, which are only inherited from the mother by males), one inherited from their mother, one inherited from their father. Many of the risks associated with genetic testing involve the emotional, social, or financial consequences of the test results. People may feel angry, depressed, anxious, or guilty about their results. The potential negative impact of genetic testing has led to an increasing recognition of a “right not to know”.

[8] In some cases, genetic testing creates tension within a family because the results can reveal information about other family members in addition to the person who is tested. Genetic testing can provide only limited information about an inherited condition. The test often can’t determine if a person will show symptoms of a disorder, how severe the symptoms will be, or whether the disorder will progress over time. Another major limitation is the lack of treatment strategies for many

genetic disorders once they are diagnosed. Genetic discrimination occurs when an individual is treated differently than others because of their hereditary predisposition to a particular disease. Others are influenced by genetics only in combination with certain environmental factors. Specific genetic variations, possibly among large numbers of genes, may make particular people more susceptible to cancer and heart disease but the genes alone probably do not cause these diseases.

result of genetic testing might be only a statement of the probability of a child having the disease or being a carrier for the disease. If prevention is possible, early detection is important and fruitful. But if there is no prevention and no cure, controversy surrounds whether one would or should want to know that one has the genetic makeup that will inevitably or probably lead to the disease. If one is not tested one will never know, until symptoms appear, if they in fact ever do.

One might be spared the emotional and mental issues accompanying a positive test, but counterbalancing that might be the anxiety of living with uncertainty. Instrumental traits are defines as masculine, strong. Examples are competitive, dominant, aggressive, and self-confident. Expressive traits are defined as feminine. Examples are nurturing, emotional, and communicative. The average male expresses instrumental traits and the female has expressive traits. At times there are men and women are able to express both instrumental and expressive traits.

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