Thermostat concept. Early vs. Late puberty whether if it effects males or females differently, eating disorders, cognitive changes (adolescence brain, the different structures, frontal cortex, limbic system) Impacts of these changes, problem solving, risk taking, changes in intellect , social transitions (elongation of adolescence, a new concept during the industrial revolution) legal implications of adolescence, clarity vs. continuity, Discontinuous Society. What is changing in adolescence in their environment and family. Parenting styles.
Sibling difference and family structure. Authoritative (high responsiveness high demandingness) responsible, confident, adaptive, creative, more curious, socially skilled and successful in school Authoritarian (low responsiveness high demandingness) dependent, passive, less socially adept, confident, curious Indulgent (low responsiveness, high demanding) less mature, irresponsible, more conforming and less apt leaders Indifferent (low responsiveness low demand) delinquent behavior sex drugs, and alcohol Parenting and Temperament
Same Parenting+ different temperament different outcome Adolescence also elicit different parental strategies and behaviors. With greater maternal control adolescence are less likely to be delinquent. Ethnic Differences in Parenting Styles Authoritative parenting less prevalent among Black, Asian, or Hispanic families than among white families in the U. S Beneficial effects are found for all ethnic groups Why? Could it ever be beneficial, Use caution in interpreting Adverse effects greater fro white adolescents than for ethnic minorities Autonomy & Attachment in the Family
Those who assert their own opinions: -higher self-esteem -more mature coping Those with little autonomy -risk for depression, low self-esteem Adolescents who don’t feel connected more likely to develop behavior problems Early Adolescence: Sibling Conflict increases During Adolescence siblings become -more equal -more distan less emotionally intense Quality of par-child relationship Quality of sibling relationship Relationships with peers Same -sex vs. Mixed-sex Siblings – Mixed-sex less close during early adolescence; more closer later Genes vs. Envir:
Sibling Differences Two types of environmental influences shared environmental influences non-shared environmental influence Siblings may have different family experiences treated differently by parents perceive similar experiences in different ways Different peer groups/nonshared 75% of treatment(tx)by parents is similar between kids Differences are okay unless “unfair” Causes strain on sibling relationship, tx of siblings different but well: Better relationships, decrease rivalry Sibling deidentification – trying to distinguish self from sibling can also diminish eelings of competition