Adoption of Electronic banking system in Ethiopian Banking industry: Barriers and Drivers

6 June 2016

1. Introduction

This review assesses the thesis ‘Adoption of Electronic banking system in Ethiopian Banking industry: Barriers and Drivers’. The review will first describe the research problem the thesis tries to address. Secondly, it critically assesses the validity of the research question in light of the stated research problem. In the third place, the review will also examine suitability of research design, type of data collected and data collection method elected, the sample selected, and method of data analysis. The review also evaluate whether or not findings are framed in accordance with the research questions established and that the conclusions follow findings and that recommendations are based on conclusions drawn. The review will also identify the weakness and strengths of the research and finally makes out the lessons drawn out from the thesis review.

Adoption of Electronic banking system in Ethiopian Banking industry: Barriers and Drivers Essay Example

2. Description of the research problem

Basically the researcher intended to address the problem that Ethiopian banking industry is facing due to the underdevelopment of E-banking in the country. In comparison to the banking industry operating in the developed country, it is undeniable that the banking industry in Ethiopia is undeveloped. Even though the international trade and import and export business of the country have been growing, the banking system is short of providing efficient and dependable services. E-banking has lots of benefits in delivering banking services to bank customers even though the service consumers are not enjoying with the technological advancement in banking sector which has been entertained elsewhere in most developing and developed countries. The reason for this is lack of awareness or competition among banks.

The situation in Ethiopia in connection with the low extent of ICT infrastructure like in developing nations is also the major problem which has not been able to diffuse in the society given the low rate of internet access. 3. Assessing the validity of the research questions in light of the stated research problem The researcher developed the main research question and in order to be able to provide an ample justification to answering the main research question, he has drawn out three basic research questions to be addressed in the research. The main research question is “What are the dimensions affecting the adoption of E-banking system in Ethiopian banking industries?” And the three questions are as follows. 1. What are the barriers to E-banking adoption in Ethiopia?

2. What are the drivers for E-banking adoption in Ethiopian banking industry? 3. What are the benefits of E-banking? As the thesis described a research study that was conducted by the researcher, the thesis contained valid research questions that can addresses the problem stated in connection with e-banking in Ethiopia. The researcher tried to answer the main question regarding the dimensions that affect the adoption of e-banking system with the three sub questions that are related with the barriers, drivers and benefits of E-banking.

The first question addresses the barriers that hinder banks in Ethiopia from rendering E-banking services and which contributes to its underdevelopment. The researcher tries to answer with this question not only the barriers but also the numerous challenges the Ethiopian banking industry faces to adopt E-banking system and capitalize on the opportunities by using the ICT applications. The second research question deals with the drivers or the benefits generated from adopting E-banking in Ethiopian banking industry. With this question the researcher intended to list factors that contribute to the development of E-banking in the banking industry in Ethiopia. With the third question the researcher tried to manage answering the benefits generated in using E-banking technology that would have a direct contribution to the improvement of the current banking system which in turn enable the E-banking to provide efficient and dependable services. Therefore, all the research questions developed by the researcher are valid in addressing the research problems. 4. Examining the suitability of research design, type of data collected and data collection method elected, the sample selected, and method of data analysis. 4.1 Suitability of research design

The researcher adopts both quantitative and qualitative (mixed) research methodology so as to attain the objective of the study and answer the research question. Such data collection method is used in undertaking this study in order to gather data that could not be obtained by adopting only either quantitative or qualitative method and for triangulation. The research strategy engaged in the research was survey study and data were collected by using questionnaire and interview. SPSS was used to analyze the data. 4.2 Type of data collected and data collection method selected The type of data collected in this study was primary data.

The method of data collections technique consists of Survey, interviews and document analysis. Regarding the survey, questionnaire was distributed to the staff of the four purposively selected banks: one state owned and three private commercial banks to identify their intension on the adoption of E-banking systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 160 employees, all the staff of E-payment or IT department of each bank was participated in the study. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the purposively sampled banks and with one person (banking department manager) at National Bank of Ethiopia. Collecting of data by using questionnaire and interview were supported by different documents obtained from records and reports of the industry, from web site, books, articles and Journals. 4.3 Sample Selected

The research was conducted on the samples of 4 commercial banks, one from state owned commercial bank and private commercial banks. These samples were chosen purposively based on their familiarity with technological innovations in Ethiopia. And this technique also decreases the generalizability of findings. 4.4 Method of data analysis.

The researcher analyzed the data collected through survey to statistical populations concerning the adoption of E-banking system. The data collected via questionnaire was analysed with descriptive statistics using statistical package for social scientists (SPSS). And the data that was collected from the interview and review of documents were interpreted qualitatively. 5. Evaluation of the Findings whether they are aligned with the research questions established and that the conclusions follow findings and recommendations are based on conclusions drawn.

5.1 Evaluation of the Findings whether or not they are framed in accordance with the research problem established The findings were developed towards the end of the thesis identifying the barriers, drivers and benefits generated from the adoption of E-banking in Ethiopia. Three factors that determine barriers are stated in the findings section as: 1. Technological barriers – Security risk and lack of trust on the technological innovation used by the banking industries. 2. Organizational factor – financial cost and human resource is considered. However financial costs were not considered as barrier for the adoption of E-banking in Ethiopia. Regarding human resource, lack of technical and managerial skills to use and implement the system is considered as a barrier. 3. External environmental factors – lack of legal framework that govern E-banking system at national level is mentioned in the findings. In addition to this, lack of ICT infrastructure and absence of competition between local and foreign banks were also identified as barriers in the research. In the study basic benefits banks could get from utilizing E-banking are spotted out. Those benefits are considered as the driving force for the adoption of the electronic banking system. The two drivers are classified based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM): perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. This is considered as a major benefit of using E-banking system.

The other benefit searched out was its usefulness in terms of time and cost saving. The two benefits are basic and that they drive the banking industry to adopt technological innovations. The study also come up with the list of benefits acquired in implementing the E-banking system such as enhancing customer satisfaction, reduce the number of customers that appear to the banks in person, increase the productivity of banks, increase reliability and accessibility of banking service, create good relationship between clients and bank and also used as a better information control. From the above stated findings point of view the researcher well framed and the findings are in accordance with the research questions.

All questions are addressed in the findings. 5.2 Evaluating the relationship of the Conclusions and Findings In assessing the conclusions drawn out from the study and check their relationship with the findings, the conclusions are summarized as follows. Lack of legal frame works and low level of ICT infrastructure contributes to the undeveloped E-banking system, such as ATM, mobile banking, internet banking and other e-banking services. The security risk and lack of trust on the use of technological adoption are other major barriers for the E-banking system. The imperfect competition among local and foreign banks is also another challenge for the adoption of E-banking in the country. The limited technical and managerial skills available in the country for maintaining E-banking system.

And regarding the benefits the study concluded the following. Perceived Ease of use is the basic benefit of E-banking in which it enables bank staff to perform banking activities in a simple way. Perceived usefulness in which it is used for time saving and Cost reductions are very great potential for banks to improve their public image. The understanding of the barriers to E-banking system implementation discovered in the study also help to take the best course of actions to promote the development of E-banking. This will also be valuable to all banking sectors of the country to increase their awareness and understanding of E-banking benefits. The conclusion is structured well, it also follows the finding and is in accordance with the findings of the study. 5.3 Assessment of the relationship between Recommendations and Conclusions Based on the conclusions the researcher recommends the following. The recommendations address each of the conclusions drawn out in the study.

The National Bank of Ethiopia needs to urgently establish a clear set of legal frame works on the use of E-banking in the banking sector. This will successfully facilitate E-banking implementation in Ethiopia. ICT infrastructure is the main prerequisite for triumphant adoption of E-banking. So the government should support the banking industry by providing ICT infrastructure development. So as to survive and become competent in the banking industry, banks need to move away from traditional bank competition to a new technology focusing on cost reduction, customer retention, awareness, credibility, security, ease of use, and wider scope of products and services. In order to be able to best use of the E-banking system, banks need to familiarize their customers with the process and inform them the benefits they get from the system. Banks should pay special attention to deliver services to customers by using E-banking system which is ease of use.

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