Africa and the Atlantic World
Africa and the Atlantic world explores the trials and tribulations of Africans being forced from their homeland and sold into slavery. Africans endured such hardships and conditions that their souls vanished with the site of mother Africa. Europeans sold and forced slaves to cultivate sugar plantations for their own profits. The Americas, Europe and Africa were involved in a cross continental system of human trafficking.
African men, woman and children were shipped across the Atlantic to the Americas.Africans who survived being rapped, malnutrition, dehydration and being tortured on the voyage were sold to European masters and forced to be laves on plantations. The first major development comes in 1417, when Prince Henry of Portugal seized the Madeira Islands off the northern part of West Africa. In 1450, Portugal created the plantation system by using slave labor to cultivate sugar cane. This is important because the cultivation Of sugar was the primary reason slavery continued for 400 years. The second major development is the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.The expedition lead to Spain gain power over the Portuguese in “overseas colonization.
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” Europeans began to then settle in the Americas and cultivated sugar, coffee, tobacco and rice. Mass human labor was needed on their plantations. Europeans referred to African slaves as “black gold. ” European Colonizers transported over 12 million Africans. This is important because it changed the course of the African people and history. The third important development is in the sass’s when African rulers negotiated trade treaties with Europeans.The African king Main-Kong agreed to an exchange of gold, iron and slaves for Portuguese guns, knives and goods.
The Portuguese orchestrated village chiefs to wage war to increase the slave catch in exchange for guns. This is important because it ignited a civil war in Africa. The fourth major development is Spain and Portugal colonization of the Caribbean and South America in the sixteenth century. Their sugar crop grew just as easily as it did on the islands off the northern part of West Africa. After subduing the native peoples they implemented the plantation system.Thousands of Spanish and Portuguese ships packed with slaves sent out for the New World. By 1 750, nine out of ten West African slaves were exported to the New World’s sugar cane fields.
This is important because it increased the demand for slaves in the Caribbean and South America. The fifth major development is in 1 562, when John Hawkins n Englishman seized a slave ship and sold the slaves to the Spanish. He returned with a “fat profit” for Queen Elizabeth l. This was important because King Charles II granted a charter to Africa for the sole purpose of carrying slaves to England’s overseas colonies.English slave trading reached 20,000 annually, which made England the foremost slave traders in Europe. The sixth major development is the capture and sale Of slaves in Africa. Slaves marched about 550 miles to the sea, which caused some slaves to commit suicide by eating clay.
Slaves died from exhaustion and starvation on the march. African sellers then sold slaves to Europeans. One African male life would be sold for thirteen bars of iron and one female life for nine bars and brass rings. This is important because it marked the beginning of a harsh destiny of the African people.The seventh major development is the middle passage. Africans were trusted into coffin size quarters in the hold of the ship. Pitiful rations led to undernourishment and confinement in iron shackles spread diseases.
The need for basic hygiene killed the Africans “SE respect. ” The sailors raped the women. Men suspected of uprising were dismembered in front of the others. This was significant because it tore Africans away from their beloved homeland and their physical and psychological will to live was diminished. The eighth major development the sale of slaves in the Americas.Survivors of the middle passage voyage had to endure another unimaginable outcome of being sold to European masters. This is significant because it marked the heinous fate of slaves in America.
The ninth major development is the role of Africans in early Spanish America. Estates also known as the “Black Arabian” with Spanish conquistador De Vacant Were among the first non-natives to enter the interior of North America. Two Africans with Hispanic names Juan Garrison and Juan Gonzales were on De Loon’s expedition that seized Puerco Rice in 1508.Africans went on to help Cortes during his siege of modern day Mexico and Pizzeria’s conquest of the Incas in Peru. This is important because it marked the Africans not only as slaves but important navigators and soldiers in the Spanish conquests of the Americas. The tenth major event is first hand account of Aloud Quinoa’s journey of being forced into slavery and sold I the Americas. In 1 755, after arriving at the old slave fort at Calabash, Equation recalled the harsh conditions of living on a slave ship.
When I was carried o board, I was immediately handled and tossed up, to see if were sound, by the crew. The iron shackles aggravated young Equation. The stench of the hold was intolerably loathsome and dangerous to breathe. The shrieks of woman, and groans of the dying made it impossible for him to eat, for whiff he was flogged. “Even known sailors to gratify their brutal passion with females not even ten years old,” Equation recalled. Equation was to young an weak to be sold on the ship after arriving to the Americas so he was shipped to Virginian plantation to be sold.This is an important text because it is a if detailed account of a slave’s journey through the evil slave trade and humankind the “so called” heathen African stigma.
The event that interested me the most is the big part that Africans played in the Spanish Conquest of the America’s. From Garrison and Gonzales helping to seize Puerco Rice to the Africans who helped seize the Capital of Denominational and the conquest of the Incas in Peru. This is the most important to me because it showed the true heart Of the soldier and navigation spirit Of the African people.The event that interested me the least was a fact that Equation recalled on the slave ship. Even known them (sailors) to gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old. ” This event showed the true nature of slave ship owners who rationalized human trafficking based on the fact that Africans were heathens, who in fact themselves were the true ungodly people. In the last decade American historians may have considered that Africans were responsible for the Trans Atlantic slave trade because of the facts that African chiefs did in fact sell slaves to Europeans.
In my opinion if Europeans did not expand into Africa territories and corrupt the African people with guns and power there ay have never been an African slave trade. The facts under the Course information such as Ancient civilizations unearthed among the ruins of Ancient Nubian, ancient records referring to Ethiopians as Egyptians, Herodotus referring to ancient Egyptians as black Africans, Count Victor Volley stating African people provided basic tenants to modern civilization and the Aryans stating the Sumerians were black people are very interesting points to the history of African culture.Artifacts such as Egyptian architecture, astronomical observatories uncovered in Kenya, the oldest deiced texts in Egypt, the first hospital in the temple of Impotent and the oldest known furnace in Tanzania show a great civilization Of African people. I believe these facts are covered up in today’s classrooms and texts because white Europeans founded our country. Perhaps a white superior undertone was needed to rationalize the slave trade.Also to admit that Africans were the first civilized people would make white Europeans less superior to Africans. These findings show that we need to go back with open hearts and minds to unearth the true facts of planet Earth’s first civilizations.
In inclusion the African people went though an unimaginable hardships being ripped from their home and disconnected from their African roots.European slave traders and plantation owners profited off the blood and labor of the African nation. One can only hope that the lesson has been learned that human trafficking for slavery should have never happened. Hopefully leaders of the world will look back on accounts such as the brave young Aloud Sonorousness’s of being captured and sold, to remind them of the evil of slavery.