Alan Turing Presentation
Alan Turing and Co. Slate Sculpture: Stephen Kettle 1912-1954 Turing’s Path to Artificial Intelligence • The Enigma • The Turing Machine • The Turing Test • Turing’s thoughts for Artificial Intelligence The Enigma Machine • e·nig·ma (n): 1)A person or thing that is mysterious or puzzling. 2)A riddle or paradox. • Originally designed by Arthur Sherbius and sold commercially for banking. • The “Enigma machine” was later adopted by the Germans and made into a Machine used to send coded messages during WWII. • The messages were encoded using the enigma machine and sent via morse code or radio.
The Enigma Machine The Enigma Machine: -Steckerboard (Playboard) – 26 keys -3 or 4 routers – Battery powered (portable) -Lamp board -Encode and decode messages Steckerboard (Playboard) and rotors Steckerboard (Playboard): -Plug connections using a wire – A/C, B/R, Q/P, Z/L etc. Rotors: -26 rotational positions A-Z, or 01-26 (26 contacts that were wired in different ways for each rotor) – setting the 3 wheels in a certain position was the code for encrypting a message. Using The Enigma • Each enigma machine had to have the 3 rotors set in the same position in rder to encode and decode message. In order to do this: 1) set up rotors to the specified wheel order for the day. 2) Indicator: Chose 3 letters at random. Type in 3 letters two times to encode message. – Sender: send Indicator and encoded message. – Receiver: with the rotors are set to the specified wheel order – Type in encoded message – set the rotors to the 3 letters that light up on lamp board. ? Type in encoded message to get message in plain text. • Important: if the same letter was pressed multiple times, a different letter would light up on the lamp board each time. This proved to be the weakness of the Enigma machine. * Sample Enigma Message
Alan Turing Presentation Essay Example
Set the rotors to the correct position type the letters twice 1) Enter the message received and record letters that light up on lamp board 3) Reset rotors to the letters that light up 4) Enter the message 5) Read in plain text Enigma Message 1) Indicator: LLL 2) Indicator message: RGBRGB 1) Set rotors: RGB 2) Message: BEMZMB 3) Plain text: ENIGMA Bletchley Park The Bombe Machine • There were close to 105,456 combinations of letters. • The Bombe Machine was a machine used to decipher messages sent by the Germans. It was designed by the Polish Engineer Rejewski. • The name “Bombe” is said to come from the noise that the machine makes when a weight is dropped after a match has been made. Using the Bombe Machine Strategy: figure out the position of the Rotors of the sending enigma machine The Bombe Machine: -Replicated 36 Enigma machines. -Set a command as to where to position the rotors -3 “drums”= 3 rotors -After a guess has been made about the position of the rotors on the Sending enigma machine based on encoded message, set Bombe Machine. Set position on one drum, then set each successive drum one notch higher. -Weight would drop if there is a match between 2 sets of drums. -on average: 2 hours to try to Decipher one Enigma message.
The Turing Machine What is a Turing Machine? • It is a machine that is able to process data • More specifically it is essentially a logic engine that processes algorithms • It is a precursor to our concept of Computers How does it work? • The Turing machine mathematically models a machine that mechanically operates on a tape. On this tape are symbols which the machine can read and write using a tape head. • The machine is able to process this data one square at a time and with that information; it is able to follow a set of instructions to perform other actions. Relation to Computers • Alan Turing created the concept of a Universal Turing Machine • We can encode the action table of any Turing machine in a string. • We can then construct such a machine that can compute any input when an action table (program) is encoded before it. Example Basic Program def SubFib(startNumber, endNumber): n=0 cur = f(n) while cur