All About Music

12 December 2017

Organization of pitches with a pattern of intervals between them creates scales; Words we might use to describe scales: major/melon, chromatic, gasped, and pentatonic. Rhythm -? the time element of music. A specific rhythm Is a specific pattern In time; we usually hear these in relation to a steady pulse, and mentally organize this pulse or tempo into meter (sometimes called a “time signature”). Meter organizes beats into groups, usually of two or three; beats can be divided into small units usually 2, 3 or 4 subdivisionsMelody, or musical line, is a combination of pitch and rhythm (some say “duration”). Sometimes a melody is considered to be the theme of a composition. We might characterize melody by its contour (rising or falling) and the size of the intervals in it.

A melody that uses mostly small intervals (or scale steps) and is smooth Is said to be a conjunct melody. Not surprisingly, a melody that uses large intervals Is called a distinct melody. A motif (or motive) Is either a very short melody or a distinctive part off longer melody.I might describe the opening four notes of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony as a “mitotic cell. Timbre – sound quality or tone color; timbre is the characteristic that allows us to distinguish between one instrument and another, and the difference between vowel sounds (for example, long “a” or “e”). Terms we might use to describe timbre: bright, dark, brassy, reedy, harsh, noisy, thin, buzz, pure, raspy, shrill, mellow, strained. I prefer to avoid describing timbre in emotional terms (excited, angry, happy, sad, etc.

); that is not the sound quality, it is its effect or interpretation.Rather than describe the timbre of an instrument in other terms, it is often more clear Just o describe the timbre by naming the instrument, once we have learned the names and sounds of a few Instruments. Dynamics – loud or soft. A composition that has extremely soft passages as well as extremely loud passages Is said to have a large or wide dynamic range. Dynamics can change suddenly or gradually (crescendo, getting louder, or decrescendo, getting softer. ) Texture – monophonic (one voice or line), polyphonic (many voices, usually similar, as in Renaissance or Baroque counterpoint), homophobic (1 . Melody with simple accompaniment; 2.

Chords moving in the name rhythm (homoerotic)) heterodyne – “mixed” or multiple similar versions of a melody performed simultaneously (rare in European music; possibly used in Ancient Greece) collage – Juxtaposition & superimposition of extremely different textures or sounds Musical Instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted for the purpose of making Instrument-?it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. Ere history of musical instruments dates back to the beginnings of human culture. He purpose of early musical instruments was ritual: a hunter might use a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a shaman might use a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures later developed the processes of composing and performing melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years.

Solid consensus begins to form about early flutes dating to about 37,000 years old. However, most historians believe that determining a pacific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials that were used in their construction. Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, Nod, and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed Independently in many populated regions of the world.However, contact among civilizations resulted in the rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia could be found in Maritime Southeast Asia and Europeans were playing instruments room North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North, Central, and South America shared musical instruments.

By 1400, musical instrument development slowed in many areas and was dominated by the Occident.The classification of musical instruments is a discipline in its own right, and many systems of classification have been used over the years. One may classify musical instruments by their effective range or their material composition; however, the most common method, Horseboxes-Cash, uses the means by which they produce sound. The academic study of musical instruments is called organdy. Mind Instruments Mind instruments require a person to blow into the instrument in order to produce the desired sound. They work on the principle of sound waves, frequencies, harmonics, resonance and acoustics.When you blow into the instrument, the pitch of the sound note produced, varies depending on the length of the internal air column in which the sound waves vibrate.

The shorter the air column, the higher is the pitch of the note produced, and vice versa. Some of the popular wind instruments are: Flute Piccolo Chihuahuas Clarinet Swanson English horn Oboe Accordion Saxophone Bagpipe Panic Harmonica Percussion Instruments Percussion instruments require a person to strike or beat the instrument surface in order to generate vibrations, which then produce the desired sound note.Depending on the type of surface, one can use one’s hands, sticks, or other similar objects for striking the instrument surface. A characteristic feature of percussion instruments is that the type of sound produced varies depending on the spot that is struck on the instrument surface. For example: in case of the December, striking it at the center produces a deep and muffled sort of thump, whereas striking it at the edges reduces a sharp and crisp sound, which is totally different from the earlier one.Some of the well-known percussion instruments are: Drum Congo December Duff rabble Angora Cymbals Xylophone Marimba Triangle Tambourine arras Instruments All those shiny trumpets and trombones that feature so prominently in Jazz and blues’ music are classic examples of brass instruments. Brass instruments are named so, not because all of them are made from brass, but due to the nature and texture of the sound that they produce.

They work on pretty much the same principle as wind instruments, with a few modifications here and there.In case of brass instruments, the length of the air column can be changed using press valves or through a slide mechanism. Some of the popular ones are: Trumpet Trombone Bugle French horn Conch Aruba Alto Horn kazoo Flat trumpet String Instruments All your guitars, violins and pianos fall under the category of string instruments. String instruments work on the basis of sound wave vibrations that are created with the help of strings. The pitch of the sound note produced depends on the length of the air column as well as the type and thickness of the string involved.Some of the famous string instruments are: Guitar Piano Violin Viola Sitar Cello Double Bass Mandolin mango Harp Scrod Senator Electronic Instruments These are some of the newer musical instruments that have been produced in recent {ears with the advent of technology. Most of them are designed to reproduce the sounds of existing musical instruments in a simple and user-friendly way.

Some of the common electronic instruments include: Piano keyboards Staccatos Rhythm machines Samplers Synthesizers Conclusive Therein Gingersnap Maelstrom Inchworm Symphony No. 0 (Mozart) Knolling Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 40 in G minor, XV. 550, in 1788. It IS sometimes referred to as the “Great G minor symphony,” to distinguish it from the ‘Little G minor symphony,” No. 25. The two are the only minor key symphonies Mozart wrote Composition Ere 40th Symphony was completed on 25 July 1788.

The composition occupied an also completed the 39th and 41st symphonies (26 June and 10 August, respectively). Ere music Ere symphony is scored (in its revised version) for flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, and strings. Notably missing are trumpets and timpani.The work is in four movements, in the usual arrangement (fast movement, slow movement, minuet, fast movement) for a classical-style symphony: Molt allegro, 2/2 Andante, 6/8 Monument. Allegretto – Trio, 3/4 Finale. Allegro assai, 2/2 Every movement but the third is in sonata form; the minuet and trio are in the usual ternary form. The first movement begins darkly, not with its first theme but with accompaniment, played by the lower strings with divided violas.

The technique of beginning a work with an accompaniment fugue was later used by Mozart in his final piano concerto (XV. 95) and later became a favorite of the Romantics (examples Include the openings of Mendelssohn Violin Concerto and Sergei Rachmaninoff hire Piano Concerto). The second movement is a lyrical work in 6/8 time, in E flat major, the subtenant major of the overall G minor key of the symphony. The minuet begins with an angry, cross-accented hemophilia rhythm and a pair of three-bar phrases; various commentators have asserted that while the music is labeled ‘minuet,” it would hardly be suitable for dancing.The contrasting gentle trio section, in G major, alternates the playing of the string section with that of the winds. The fourth movement opens with a series of rapidly ascending notes outlining the tonic triad illustrating what is commonly referred to as the Anaheim rocket. The movement is written largely in eight-bar phrases, following the general tendency toward rhythmic queerness in the finales of classical-era symphonies.

A remarkable modulating passage, which strongly destabilize the key, occurs at the beginning of the development section, in which every tone but one in the chromatic scale is played.

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