American Slavery

Give and explain three reasons why African slaves were brought to North America before American independence in 1776? Word count: 1630 Depleted land In Barbados forced planters and slaves to establish new sugar plantations in the southern states of North America. With this move came the discovery Of an untouched and fertile continent ripe for colonization. European nations raced to secure a piece of the new world. This new land provided an opportunity to strengthen the economy of the European nations thereby giving them the means to protect their empires.Initially slaves were required to fulfill the labor demand of setting up colonies in North America. This included building family farms and plantations.

Once colonies in North America became well established the colonists began to diversify their crops. This increased the need for labor encouraging the Atlantic slave trade to prosper. The number of slaves required could only be met from Africa. No other continent was as easily accessible or offered such a robust race of people to cope with slavery. Europeans established a strong economy by trading African slaves across the Atlantic to North America.Slavery was a self- perpetuating industry until the declaration of independence was written. The declaration forced the states to re-examine their ideas about freedom and what they wanted freedom to look like in their new nation.

Labor was a driving force in bringing such large numbers of African slaves to North America. The first colonists required a large amount of labor to create family farms . This included clearing land, building barns, houses and fences, planting crops and raising herds of livestock. Once the family farms were established they became less demanding on time.The settlers used their newfound free time to experiment with new crops. The need for more slaves grew as the settlers diversified their production activities. In the Chesapeake tobacco was the primary crop grown for export to Europe.

When war in Europe and low prices slowed the demand for tobacco the colonists turned to wheat and rye to maintain their trading economy. Local trading between colonies was also started as a result of the growing range of goods and produce coming from each estates. Sugar was the initial produce to come from the southern States.As the African slaves showed their prowess for litigating rice it replaced the supply of sugars. There was more variety in the use of slaves in the middle colonies. As well as clearing land and working on farms some slaves were put to use in construction, maintenance of public buildings and forts 1 IPPP. Pre-American slavery had a different priority.

Slaves in the Ottoman empire were used for the day to day running of households or as concubines to provide legitimate heirs, 10. Some slaves would be taught the appropriate cultural skills for their intended location.This might include such things as Jewish dietary laws, singing, dancing and new languages. In the Ottoman Empire the demanding physical labor was carried out by tenants rather than slaves. Tenants would pay a percentage of their profit to their masters. Slaves in the Ottoman Empire were more commonly captured during raids or campaigning. Religion provided some motivation for taking slaves in the Ottoman Empire as a means for gathering more followers.

The intention was either to convert them or punish them for their sins if they would not convert.Conversion did not necessarily result In freedom. However a converted slave could now marry someone of the same religion giving them a slight rise in statuses. Jews and Muslims maintained similar structures in that Slave could freed after a set period of time – usually one or two years. A slave might also be able buy their freedom if they could produce the original amount they were purchased for 10. None of these ideals prevailed in North America. Instead the priority for physical labor determined the type and number of slaves being brought from Africa.

Africa provided a favorable solution to the lack of white indentured slaves immigrating to North America. Without sufficient numbers of indentured servants there was not enough labor available to keep up with demand 1 peg 48. Mastering the prevailing winds of the Atlantic Ocean led traders down the West African coastline providing easy access to slavishness-22, 13. The primary winds blow in a clockwise direction over the North Atlantic and an anticlockwise direction over the South Atlantic. Secondary trade winds carry ships closer to shore all the way up and down both sides of the Atlantic 13.European traders could easily sail in a triangle down the West African coast, across the Atlantic to the Americas and back up to Europe. Coastal Africans were particularly vulnerable to European slavers because their sedentary lifestyle left them defenseless Pl 346.

As the Europeans competed for trade between the three continents Africans recognized the demand for slaves. They responded by setting up their own trade caravans bringing slaves from inland regions to the seacoasts. They could easily trade slaves with European ships in return for desirable goods and spices.As well as an easily accessible location Africa provided a race of people who were more cooperative in nature pop than Indians or white slaves. Indians were defiant due to the lack of a tribal structure and the inability to continue practicing their religion. Unlike Africans the Indian slaves could not monomaniac with the Europeans. White indentured servants were also more demanding than African Slaves.

After serving for a set period of time the indentured servant would expect not only his freedom but also some land in return for his services. The African slave also possessed a higher immunity to diseases.Previous exposure to yellow fever and malaria provided immunity for Africans making them more desirable than Whiteness or Indians. Indians could escape to back to their homes and indentured white servants could run away and blend into society. Black slaves could do neither of these things pop. Blending in was impossible due to their appearance and they had no way of getting back home without passage on a ship and proof of freedom IPPP. Africa provided both the best and the most cost effective resource of labor for the new world.

Africans slaves were more economical than white or Indian slaves. Pa. An African slave cost the same amount as a white slave but the white slave would only serve for his period of time and then expect land. The African slave was bought for the duration of his life 0. Indian slaves Were not cost effective because they quickly fell victim to the level of demanding labor coupled with poor diet and a lack of immunity against disease. With their pre- disposed immunity Africans lived three to five times longer than white servants. This provided a better return for the owner since the period of productivity was extended.

As the economies of the colonies flourished slavery became an economy in itself. Inhabitants of the northern colonies learned that slaves could not earn enough through labor to cover their own costs 2. The land was barren and the climate not favorable for planting. The close proximity of slaves to one another in towns made it easier for them to plan rebellions. Instead of putting slaves to labor the northern colonies made an industry out of selling African slaves to the west Indies. Slavery flourished in the southern states because of the fertility of the soil and the mild climate 2.Owning slaves also raised social status in the South.

A person who could afford slaves was seen as wealthy and therefore respected and influentially. The conflicting ideals about slavery between north and south were realized with the writing of the declaration of independence. The northern colonies started to consider that slavery went against the very freedoms they were trying to establishing 20. The first few lines of the declaration were a complete contradiction to the institution of slavery. The end of slavery did not come immediately with the declaration in IPPP 120.However around thirty years after the declaration of independence slavery was abolished in the northern colonies 20. Although it took another eighty years the southern States eventually followed suite’s 20.

The creation of the declaration of independence led to the realization in northern states that slavery contradicted the intended vision of freedom for the United States. The heavy reliance on slaves in the southern states caused hem to argue that freedom granted the right to own slaves. The decision to avoid addressing slavery in the constitution meant that each individual state could write their own laws about the ownership of slaves.African slaves proved to be the best source for North America in both cost and quality. African slaves could provide a return on their cost within a year of purchase where it might take 10 years to regain the cost of a white servant. Immunity against disease coupled with the ability to cope with the demanding physical labor made Africans good stock for slavery. The added benefit to using laves from Africa was that they could not simply run away.

They would be easily recognized and had no way of getting home. Labor was the primary reason to search for slaves.Upon arrival in North America settlers had to clear land in order to create room for farms. Building farms, raising herds of livestock and creating large plantations was also laborious work. Once farms were established settlers could turn their attention to diversifying produce and making goods for both regional and international trade. The required amount of labor could only be met with African slaves. There were not enough white servants immigrating to the colonies and they were too expensive.

Indians proved troublesome because they were too defiant and could easily run away back to their homes.Slavery was not a new institution created by the colonies. However the social, political and economical structure of slavery in North America was unique to any that existed before it.

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