Anatomy and Physiology (M1 and D1)

1 January 2018

In this assignment I’m going to explain the physiology of the respiratory and cardiovascular system in relation to energy metabolism in the body. Metabolism is made of Catabolic reactions (chemical reactions which breakdown molecules to release energy) and Anabolic Reactions (builds complex molecules from simple substances and consumes energy). Energy is needed for many body functions such as breathing, blood, making new cells etc. Energy metabolism is the process of generating energy from nutrients (oxygen and glucose) and taken to be delivered to the organs.

The Digestive System

This system is made up of organs that break down food into vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, minerals and fats which the body needs for energy, growth and repair.

The Cardiovascular System

This system consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels (veins, capillaries and arteries). The heart is a muscular pump, which pushes blood throughout the many blood vessels in the body. The blood that’s being pushed around the body has 2 main functions which are: to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. The blood vessels that run throughout the body allow the blood to travel everywhere. The cardiovascular system transports needed materials to the cells via the bloodstream. The capillaries connect the arteries to the veins and its function is to supply the cells with oxygen and nutrients. The cardiovascular system is responsible for the transport of oxygenated blood and glucose around the body, transferring these to the cells and collecting the waste products such as carbon dioxide away from the cells to other parts of the body e.g. kidneys.

In the body energy is needed in order for our body to be able to function. Energy mostly comes from fats and carbohydrates that we take as food. Carbohydrates can be decayed into glucose which is a soluble in the blood. It helps break down molecules and build new and stronger molecules.

A.T.P (adenosine triphosphate) is a chemical energy that you produce when you burn nutrient molecules. The main source of energy for living organisms is a sugar called glucose.

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