Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

Describe the 6 levels of structural organization. a. Chemical – atoms combine to form molecules b. Organelle – all cells of humans and other complex organisms contain structures c. Cells – the smallest units of all living things d. Tissues – consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function e. Organ – a structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body f. Organ System – a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose 2.

True or false: arteries always contain oxygen-rich blood. g. true 3. Is blood a tissue? h. Blood is considered a connective tissue because blood contains the same structures as those in other connective tissues 4. What are the components of whole bloodβ€”the three layers in a centrifuged sample of blood? i. Whole blood is 55% Plasma, 45% Erythrocytes, and < 1% leukocytes and platelets 5. Formed elements include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. 6. What does hematocrit mean and why do we measure it? j. Hematocrit is the percentage of red blood cells in a sample of whole blood.

It is measured as a mean od diagnosing anemia, polycythemia and other conditions 7. Describe the physical characteristics of blood, including taste, texture, color, pH, temperature, and percentage of body weight. k. Sticky opaque fluid w/ metallic taste l. Scarlet = O2 rich dark red = O2 poor m. pH ranges from 7. 35-7. 45 n. 38 degrees Celsius o. 8% of body weight 8. How many liters of blood does the average male have?

Average female? p. Average blood volume: Men – 5 ? liters, Women – 5 liters 9. What are the functions of blood? q. Distribution of: i. oxygen and nutrients ii. metabolic waste ii. hormones r. Regulation of: iv. temperature v. pH vi. fluid volume s. Protection from: vii. Blood loss viii. Circulation (homeostasis) 10. What kind of solutes can be found in blood plasma? t. Proteins ix. Albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, and others 1. osmotic pressure, transport proteins.

Non-protein nitrogenous substances x. Lactic acid, urea, creatine v. Organic nutrients xi. Carbohydrates, amino acids, fats w. Electrolytes xii. Na+, K+, Ca2+ Cl-, HCO3- 2. Osmotic pressure and pH x. Respiratory gases xiii. O2 and CO2 11. Which of the formed elements are complete cells? y. eukocytes 12. What shape do erythrocytes form? z. Biconcave discs 13. Describe three ways in which erythrocyte structure drives its function. {. Biconcave discs = more surface area to carry O2 and CO2 |. 97% hemoglobin }. Lack mitochondria and use non0oxidative metabolism so they don’t consume any of the O2 they are carrying 14.

What is hemoglobin? Describe its structure and function. ~. Hemoglobin = protein found in RBCs necessary for the transport of O2 from the lungs to the cells of the body xiv. Consists of two alpha and two beta polypeptide chains each bound to a heme group. v. Each heme group contains iron Fe2+ xvi. Each Hb (hemoglobin) can transport 4 O2 15. How many Hb molecules are there in a single RBC? How many oxygen molecules can a single RBC carry at once? . A single RBC contains about 250 million HB = about 1 billion O2 molecules 16. What is MCHC? What is the normal range of MCHC? What is this value used for? . MCHC is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration . 14-20 g HB/100 mm blood . This value is used as a diagnostic tool xvii. Inc Hb = polycythemia /congestive heart failure /COPD xviii.

Dec Hb = anemia /hyperthydroidism /cirrhosis of the liver /renal disease …etc. 17. What is blood cell formation called and where does it occur? . Blood cell formation is known as hematopoiesis and it occurs in the bone marrow 18. How is erythropoiesis different from hematopoiesis? How is erythropoiesis controlled and what does it require? . Hematopoiesis is blood cell formation where Erythropoiesis is specifically red blood cell formation . Erythropoiesis xix. hormonally controlled by erythropoietin xx. depends on adequate supplies of fe2+, AA, and vitamin B 19.

Why is it necessary for the hematocrit to remain constant? What are the dangers of too few or too many RBCs? . Reflects a balance between RBC production/destruction . Too few RBCs leads to tissue hypoxia (not enough O2 in the tissue) . Too many RBCs causes increased blood viscosity 20. 22. What hormone do the kidneys release that influences RBC concentration? . Erythropoietin 21. 23. What three circumstances will lead to the kidneys releasing this hormone? . Hypoxia due to decrease RBC . Decreased O2 availability . Increased tissue demand for O2 22. 24.

Describe the development of a RBC from stem cell to erythrocyte. . Low O2 levels in blood stimulate kidneys to produce erythropoietin . erythropoietin levels rise in blood . erythropoietin and necessary raw materials in blood promote erythropoiesis in red bone marrow . new erythrocytes enter bloodstream; function for 120 days . about 1 oz/day = 100 billion new cells/day 23. 27. Where does the body store iron? . Is stored as ferritin and hemosiderin in liver 24. 28. What is the life span of a RBC?

How is it broken down and what happens to its components? . 120 days Aged/damaged RBCs are engulfed by macropages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow; the hemoglobin is broken down . Raw materials are made available in blood for erythrocyte synthesis 25. 29. What is anemia? Is it a disease? What are its symptoms? . Anemia is an abnormally low O2-carrying capacity . Is a symptom rather than a disease itself . Signs/symptoms: fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, chills 26. 30. What are the three possible cause of anemia? . Insufficient erythrocytes (i. e. blood loss, RBC rupture, bone marrow destruction) . Low Hb content (inadequate intake/absorption B12, Fe2+) .

Abnormal Hb (i. e. thalassemias, sickle cell) 27. 31. What are the three types of anemia that result from insufficient erythrocytes? 28. 32. What are the three types of anemia that result from decreases Hb content? . Iron deficient, aplastic, and sickle cell 29. 34. What is Thalassemias? . Genetic blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. The disorder results in excessive destruction of RBCs, which leads to anemia 30. 35. Describe the cause and symptoms of sickle cell anemia. . Single amino acid substitution in the beta chain (genetic) .

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