Anatomy and physiology urinalysis
The kidneys, which maintain the purity and constancy of our internal fluids, are perfect examples of homeostatic organs. They regulate the chemical content the pH and osmotic pressure of the blood. Kidneys filter gallons of fluid from the bloodstream. They then process this filtrate, allowing wastes and excess ions to leave the body in urine while returning needed substances to the blood in just the right proportions. Factors that affect urine volume are fluid intake and reabsorption, which affects the amount of urine released.
Urine concentration is measured by the concentration of dissolved solids present in a person’s urine, which is affected by water intake levels as well as diet (the amount of sodium in person’s diet). The pH scale has a range of normal, acidic, or basic. In this lab, you will determine the rate of urine formation, the concentration of urinary solid and the pH of the urine. MATERIALS & METHODS: At the beginning of the lab period each should empty their urinary bladder. With the use of gloves and graduated cylinder, the volume of the urine was measured. The pH of each urine sample was checked using a common pH meter.
A refractometer was used to measure the specific gravity of the urine samples. The “door” of the refractometer was opened then a drop of urine was placed on the surface and door was closed, the refractometer was held in the eye and the reading was determined. Refractometer was rinsed using distilled water. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: Vol. measurement: 27 ml Urine pH determination: pH6 Specific gravity measurement: 1. 045 *specific gravity is term used to compare how much heavier urine is than distilled water. CONCLUSION: The more solutes are in the urine the deeper yellow its color.
Urine pH is usually slightly acidic (around 6), but changes in body metabolism and certain foods may cause it to be more acidic or basic. Some foods (such as citrus fruit and dairy products) and medicines (such as antacids) can affect urine pH. A high (alkaline) pH can be caused by severe vomiting, a kidney disease, some urinary tract infections, and asthma. A low (acidic) pH may be caused by severe lung disease (emphysema), uncontrolled diabetes, aspirin overdose, severe diarrhea, dehydration, starvation, drinking too much alcohol, or drinking antifreeze (ethylene glycol). Specific gravity of urine usually ranges from 1.
001 to 1. 035. A very high specific gravity means very concentrated urine, which may be caused by not drinking enough fluid, loss of too much fluid (excessive vomiting, sweating, or diarrhea), or substances (such as sugar or protein) in the urine. Very low specific gravity means dilute urine, which may be caused by drinking too much fluid, severe kidney disease, or the use of diuretics. With certain disease, urine composition can change dramatically, and the presence of abnormal substances in urine is often helpful in diagnosing the problem. This is why a routine urinalysis should always be part of any good physical examination.