1. During the Mycenaean civilization, who was the great poet and what were his two important literary works that influenced the Greeks and formed part of Western literature? Homer, The Iliad, The Odyssey 2. In a period known as the Dark Ages from 100 B. C. to 800 B. C. , life reverted to simpler forms and people lived in relative isolation. 3. The period from the 9th to the 6th century B. C. is known as the Archaic Age during which the Greek kings were deposed by oligarchies (rule of a few who have power and wealth) of wealthy warriors, and the city-states or polis emerged. 4.
A typical Greek city-state would have a fortified hilltop known as the acropolis and the city market would be located in the agora. 5. The Greek deities were anthropomorphic because they had human qualities in their personalities and bodies. 6. Two of the Greek attitudes toward life were Optimists and Egoists. 7. Epic poetry are long poetic narrations of heroic feats and the most famous was a blind epic poet called Homer who became known for the two most famous epic poems of the Iliad and the Odyssey. 8. The main protagonist of the Iliad is King Agamemnon & Achilles, and of the Odyssey is Odysseus who blinds the Cyclops Polyphemus.
Ancient Greek Essay Example
9. Explain the historical importance of Homer’s epic poems for the ancient Greeks. _________ 10. With Homer the beginnings of ___________ consists of a concern with human beings and their achievements, as he focuses his attention on human characters, demonstrating that Greek quality of interest in humanity or human nature, even the gods are anthropomorphic. 11. Explain the difference between the central theme of the Iliad and of the Odyssey. __________ 12. A unique way in which the Greeks were the first to comprehend the reality they observed and tried to understand, was Systematic thought or speculation.
13. Greek philosophy begins with the Ionian City of Miletus in the 7th century B. C. 14. Why is the Greek discovery of philosophy important? Explain in your own words. The discovery of Greek philosophy is important because they begin to think in logical terms. This means that they move away from thinking that supernatural forces are the forces that cause events and life to happen. It is no longer the will of the gods that bring about natural disasters. Greeks began to think in terms of cause and effect, unlike other surrounding civilizations.
Most importantly the rules of the Greeks applied no matter the location. As being that humans created the idea of gods and not gods themselves, mythical thinking was way off. In essence, mythical thinking was the lazy way out of explaining life and phenomena. Mythical thinking allowed many different explanations contradicting explanation with infinite details; however the Greek philosophy sought one explanation with a objective/logical way of thinking with less details. 15. Explain the principle of exclusion, and why it is important for the progress of man.
Before the Greeks other civilizations had many different ways of thinking. The Greeks along with their Philosophers determined there is only one explanation, one that is always true and correct. This principle was important because it allowed Philosophers and other great thinkers the introduction of science, allowing them to investigate the workings of human intelligence, nature, and life. This way of thinking made the Greeks the smartest civilization in their time. 16. The idea of the atom was created by Democritus. 17. Total relativism is a characteristic of the Sophists philosophy. 18.
According to Socrates, what is the method or means by which man can come to know the universal truth that does not change? Explain it. The method or means by which man can came to know the universal truth included asking questions on specific problem or issue and from that question you would derive an answer. Therefore eliminating the false sides of an answer by removing the lies or falsehoods. The more questions you ask you then start to eliminate less and less lies or falsehoods, eventually leading to the bare truth. This Socratic Method is the basis for basic investigation technique. 19.
As Socrates, Plato believed that true virtue is based on knowledge. This knowledge comes from the rational apprehension of the eternal ideas of goodness and justice. 20. in Plato’s political philosophy what mattered in government was to achieve harmony and efficiency. 21. Aristotle conceived God primarily as First Cause or Unmoved Mover. 22. The Stoics believed that the entire universe is an ordered reality, it forms part of a whole cosmos in which all contradictions are resolved for the ultimate good. The universe then follows a determined, logical path that leads to a final perfection.
All the things that happen in life, good and evil, is rigidly determined in accordance to a rational purpose. This course of the universe is unchangeable. Therefore, no individual could escape or change his destiny, no one was master of his fate. 23. The stoics believed that the most important good in life was is the serenity of the mind, and they placed emphasis on duty and self-discipline as main virtues. 24. Epicurean believed that the highest good was to seek pleasure. 25. Epicurean teachings and politics were based on individual pleasure.
The highest of all pleasures is the serenity of the soul, in complete absence of mental and physical pain. This can be achieved by eliminating fear. 26. The Cynics argued that man should seek to live a “natural life”, and their goal was to attain self-sufficiency. 27. During the Hellenistic civilization, the Skeptics philosophy agreed with the Sophists because they believed there were no absolute truths or standards. 28. Explain why these four Hellenic philosophical schools, Stoic, Epicureans, Cynics, and Skeptics did not offer any solutions or encouraged people to make reforms to solve their problems.
_________________ 29. What are four important characteristics of the Greek cultural achievement? Arete, Idealism, Economy of Style, Amateurism 30. In what ways was the art of the Greeks different from the arts of other people and eras of antiquity? Greeks art was different from other arts of other people and eras of antiquity because it focused on man. Greeks created art that focused on themselves and their glorification, unlike others that focused their art on realities such as when hunters would pain depictions of the animals that they hunted. Greek art was created based more on their ideals minimal of
realities or true to natural form. Because of their way of thinking they would only create art that made life seem perfect. 31. The three major periods of ancient Greek were Archaic Period, Classical Period, Hellenistic Period. 32. Briefly gice one characteristic of each period of Greek art that is different from the other two. Archaic period: art sculptured athletic, lively and muscular males along with robust women. During this period they focused more on realistic and was less focused on pride. Classical period: art was counterpoise sculptured more relaxed poses, such as seated posistions, leaning over, ect.
Hellenistic period: are was sculptured more on realism, more focused on the human experience. 33. Greek theater grew out of the Great Dionysia festival in Athens. 34. Explain how our democracy differs from the Athenian democracy. Do you think we could have a democracy that would operate exactly like Athens in the United States today? Athenian democracy was a direct democracy where citizens voted directly on major decisions of government laws. 35. Briefly explain why Socrates, Theognis of Megara, and Isocrates were critical of Athenian democracy.
Do you agree or disagree with them? Explain why. _________________________ 36. The Greeks conceived freedom in various dimensions which were civic freedom, personal freedom, philosophical freedom. 37. List four major achievements of the Golden Age of Athens ( Classical Greece, 5th century B. C. ) theater, philosophy, freedom, democracy The Allegory of the Cave 1. How does this allegory represent Plato’s doctrine of Forms or Ideas? ___________ 2. Where are the spiritual dimension and the physical dimension represented in this allegory? __________ 3.
The prisoner who frees himself from the chains and goes out of the cave to the outside world, what does he represent for Plato? The prisoners who stay in the cave, what do they represent for Plato? _________ 4. What is the reaction of the prisoners who stayed inside of the cave when the prisoner who left the cave returns and tells them what he has seen outside the cave? Explain why. ____________ 5. Making reference to Plato’s Republic with respect of who should govern sociey, explain what Plato is trying to tell us in the Allegory of the Cave? ____________