Final Essay: Multiple Sources, Research Based Argumentative Essay Animal Cloning: Beneficial to Humans Today’s technology develops so quickly that many impossible things become true; the example is cloning technology. Cloning is a process used to create an exact copy of a mammal by using the complete genetic material of a regular body cell. Different from the common propagate, cloning needs only one cell and without sex. Cloning, as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue in society but cloning can have several positive effects for the well being of society.
Many people in society believe that scientists should develop a clone human but many people and especially the government are against human cloning. Hundreds of cloned animals exist today including sheep, goats, cows, mice, pigs, cats, rabbits, and a gaur. In the last 50 years, techniques such as in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, embryo splitting, and blastomeric nuclear transfer have become commonplace — providing farmers, ranchers and pet enthusiasts with powerful tools for breeding the best animals. Attempts at cloning certain species have been unsuccessful.
For example, “Dolly”, first cloned sheep was the only lamb that survived to adulthood from 277 attempts. However, scientists have found many benefits to animal cloning which can be very significant to be the future of science benefitting humans. Studies show that, in order for animal cloning to be successful, many steps are necessary. There are three common ways of cloning animals. First one is called Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)- The term somatic cell nuclear transfer refers to the transfer of the nucleus from a somatic cell to an egg cell. A somatic cell is any cell of the body other than a germ (sex) cell.
An example of a somatic cell would be a blood cell, heart cell, skin cell, etc. In this process, the nucleus of a somatic cell is removed and inserted into an unfertilized egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg with its donated nucleus is then nurtured and divides until it becomes an embryo. The embryo is then placed inside a surrogate mother and develops inside the surrogate. Second one is called the Roslin technique – The Roslin Technique is a variation of somatic cell nuclear transfer that was developed by researchers at the Roslin Institute.
The researchers used this method to create Dolly. In this process, somatic cells (with nuclei intact) are allowed to grow and divide and are then deprived of nutrients to induce the cells into a suspended or dormant stage. An egg cell that has had its nucleus removed is then placed in close proximity to a somatic cell and both cells are shocked with an electrical pulse. The cells fuse and the egg is allowed to develop into an embryo. The embryo is then implanted into a surrogate. The third technique is called – The Honolulu Technique – The Honolulu Technique was developed by Dr.
Teruhiko Wakayama at the University of Hawaii. In this method, the nucleus from a somatic cell is removed and injected into an egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg is bathed in a chemical solution and cultured. The developing embryo is then implanted into a surrogate and allowed to develop. Many scientists used different technology in cloning. Now, some scientists developing some new techniques but they are not describing their process. However, Roslin technique is widely used. (Source: http://biology. about. com/od/biotechnologycloning/a/aa062306a. tm) Animal cloning is a beneficial to the society. It is a reliable way of maintaining high quality and healthy livestock to supply our nutritional needs and consumer demand. Animal cloning offers great benefits to customers and farmers. Cloning enhances the availability of the best possible stock by allowing farmers to be certain of the genetic make-up of a particular animal, thus allowing them to produce high quality, safe, and healthy food. Cloning can offer a tremendous advantage for farmers who are depending on selling high quality milk and dairy products.
The breeding technique allows a greater number of farmers the ability to preserve and extend proven, superior genetics. Farmers are using different technology for breeding. They used selective breeding to produce animals that exhibit desirable traits and they get more benefit from it. For example, using breeding techniques farmers makes cows which produce more milk with less lactose, and sheep which produce more wool. Farmers accept this new selective breeding technology because in the past, farmers would use growth hormones to promote such qualities.
This became problematic when residue of the hormones remained in the meat, leaving it with a foul taste. When researchers began to clone transgenic animals, it became possible to develop certain traits in animals, which increased the quality of their yield. When a farmer would like to raise the standards of a herd, the breeding process is very slow and sometimes incomes can decrease (Wilmut 23). Many times when relying on sexual breeding alone to mass-produce these animals, there are chances of breeding out the desired traits (Freudenrich).
Transgenic animal cloning will result in higher quality meats and dairies without the use of artificial hormones. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration released in January 2008 concluded “edible products from normal, healthy clones or their progeny do not appear to pose increased food consumption risks relative to comparable products from conventional animals. ” After 2008, US Food and Drug Administrative agree to use animal cloning product. Animal cloning is also offers a great advantage to ranchers. Ranchers will be able to select and propagate the best animals — for example, beef cattle that have lean but tender meat.
Moreover, Ranchers will be able to breed animals that are more resistant to diseases, thereby improving the health of the herd and reduce the need for medical intervention. Animal cloning is also offers to reproduce extinct animals. For example, gelded horses, or have passed away animals, cloning offers the capability to produce a genetic twin. This new assisted reproductive technology can allow for the continuation of a genetic line that might otherwise not be possible. Cloning techniques is helping us to reproduce the strongest and healthiest animals.
For example, In Southeast Asia, both banteng and gaur which are meat-type bovines, have been cloned in conservation efforts that are focused on increasing populations of species threatened by extinction. In China, researchers are preserving giant Panda cells in the event that their numbers are threatened by extinction. Several farmers disagree with this method in risk of narrowing down the genetic gene pool. Many farmers go by the fundamental rules of selective breeding; one must maintain a high level of genetic variation, or there may be problems from inbreeding (Bruce). This raises questions of possible side effects of inbreeding.
According to Jeffrey Rushen, who is a researcher at Dairy and Swine Research and Development, “… there remains no evidence to judge whether or not inbreeding leads to an increased incidence of lameness, or side effects. ” The chances of inbreeding can easily be avoided by staying away from closely related livestock. In the end, the chances of producing a higher quality of yield (i. e. additional milk, higher quality meat) are more likely than running into problems of narrowing down gene pools. Animal cloning has many applications in today’s scientific and medical world.
The main area, where cloning can be applied is to humans. By developing animal cloning techniques, results can be applied to make disease fighting drugs or natural human cells that in some people are missing. Cloning procedures could one day allow for the cloning of human beings, although much controversy still lies in this area and is a very sensitive topic for some people with strong moral or religious views. Cloned animal can also solved many dieses. However, Some people feel as though using animal cloning to cure diseases is cruel to animals, and are mainly a potential moneymaker.
Dr. Donald Bruce states in a press release concerning animal cloning, “Commercial convenience is an insufficient justification for this intervention-a step too far in co modifying animals. This represents a violation at a very fundamental level of the integrity of the animal when all researchers and consumers see are dollar signs” (Bruce). Even though Dr. Donald clearly states how he feels and brings about a good point, he needs to realize the limited context of the production of proteins in the milk of genetically modified animals.
Researchers’ primary intention is to help cure diseases when natural methods do not work, not to act in harsh manners toward the animals, or to make a profit. Just as genetically altered animals are beneficial to curing human diseases. Transgenic animal cloning can also play a role in benefiting humans. Transgenic is “an animal in which there has been deliberate modification of its genome genetic makeup of an organisms responsible for inherited characteristics”. Transgenic animals can benefit agriculture, production of medicine, and industry.
Many other diseases could be treated by the transplantation of genetically altered cells. For example, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases are caused by the death of specific cells in the brain. Preliminary research has shown that it is possible to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease by transplanting fetal pig brain cells into a patient’s brains. A related technique may be applied to diabetes, another widespread disorder. Currently diabetics rely on insulin therapy, which is far from being an ideal treatment and is certainly not a cure.
The transplantation of genetically modified animal pancreatic islet cells which could secrete insulin in response to the body’s varying glucose levels, just as the cells in a healthy individual do could effectively cure the disease. There are numerous other examples, so transplantation therapy could potentially relieve suffering in many thousands or even millions of patients. Research shows that, “more than 40,000 Americans are on a waiting list in need of human organs”; “one third to one-half will die before a matching organ can be found”.
The chances of receiving such organs are rare, since the only way one can receive a heart or lung is if another human dies. Since there is a worldwide shortage of donated human organs for transplants, researchers have opted for a new alternative for organs, animals. Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues or cells from one species to another. Because humans and pigs have the exact genetic make-up, researchers have used animal cloning to produce transgenic pigs suitable for xenotransplantation.
Researchers have concentrated on the use of pigs, being that they are inexpensive, plentiful, easy to breed, and can be genetically manipulated to reduce the possibility and severity of transplant rejection. Pig heart valves are already used to repair human hearts after a tanning process renders the valves immunologically inert. Using xenotransplantation techniques, people get a new life and survive with normal life. Animal cloning is a controversial issue in our society. Some people against it because they think process of animal cloning is very crucial and risky.
Moreover, chances to get a final cloned animal is very low. Probably, near one percent. Cloning has opened many doors that could lead to remarkable medical advancements but, as with all new technologies, it will be accompanied by ethical and social dilemmas. Cloned animal provides more food and meat, helpful in many medical research and help to reproduce extinct animals using DNA. Works Cited: * Bruce, Dr. Donald. “Cloning, Ethics and Animal Welfare SRT Comment on Farm Animal Welfare Council Report. ” Society, Religion and Technology Project. 5 December 1998. 22 October 2003. http://www. srtp. org. uk/cloning. shtml * Freudenrich, Craig. “Why Clone? ” How Cloning Works. 21 October 2003. http://science. howstuffworks. com/genetic-science/cloning. htm/printable * Margawati, Endang. “Trangenic Animals: Their Benefits to Human Welfare. ” Bio Science Production. 2002-2003. 21 October 2003. * “Medical Uses for Animal Cloning. ” Cows and Humans and Corn… Oh My!. 22 October 2003. * Reibstein, Larry and Reals, Gregory. “A Cloned Chop, anyone? ” Newsweek 10 March 1997:58.
Re: 1997 Nobel prize in Physiology and Medicine to Dr. Wilmut and Team Archimedes Plutonium 7 Mar 1997 19:55:19 GMT Organization: Plutonium College http://earthops. org/cloning_history. html * Tanne, Janice. “Xenotransplantation: Huge Benefits, Hard Choices. ” 2 Nov. 2003. * Wilmut, Ian. “Cloning Can Help Humans and Animals. ” Cloning. Minnesota. 2003 Pg. 19-53. Websites: http://www. aavs. org/campCloningBiomedical. html http://www. scientificamerican. com/article. cfm? id=what-are-the-potential-me http://www. bio. rg/foodag/animals/factsheet. asp check : http://www1. american. edu/TED/dolly. htm Case study of cloning: http://www. accessexcellence. org/RC/AB/IE/casestudy. php http://www. aavs. org/campCloningBiomedical. html http://www. stonewallfarm. org/LivestockCloninginAmerica. htm http://www. echeat. com/essay. php? t=30139 http://www. dartmouth. edu/~cbbc/courses/bio4/bio4-1997/AnnaPiazza. html http://www. 123helpme. com/view. asp? id=18713 Animal cloning used in medical: http://www. scientificamerican. com/article. cfm? id=what-are-the-potential-me