Anylise three types of therapies in counselling

6 June 2016

Critically analyse at least three types of therapy and outlined in this course. My essay compares and contrasts three theoretical models of counselling. For comparison and contrasting purposes, my work has identified three main theories, cognitive behavioural therapy, the person centred therapy, and gestalt therapy.

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CBT, person centred therapy, and gestalt therapies are three theoretical models that have been applied in psychotherapy for many years. Despite their similarities and use in counselling, the three therapies hold distinct differences from each other. Being one of the most preferred theoretical models in counselling, CBT has demonstrated explicit justifications as well as definite rates of success in most of the instances where it has been applied.

CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy)
CBT focuses on how a person thinks, and how thinking influences behaviour. What we think we become is the basic premises that upon which the CBT approach is built. It is particularly useful in treating depression where thoughts of low self-esteem and low self-worth are a common feature. In CBT emotional or behavioural problems are caused by faulty learned thinking, and behaviour patterns. In therapy the client will learn new patterns and learn decision-making and problem-solving skills as part of their thinking and behaviour rehabilitation.

CBT differs from other types of psychotherapies because it is: Pragmatic it helps identify specific problems and tries to solve them. Highly structured rather than talking freely about your life, and I are therapies will discuss specific problems and set goals for you to achieve. Focused on current problems is mainly concerned with how you think and act now rather than attempting to resolve the past issues. Collaborative your therapies are not tell you what to do, they will work with you to find solutions to your current difficulties. Advantages of CBT:

Research has shown, cognitive behavioural therapy can be as effective as medication in treating depression and other mental health problems. CBT can be completed in a relatively short period of time compared with other types of talking therapies. That highly structured nature of CBT means it can be provided in different formats, including in groups, self-help books and
computer programmes. The school she learning CBT are useful, practical and helpful strategies that can be incorporated into everyday life to help you cope better with future stressors and difficulties.

Due to the structured nature of CBT, it may not be suitable for people with more complex mental health needs all learning difficulties. Some critics argue that because CBT only addresses current problems and focuses on specific issues it does not address the possible underlying causes of mental health conditions such as an unhappy childhood. CBT focuses on the individual’s capacity to change themselves (their thoughts, feelings and behaviours), and does not address wider problems in systems of families that can often have a significant impact on the individual’s health and well-being.

The goal of CBT is to challenge individuals to face the behaviours, norms, and beliefs that affect their psychological and emotional health. CBT also encourages clients to be more aware of their thoughts before engaging clients to change their feelings. CBT is believed to have an aspect of playing down the emotion of the clients. It lacks the focus on determining and the underlying unconsciousness in the client century to erase fails in relating the client’s past with the present experiences. Since it entails confrontation, this therapy may witness cases of termination as most clients may not cope with its expectations. However, to benefit from CBT you need to commit yourself to the process. These therapies can help and advise you, but they cannot make your problems go away without your full cooperation.

Person Centred Therapy
Carl R Rodgers (1902-1987)
Rogers developed the nondirective approach to counselling, based on his unshakeable believe that clients needed to have which more control over their therapeutic process than given in regular therapy. The concept of self-actualisation is at the centre of person centred therapy. Fundamental to the method is the relationship between the therapist and the client, based on the core conditions of empathy, non-possessive warmth, unconditional positive regard, genuineness or congruence. Person centred therapists prefer to talk about attitudes and behaviours by creating agrowth promoting climate.

The therapist views are client as being capable of directing their own destinies and capable of self-actualisation. The focus is on entering the client frame of reference and understanding and tracking their personal meanings. In no way does this make the therapist passive. To be able to enter the client frame of reference the therapist was use skills such as active listening and engage in a continual struggle to lay aside preconceptions that may otherwise hinder the process. The person centred approach in common with many other therapies is less successful with severely disturbed psychotic clients so therefore does have its limitations. Critics of this therapy argue that it is naive and doesn’t help the client face reality.

The fundamental theory is in the form of an “if then” hypotheses, if the core conditions are present, then change will take place, it’s the therapist’s task to facilitate clients awareness of and trust in self-actualisation. In person centred therapy is assumed that humans are positive and due to this positivity they tend to be inclined towards the achievement of complete functionality of both their bodies and minds. In applying this model in counselling it is assumed that the immediate experiences in an individual have occurred due to lack of past awareness about the problems.

The theory has it that after therapy the individual will possess actualisation this will impact on his or her potential to move from being unaware between aware of his other feelings, and have self-trust and think positively in relation to his or her life. Person centred therapy aims at providing individuals with an environment that is safe and favourable for exploring their well-being. By encouraging clients to explore well-being, person centred therapy ensures the clients recognise all the challenges that they have faced in their emotional and psychological growth.

Further, this therapy and enables clients to realise aspects of self-worth in’s that have been imprecise during their past. The limitations of person centred therapy are distinct as compared to those of CBT and Gestalt. Since the therapist is a passive entity during this therapy, cases of limited responses occasional. There is a lack of direction for most clients since the counselling remains inactive stop in cases when crisis occurs, the client will lacks support. The theories lacks the application of novel knowledge hence cases of rigidity are common.

Gestalt theory
Gestalt psychotherapy, unlike the two previous forms of therapy, sprang out of the dissatisfaction over the inability of both psychoanalysis and behaviourism to deal with the whole person. Developed by Fritz Perl’s, Gestalt therapy aims to help the person to be self-supported and self-responsible, through awareness of what is going on within the self any given moment, the, “here and now”. Gestalt therapy unlike the other two therapies, is heavily influenced by existentialism, psychodrama and body therapies. In this therapy clients are encouraged to act out various roles in life, which they and others have played or are currently playing, and to take responsibility for their own conflicts. Actual psychological experiences of the major emphasis of the Gestalt theory.

Gestalt therapy unlike the other two therapies is heavily influenced by existentialism, psychodrama and body therapies. Budding Gestalt therapists believe that people are responsible for themselves, for their lives, and for living. That each person functions as a whole. They believe in the philosophy of holism and that the past only exists within a faulty memory, and the important question about human experience and behaviour is not “why?” but “how?”

The goals of this therapy are to re-establish contact and normal interaction, the restoration of ego function and the restoration of the whole. To foster; maturation, growth independent, self-support, and awareness, to help the client deal with unfinished business and learn to live in the here and now. In Gestalt therapy, limitations include expressions of emotion due to the techniques that are employed. Also clients in most cases failed to acquire or reach the required thresholds of the therapy since cognitive aspects are not dealt with.


In this paper I have described three theoretical models including CBT, person centred and Gestalt. I find that although it is established that each of the three models is distinct from the other in terms of the described concepts, the three theoretical models are critical in psychotherapy.

Evaluate the benefits and limitations of CBT as a common treatment for mental health problems.

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