A&P II Notes
The process by which food is received into the GI tract via the mouth is called ingestion. a. True b. False 2. Swallowing has both voluntary and involuntary components a. True b. False 3. The function of the epiglottis is to prevent a bolus from entering the trachea. 4. The first wave of contraction of the esophageal muscles is called primary peristalsis. 5. If a food bolus does not make it all the way to the stomach, secondary peristalsis forces the bolus the remainder of the way. 6. Peristaltic contractions of the stomach occur about 3-5 times per minute when food makes it into the body & fundus.7. The frequency of peristaltic contractions is regulated by pacemaker cells. 8. Gastric emptying would be slowed by which of the following: a. Fats in the duodenum b. Acids in the duodenum c. Hypertonic solutions in the duodenum d. Distention of the duodenum e. All of the above 9. Nerves regulate gastric juice secretion during the cephalic phase. 10. *Now would be a great time to fill in the interactive table on page 7 of the Motility topic. 11. The cephalic phase of digestion is regulated by short reflexes a. True b. False.
12. The vagus nerve carries electrical signals from the brain to the stomach.13. The hormone gastrin regulates gastric secretion during the gastric phase of digestion. 14. Gastric motility increases as the stomach begins to receive food. 15. The hormone CCK released by the duodenum cause gastric motility to decrease when fats are present in the duodenum. 16. The hormone CCK causes the gall bladder to contract and release bile into the small intestine. 17. The enterogastric reflex describes the communication between the intestine and the stomach. 18. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation decrease digestive system activity. 19. The motility process illustratedbelow is segmentation. 20. Segmentation moves chyme in only one direction. a. True b. False 21. The frequency of segmentation contractions is greatest in the duodenum. 22. long reflexes stimulate the ileum to increase activity when food is in the stomach. 23. The hormone gastrincauses the ileocecal sphincter to relax during the gastric phase. 24. During the inter-digestive period, mass motility complexes occur about once every 90 minutes to move undigested materials toward the terminal ileum. 25. Migrating motility complexes are controlled by the central nervous system a.
True b. False 26. List the two major functions of the large intestine. a. storage b. absorption of water, salt, and vitamin K 27. Pockets formed by the contractions of the transverse and descending colon musculature are called haustra. 28. Sustained, intense propulsive peristaltic contractions of the large intestine are called mass movemnts. 29. Which of the following is under voluntary control? a. Internal anal sphincter b. External anal sphincter 30. Only about 150 ml of the 500 ml of chyme that entered the colon is voided as feces. 31.
Place the following labels on the large intestine figure below: Cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, haustra, appendix 32. The gastroileal reflex stimulates mass movements of the colon. 33. List three emotions that may produce constipation a. pain b. fear c. depression 34. The vomiting reflex is coordinated in the brain steam. 35. Which of the following is not typically a stimulus for the vomiting reflex? a. Noxious chemicals b. Abnormal vestibular stimulation c. Sudden injury to the testes d. Sleep