AP World History Chapter
Expansion & Integration – All classical civilizations expanded – New challenges: How did they cooperate? O Seminal thinkers brought central values; Confucius, Laozi, Buddha, Socrates – Unity attempts O China= Centralize the government S Royal citizens -> resettlement around the government S Language promotion S Confucian hierarchy S India= Hierarchy society S Caste system S Hinduism O Mediterranean S Local autonomy (freedom in life for their people; High tolerance) S Laws S Citizenships S Economic interdependence 2.
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Non classical Developments – Africa S Kush -> Axum -> Ethiopia & Later foundation of Ghana C] Writing, religious conversion Oudaism & Christianity), iron, divine rule of Kings – Japan S Writing, agriculture, Shintoism, Iron, Divine rule – Europe S Little independent development, Regional ruling, polytheistic, interaction with Rome – Central America S Olmecs – Monuments; Corn, potato, Few domesticated animals, Calendar, Writings S Mayans – Foundation on the Olmecs S Incas – Similar to Maya and Inca, built cities & religious monuments
S Lacked benefits of interaction (wheel and irons were scarce) – Polynesians (In Pacific) S Fiji, Samoa, Hawaii C] Outrigger canoes , caste system (particular in Hawaii), Divine rule (king based) – Central Asia S Nomadic Herders, Trade route intermediaries (middleman ,Whole sale people), technologies (stirrups) S Invasion of civilization -> population pressure & spoils 3. Decline (and Fall or Revival) of Civilizations S 3 century of chaos (Similar to Era of Warring States) C] Fall because