Applied Nostalgia Essay Research Paper Applied Nostalgia

9 September 2017

Applied Nostalgia Essay, Research Paper

Applied Nostalgia & # 8211 ; A Parental Look Back

Without past memories, Americans lack a criterion to establish present conditions

upon. These memories lie carefully shuffled and categorized in the elephantine shifter called the

encephalon to crudely come close the present criterion of life. They hope to pull satisfaction

and fulfilment in the patterned advance of the quality of their and particularly their kids & # 8217 ; s lives.

This innate desire to compare the yesteryear to the present thrusts personal and political

determinations, particularly conservativists who advocate a alteration to the policies and values of the


Today, the bleached memories of an emerging group of parents of their post-World

War II upbringing, like cherished household dinners around the kitchen oak tabular array and careless

jaunts into town, against a sensed modern background haze of random force, day of the month

colza, and individual parent families, turned a group of parent & # 8217 ; s Black Marias and heads to the

water under the bridge 1950s. They hope to resuscitate their cherished childhood memories. The Medveds,

parental writers, recall their upbringing: & # 8220 ; The adult females enjoyed being place for the childs & # 8221 ;

and & # 8220 ; equals came over for hoops and homemade lemonade & # 8221 ; ( Paul 64 ) . Shalit, writer of

Tax return to Modesty: A Lost Virtue remembers when past adult females helped around the

community and raised their kids with a alone dedication ( Paul 64 ) . In the aftermath

of the Colorado school slaughter such a move seems justified. Yet, even in malice of many

societal ailments of our & # 8220 ; dependent, sex-obsessed, morally slack and spiritually ruin

society & # 8221 ; ( Paul 64 ) parents remain disbelieving. of such a drastic reversal in a drastically

changed clip. For now, the incredulity over the reversal to the past virtues further

scrutiny before any drastic action.

The parents recommending a alteration to the past promote a black nowadays and hereafter

with jobs runing across the societal, political, and economic spectrum, afraid that their

concerns might mirror in their childs. Adult fairy narratives that & # 8220 ; matrimony will last everlastingly, sex

produces merely pleasance, trueness to an establishment will be returned, and elected leaders are

benevolent and wise & # 8221 ; ( Paul 63 ) are to intolerable to be placed on the weak shoulders of

their kids. Therefore, they shield this information from the kids.

Armed with reams of statistics, particularly in the bead the figure of atomic household

places in the United States ( Two 1 ) , they present a just instance for the reversal to the

rearing manner of the aging babe boomer population. An uncomplete list of their claimed

ailments includes individual parent families, an excessively demanding work environment, inflow of

unwanted media, and the feminist motion.

Fatherlessness, as David Blackhord president of Institute for American values

points out, is the most harmful demographic tendency of our coevals & # 8230 ; and the taking

cause of worsening child wellbeing in our society. It is besides the engine driving our most

pressing societal jobs, from offense, to adolescent gestation, to sexual maltreatment, to domestic

force against adult females. The grounds is now strong that the absence of male parents from the

lives of kids is one of the most of import causes [ of the above jobs ] ( UCSF 1 )

In one augmenting survey performed by the University of California at San

Francisco on California & # 8217 ; s household make-up reported that 20 per centum of kids under

age 18s are presently raised by a individual grownup.

Accusative fingers of these nostalgic parents turn like an vindictive hinged gate from

household construction to the work environment, mentioning statistics on the economic troubles that

modern employers cause, or on personal compulsions with work that deters from the

boundlessly more of import occupation at place. & # 8220 ; With parents trapped in devouring occupations, they leave

their childs to fend for themselves & # 8221 ; ( West 2 ) .

The type of work and work environment changed in the last few decennaries with the

coming of new engineerings and force per unit area on employers to cut costs. Harmonizing to the

parents and research workers who advocate a reversal to the yesteryear, the modern work

environment is besieged with jobs.

Decreases in existent rewards, corporate retrenchment and the surcease of the & # 8216 ; company

adult male & # 8217 ; ethos that governed American labour dealingss during the 1950s and 1960s has made

it impossible for parents to give necessary clip to their kids because they have to

work harder than every merely to do terminals run into ( West 1 ) .

The ends of fiscal success have placed the ends of raising a child to the dorsum

burner. These impersonal parents scrape up the few excess dollars to purchase the Black Marias of their

kids ( McCallum 2 ) . & # 8220 ; In our mercenary society, parents are more concerned about the

physical things they provide their kids that about the values and wonts that prepare

kids for a life on their ain & # 8221 ; ( McCallum 2 ) .

The 1890ss have been defined as the information age and truly so. Any

person who accesses today & # 8217 ; s broad assortment of electronic medium & # 8211 ; computing machine, Internet,

telecasting, wireless, compact discs, CD-ROMs, and interrelated libraries & # 8211 ; finds ample

information on any topic, irrespective of content. The nostalgic argue that when these

childs contact this immense bombardment of & # 8216 ; obnoxious & # 8217 ; stuff without counsel from parents,

the material Acts of the Apostless as a alternate female parent, reding the kids with unwanted picks.

Such picks include rash force. Television permeates every countrywide family, and its

wavering visible radiation is the de facto baby-sitter for overworked and underpaid parents, who frequently

have to back up the household without the partner nowadays.

Their version of a modern parent falls victim to the media & # 8217 ; s concealed messages. The

media portrays pas in defaulter ways that do non reflect on existent parents. In films like

the Shining, the male parent was an opprobrious alky and blame music epitomizes hapless illustrations

of defaulter pas and their cleft addicted individual female parents. As a consequence female parents are more

probably to ditch their fellow of hubby for individual parentage convinced they will raise

the kid in a better environment without the male parent. In decision, & # 8220 ; what you have is an

full-scale war on parents, the consequence of which is finally the diminution of civic virtuousness and the

overall public assistance of the state & # 8221 ; ( Schaffer 2 ) .

Taging along with the nostalgia motion is a new adult females & # 8217 ; s motion that tries to

change by reversal the effects of the first ( Paul 64 ) . Shalit, in her book Returning to Modesty:

Detecting the Lost Virtue, points out that the societal patterned advances has left adult females is

poorer status than before the motion started ( Paul 64 ) .

Our female parents tell us we shouldn & # 8217 ; t want to give up all the hard-won & # 8216 ; additions & # 8217 ; they

nave bequeathed us, and we think: what additions? Sexual torment, day of the month colza, slaking,

eating upsets, all those drab hook-ups? Or possibly it & # 8217 ; s the great addition of divorce you

had in head. ( Paul 64 )

The branchings, at least to these supervising parents, of life in the current

structured rearing environment of the United States is huge and include an addition in

the rate of offense, teenage gestations, drugs, colza, divorce, hapless relationships, and maltreatment.

Those with a & # 8220 ; proper & # 8221 ; upbringing, a hopelessly indefinable and impossibly Utopian word,

commit less violent Acts of the Apostless.

The pivoting branching, and a cardinal pivot for both this paper and the emerging

nostalgia motion is the possible loss of & # 8220 ; artlessness & # 8221 ; . Artlessness to advocates peers

the deficiency of harming kids ( oppositions deny the happening ) by cutting kids & # 8217 ; s

exposure to all grownup stuff. The word grownup is non used in the traditional pornographic

sense, but as a general class specifying all information that the mean kid should non

know. This includes such subjects as sex, matrimony, work, and force.

Now, as information quickly increases, the haste to protect childs from this entrance

blow additions. Today artlessness, the stray and lit room in a sign of the zodiac of desperation,

could be defined as an flight from the informational age. Open the door, and the visible radiation

( artlessness ) escapes, everlastingly departed. Knowledge is powerful material ; that & # 8217 ; s why we keep it

off from little kids. And its shy we must maintain some of it for ourselves. In careless

of unscrupulous custodies, cognition is unsafe and the inexperienced person are powerless to oppose

it ( Paul 65 ) .

A few grownups are even going sick of the sum of information: & # 8220 ; Our clip & # 8217 ; s

tree of cognition is so heavy with apples that we & # 8217 ; ve adult sick of savoring them & # 8221 ; ( Paul

65 ) . The Medveds, writers of Salvaging Childhood: Protecting Our Child From the

Natural Assault on Innocence, say & # 8220 ; the secrets of maturity are rough, morbid, oppressive,

and seamy, & # 8221 ; conveying nil but & # 8220 ; duties, problems, loads and the potency for

depression and somberness & # 8221 ; ( Paul 64 ) and Shalit says the loss of artlessness causes most immature

adult females & # 8217 ; s jobs including eating upsets and disappointing relationships. Jeffery

Schwartz sums up the statement: artlessness is & # 8220 ; the highest of human achievements & # 8221 ;

and & # 8220 ; the specifying grade of those who have achieved echt triumph in confronting life & # 8217 ; s

countless challenges & # 8221 ; ( Paul 64 ) . Many of the implicit in jobs remain changeless

throughout the decennary, including guaranting that the household had a sensible criterion of

life, taking attention of their kids & # 8217 ; s growing and development, and keeping their

committedness to the partners they swore to stay with until after decease, ( West 1 ) yet the

mean American household today can non run into these new load. The consequence? Just pick a

job and fill in the space.

An sum of these aforementioned jobs may be rightly deserved, but

without a comparing to the past so the present conditions can non be analyzed. Each

decennary is shaped by a series of events that frequently dictate the result of the ensuing

socioeconomic conditions. An probe begins with an speculative expression into the events

taking up the fiftiess.

The 1950s were an sole merchandise of the great depression and World War II.

The great depression hit America like an oppressive summer heat moving ridge, a changeless

baleful presence of uncomfortableness which is utterly ineluctable. Unemployment rose quickly

as occupation net incomes decreased quickly, thrusting households into terrible economic adversity,

unquotable in America & # 8217 ; s history. So, as with any unnatural circumstance, worlds

compensated. Peoples became overzealous fiscal rescuers. Every cent was spend on the bare

necessities of life. Merely a few had the money to pass on otiose points ( Raasch ) .

World War II brought Americans out of the great depression. From the dust-covered soil

bowl to the harrying meat bombers euphemistically called the frontlines, trudged a line of

immature soldiers dripping with thoughts and bravery, both of which would be viciously tested.

At place adult females entered the work force to back up their boies and hubbies across seas.

With postings like & # 8220 ; Rosie the Riviter & # 8221 ; spurring on the hardworking advocates at place,

adult females diligently assembled much of the machinery that finally made its manner over to

Europe ( Raasch ) . These adult females began to roll up money, but were unable and

unwilling to pass it, due to war deficits and preservation of popular goods and the

ideals necessarily left over from the Great Depression. Alternatively, households across the United

States began to roll up nest eggs ( Raasch ) .

World War Two revitalized the American economic system. Removed geographically from

the snake pit overseas and the old ages of painful rehabilitation of the landscapes, political systems,

and economic systems, the war scarred United States plunged lustfully into work. Factories

proliferated like fruit flies across the state, and citizens trailed the growing, forcing

America into the most powerful economic force in the universe ( Raasch ) .

Fiscal security allowed adult females for the first clip in several decennaries to remain place and

raise the household planned during the adversity. Womans could and did remain place with childs

during that decennary & # 8211 ; the resources existed for this. Women besides found that with the return

of the work forces, most occupations were replaced by work forces. Womans did non yet have the societal backup

to go on in the typical male dominated occupations ( Raasch ) . So far, an about post card perfect

image. However, the 1950s, despite this frontage of cloud nine, hid immense vesiculation jobs that

overcome the 1990s troubles and for good cloud over the coevals. Adolescents

formed immense packs. A scenario plays our beautifully in the Movie Matinee as a pack

terrorizes the town, over a background of missiles pointed at the Untied States from Cuba.

The film is upseting because this film is a diversion of an existent event ( Matinee ) .

Following World War II, Americans fell into the cold war. The cold war lacked the unfastened

combat and bloodshed ; alternatively the cold war stirred a changeless background emphasis. Nuclear

arms proliferated exponentially in Russia and the United States, and the respective

leaders wove them around trusting the other state would endorse down. Alternatively both the

United States and Russia pulled new engineering from their pocketbooks and coercing the

other to reciprocate ( Raasch ) .

As the engineering race continued, Americans geared for the wake and tried non to

think of the inevitable, arrant, and complete obliteration of both the United States and the

USSR. Families spent weekends constructing a bomb shelter. Schools sporadically held

pattern drills where childs slipped under their desks, doubtless all inquiring how the

thin sheet of plyboard over their caputs would salvage them from the devastation of the

atomic bomb, a bomb that in Japan reduced great buildings to crumbles and threw the

lasting shadows of ashen-reduced people onto walls ( Raasch ) .

Meanwhile in the South a civil rights conflict loomed as inkinesss, tired of the apartheid

imposed by the Ku Klux Klan ( KKK ) and mean white citizens struggled to derive equal

rights, a warrant under the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the fundamental law. Most

minorities struggled with subjugation in a white male dominated society, an frequently

unmarked status in the desire to exchange back to the fiftiess ( Raasch ) .

Advancement to 1999, the last twelvemonth before the nothing axial rotation about on the Christian calendar & # 8217 ; s

mileometer. Crime still besieges society, albeit of a different type, and the atomic household

prevalence decreased. In the past decennary Americans endured terrorist onslaughts and

infinite school shots. I one opens the newspaper, the calamities spill Forth. However,

in visible radiation of the jobs of the 1950s the charge sparks, an apocalypse non.

The 1950s and the 1990s are utterly and wholly d

ifferent. The 1950s was a post-war

clip, where absolutely unreproducible affects kept ma at place. The 1990s is a engineering

loaded information society, where media pries into corners and brings jobs into greater

visible radiation including force, colza, birth control, and AIDS.

The sum of atomic households decreased ( Two 1 ) , yet the cause for the dissolve of the

household outweighs the troubles, the equalisation of adult females in the work force. No thirster

do female parents trust on the male & # 8217 ; s income, they can last on their ain. Their ties of aid

flutter free and the American adult females becomes free since the American ideals put forth in

the fundamental law. These new freedoms allow adult females to interrupt free of restricting and bad

matrimonies and venture into traditionally male functions.

Crime evidently is a challenge to modern politicians. The job states itself clearly from

the bold type decorating the front lines of newspapers countrywide. Our troubles are now.

Yet when reexamining the yesteryear, the media is non invariably reminding us of it. The repeat

of stuff does lodge in our caput, like the unerasable dad vocal trailing about in our caputs.

The force and maltreatment still existed, nevertheless in the 1950s mass media had non expanded

to its current size. Modern statistics of colza, kid maltreatment and other domestic jobs are

higher in portion because of the deficiency of instruction on these social ailments. Today more instances are

reported to governments, thanks to instruction from this & # 8220 ; evil & # 8221 ; media. Yes, these atrocious

jobs were present, merely hidden from the memories of modern naysayers.

Demographics reveal that Americans grow up in progressively diverse households. For a tendency

probably to go on in the hereafter, and that harmonizing to some is a & # 8220 ; irreversible historical fact

the household diverseness is here to remain, & # 8221 ; ( Schaffer 3 ) such onslaughts hurt diverse households and the

kids whose kids face small sick consequence from the modern-day upbringing.

Many sociologists argue that & # 8220 ; Family values runs put individual parent households unjustly

second-rate or best & # 8221 ; ( Schaffer 1 ) . Using the same method for which they are so

vehemently opposed ( aggregate media ) , many conservative organisations

campaign on behalf of the supposed high quality of married-couple atomic households,

flourishing all other sorts of households mediocre & # 8211 ; or worse ( Schaffer 1 )

Quality is much more of import than gender construction, non whether a house contains a

adult male, adult females, girl, boy, three Carassius auratus, and a aureate lab named Max. & # 8220 ; However good

intended and appealing, most of the claims made by household values reformers are blatantly

faithlessly every bit good as destructive & # 8221 ; ( Schaffer 1 ) .

A high struggle matrimony is more detrimental to a kid than a divorce, yet these groups urge

parents to remain together at all costs. Consequences come from a Kaiser Permanete survey show

that 68 per centum of & # 8220 ; youth extremely exposed to safety menaces lived in two parent

places & # 8221 ; ( Shaffer 2 ) . If the young person was to be separated from such jobs, so they have a

better opportunity for success. This assault endangers childs by advancing parental struggle,

devastation, and fraud ( Schaffer 2 ) .

If the accusals were merited in difficult informations, so their rhetoric deserves much attending.

However, right now, small grounds points either manner. The information they base their campaigns

on is inconclusive, as this sociologist said.

As a sociologist, I can certify there is perfectly no consensus among societal scientists on

household values, on the high quality of the heterosexual atomic household, or on the supposed

evil effects of fatherlessness. The claim that integral two-parent households are inherently

superior remainders entirely on the abuse of statistics and on the most simple societal

scientific discipline wickednesss & # 8211 ; portraying correlativities as though there were causes, disregarding mediating

factors, and treated little, overlapping differences as gross and absolute ( Schaffer 2,3 )

A losing male parent is non the apocalypse some suggest. In a Kaiser survey, 44 per centum of

troubled teens talk to their female parent ; 26 per centum to monsters ; and merely 10 per centum talk to their

male parents. A losing individual, while still perchance impacting the kid, has non the raved impact

( Schaffer 1 ) . & # 8220 ; Poverty and unemployment can more faithfully predict who will get married,

divorce, or commit or endure domestic or societal force than can the best toned step

of values yet devised & # 8221 ; ( Schaffer 3 ) .

Harping on the high quality of married biological parents and the immoralities of fatherlessness

injures kids and parents in a broad array of modern-day households, including those with

homosexual or sapphic parents & # 8221 ; ( Schaffer 3 ) .

These parents desiring to travel back to the 1950s clasp these few treasures of the 1950s coal

pile in their custodies and wish life could be like the epitomized dreams the memories have

become. Absent from these treasures is the pecking idea of the absence of minority and

black rights, the changeless fright of decease, the inability of adult females to secure a occupation in male

dominated occupations, and the old hurting of World War II and the great depression.

Obviously the work environment changed. More adult females are in the work force, both for the

enjoyment of work and to back up their childs. Their types of occupations have changed as the

old barriers that kept them from modern-day male dominated occupations have been

outlawed. Companies, due to increasing outside and inside force per unit area, have restructured the

work environment for maximal net income, an action that is non inherently bad. Maximal

net incomes besides comes through employee trueness and dedication, both of which take enterprise

on the employers portion to supply the worker with a positive work environment.

Most parents, unlike claims, do non get away into work from the household. In an Ohio Study

66 % per centum of respondents said that work is non a alleviation from household and 86 % said they

wanted to pass more clip with the household. 77 % of respondents were more & # 8220 ; fulfilled at

place & # 8221 ; and 90 % were happier. Obviously work is non a alleviation from household ( U of C 1 ) .

The conditions of the 1990s are different non worse ; returning to the 1950s is an absurd

misconception. The 1950s was ne’er perfect, the lone household that was perfect was the Television

situation comedy households, who existed merely in Hollywood. If this is true, than they fall for the really

same error they reprimand modern society for, ideals and Television. Despite mundane

jobs, the conditions that the mean kid has improved, non diminished. The societal

ailments that might hold resulted from the alterations far outweigh the disadvantages.

This action is possible but the stairss required to change by reversal society to the 1950s situation comedy would

be boundlessly immense. First, extinguish any kind of modern communications devices: a

computing machine, facsimile machine, electronic mail, beeper & # 8211 ; points the advocators say cause the loss of artlessness.

Second, present the changeless force per unit area of obliteration. Third, extinguish the additions in

adult females & # 8217 ; s rights and minority rights. Fourth, extinguish the modern presence of the media

that piece can be rough for many kids does assist convey forth ailments and supply childs with

instruction into maturity.

Those parents who keep their childs sanctioned from & # 8220 ; the existent universe & # 8221 ; face the troubles of

taking their childs from a radically different outside universe. A few parents view that

kids should be kept free from the presence of any kind of harmful media. While they

doubtless they feel that their kid is protected from injury, these parents fail to recognize

the ailments when they release an uneducated kid into the universe. For protecting against colza,

and other offense, instruction is the biggest bar. Educating kids about these

jobs and the motivations behind such actions does necessitate overprotective parents to dig

into the forbidden field of sexual instruction.

The nostalgic say that kids are unready for any kind of trial. Information

desensitizes childs & # 8211 ; no thirster is right and incorrect presented in either a smiling or a spanking.

Without clear way and parental authorization at place, these nostalgic parents warn that

kids will turn up to an grownup who can non state right from incorrect. The emerging books

from writers like Shalit, who is non even a sociologist, necessarily harm kids. & # 8220 ; These

books have a more insidious message: they equate artlessness with ignorance & # 8221 ; ( Paul 62 ) . A

parent excessively affecting themselves in a kid & # 8217 ; s life is a hapless pick, frequently taking to

rebellious as the kid tries to get away from the bounds placed on him or her.

Impacts do be by taking a child from outside resources. If a kid is guided though

reading of & # 8216 ; grownup & # 8217 ; knowledge the kid will beready to manage the outside universe.

Frequently those like Wendy Shalit & # 8220 ; misidentify the recognition of colza for its happening

and chooses the illusive security of ignorance over the ambiguous wagess of world & # 8221 ; .

Womans who reject artlessness will & # 8220 ; derive a field of vision free from the modern equivalents

of powered whiffs and sunshades and downcast ciliums & # 8221 ; ( Paul 65 )

Educated kids fare better when released into the universe: they have taken the first measure.

When a protected kid is released into the outside universe, they have non had the

rational preparation to manage the jobs grownups must confront. Plus, overprotective parents

frequently have to cover with the rebellion of their childs, a rather dry consequence when the kid

delves merrily into the mayhem which the parents tried so difficult to protect the kid

against. The Medveds merely let six hours of G rated videos per hebdomad, the oldest kid

can non read a book after 1960, and any kind of piquing stuff is turned off. & # 8220 ; Should

the intelligence come on during the household & # 8217 ; s Sunday drives, the lb parents recount, & # 8216 ; our

kids instantly beg us to turn off the wireless, & # 8217 ; lest they hear something that & # 8216 ; spoils

ther contentment & # 8217 ; and when a haunting vocal from the soundtrack of showboat [ plays ] ,

their girls scream & # 8220 ; fast forward! fast frontward! & # 8221 ; because they & # 8220 ; wouldn & # 8217 ; t even see

wordss that predict unhappiness or problem on the skyline & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ; ( Paul 64 ) .

Last, cognition will be with us ; better acquire used to it. In the information age one can non

get away the bombardment and why should they? Equally long as a parent is at that place to steer a kid

cognition can be a fantastic thing.

This essay does non understate the importance of parents ; they remain every bit indispensable as of all time.

However to boldly state that society diminished is a sentiment rooted in half forgotten

memories. Today there is so much more for a kid to larn and make, and every kid has an

equal opportunity to achieve these ends. To return back to the 1950s is a end stemming from

defeat of a coevals of parents, a defeat that while frequently justified, is non solvable

with a blind spring to an American civilization every bit different as the 1850s to the 1900s. So allow the

action halt where most grandparents halt: & # 8220 ; life was better when I was a kid & # 8221 ; .

Undoubtedly today & # 8217 ; s current coevals will be stating the same thing excessively.

Boes & # 8220 ; Convention on the Rights of the Child & # 8221 ; America & # 8212 ; America Child Rights

Gardner, Geroge E. The Emerging Personality: Infancy Through Adolescence New York:

Delacorte Press, 1970.

McCallum, Albert A. & # 8220 ; Who Will Raise the Children & # 8221 ; Prostitutes, Margarine, and

Handguns. 15 Apr. 1999

Orwell, George. & # 8220 ; A Child & # 8217 ; s Life & # 8221 ; A Collection of

Essaies. Sand Diego:

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1946.

Paul, Annie M. & # 8220 ; The New Age on innocence. & # 8221 ;

Psychology Today. April

1999: 62-66

Schaffer, Scott. & # 8220 ; Bad Review: The War Against Parents & # 8221 ; Rev. of The War Against

Parents by Sylvia Ann Hewlett and Cornel

Stacey, Judith. & # 8220 ; The Father Fixation & # 8221 ; In the Name of the Family: Rethinking Family

Valuess in a Postmodern Age

5 May 1999

Raasch, Brian. Personal Interview. 14 Apr. 1998

West. 1 Nov. 1998 Bad Subjects: Political Education for Everyday Life. 13 Apr. 1999

UCSF & # 8220 ; The California Work and Health Survey & # 8212 ; 1998

Story # 2: The State of Working Parents in

California Graphic Summary for Publication

September 8, 1998. & # 8221 ; 8 Sept. 1998 University


California at San Fransisco. 12 Apr. 1998

U of C & # 8220 ; May 8, 1998 Release From the Survey of Ohio & # 8217 ; s Working Families: New Family

and Work Survey at University of Cincinnati Fund Family is Where the Heart is. & # 8221 ;

University of Cincinnati/The Kunz Center for the Study of Work and Family 9 Apr. 1998

White, Burton L. The First Years of Life. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1975.




Boes & # 8220 ; Convention on the Rights of the Child & # 8221 ;

America & # 8212 ; America Child Rights

Cullen, Loanda & # 8220 ; Confronting the Myths of Single Parenting & # 8221 ; Single Parenting in the

Ninetiess 15 Apr. 1998. Champion Press. 9 April 1999

Gardner, Geroge E. The Emerging Personality: Infancy Through Adolescence New York:

Delacorte Press, 1970.

Gesell, Arnold, Frances L. Ilg, and Louise Bates Ames. Infant and Child in the Culture of

Today: The Guidance of Development in Home and Nursery School. 1943. New York:

Harper and Row, 1974.

McCallum, Albert A. & # 8220 ; Who Will Raise the Children & # 8221 ; Prostitutes, Margarine, and

Handguns. 15 Apr. 1999

Orwell, George. & # 8220 ; A Child & # 8217 ; s Life & # 8221 ; A Collection of Essays.

Sand Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1946.

Paul, Annie M. & # 8220 ; The New Age on innocence. & # 8221 ; Psychology

Today. April 1999: 62-66

Piaget, Jean. The Child and Reality: Problems of Genetic

Psychology. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973

Schaffer, Scott. & # 8220 ; Bad Review: The War Against Parents & # 8221 ; Rev. of The War Against

Parents by Sylvia Ann Hewlett and Cornel

Stacey, Judith. & # 8220 ; The Father Fixation & # 8221 ; In the Name of the Family: Rethinking Family

Valuess in a Postmodern Age

5 May 1999

Raasch, Brian. Personal Interview. 14 Apr. 1998

& # 8220 ; Two Parent Families by Cultural Group: 1994 US Census Data & # 8221 ; University of Virginia. 5

May 1999

West. 1 Nov. 1998 Bad Subjects: Political Education for Everyday Life. 13 Apr. 1999

UCSF & # 8220 ; The California Work and Health Survey & # 8212 ; 1998 Story # 2:

The State of Working Parents in California Graphic

Summary for Publication September 8, 1998. & # 8221 ; 8 Sept. 1998

University of California at San Fransisco. 12 Apr. 1998

U of C & # 8220 ; May 8, 1998 Release From the Survey of Ohio & # 8217 ; s Working Families: New Family

and Work Survey at University of Cincinnati Fund Family is Where the Heart is. & # 8221 ;

University of Cincinnati/The Kunz Center for the Study of Work and Family 9 Apr. 1998

White, Burton L. The First Years of Life. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1975.

A limited
time offer!
Save Time On Research and Writing. Hire a Professional to Get Your 100% Plagiarism Free Paper