Apush Review

1 January 2017

This party also advocated free homesteads- public land grants to small farmers- and internal improvements c. They (northerners) believe that slavery impedes white’s progress. . 3. The doctrine was opposed by Southerners. B. Popular Sovereignty 1. It was proposed by a democrat senator from Michigan, Lewis Cass. 2. They key ideas was that each territory would decide whether to permit slavery or not in its domain. 3. Free-soilers and proslavery extremist not satisfied by this proposal. C. Extending the Missouri Compromise Line 1.

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As of now, in the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36°30’ slavery is prohibited. 2. Moderate Southerners proposed extending the Missouri Compromise line to the pacific and permitting territories north of that line to be non-slave. II. Escalating tensions A. Utah and California sought admission to the union as free states. B. Texas, slave, admitted in 1845, claimed the eastern half of New Mexico where slavery had already been abolished by the Mexican government. C. Northerners are attacking the fact that slavery is allowed in the District of Columbia. D.

Southerners are mad about the lax enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793. III. President Zachary Taylor A. He believed that neither California nor New Mexico were suited for Slavery. Thus, he prompted California to bypass the territorial stage preceding statehood and to draw up is constitution in 1849 and apply directly for statehood and a free state. He hinted the New Mexico should do the same. B. In theory, his plan would have solved the problem because it would give the north two new free states while also acknowledging the southern position to bar or permit slavery as it choose.

C. Though practical, it dismayed southerners of both parties. 1. Southern Whigs didn’t want a plan from the president that would achieve the goals of the Wilmont proviso (no slavery in the Mexican Secession territories), the plan that they opposed. 2. In addition, Southerners questioned Taylor’s assumption that slavery would never take root in California and New Mexico. IV. More Compromising A. So this guy, Henry Clay, who is at the time, a political novice, decides he wants to throw his two cents into the whole “free state-slave state” debate so he proposes this “ominous bill. B. The ominous bill had a whole bunch of facets to it: 1. California comes in as a free state 2. The Mexican Secession is split in two. a. New Mexico and Utah b. Both without federal restrictions on slavery. 3. Texas and New Mexico Boundary is settled on terms favorable to New Mexico. 4. So Texas wont be a cry baby, the Federal government would assume its public debt. 5. Slavery has to stay in the District of Columbia but the slave trade would be abolished. 6. A new, more effective fugitive slave law would be enacted. – As you can see, Clay was talking a whole lot.

I for one wish that he would have shut up, but old guys in this time always had something to say. C. But anyways, in response to Clay, Daniel Webster and Calhoun- who just wont die- decided they have to say something too. So Calhoun was all like the north has to be the bigger man and treat the south as an equal in order to save the union. This was due to the fact that the North’s growing power enhanced by protective tariffs and by the Missouri Compromise’s exclusion of slaveholders from the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase had created an imbalance between the sections. 1.

Both Clay and Calhoun were the early advocates of compromise. V. The Real Compromise: finally A. Proposed by democrat Stephen Douglas B. Basically he just chopped up Clay’s ominous bill and submitted each bill separately. C. We finally get the compromise of 1850 1. Statehood for California 2. Territorial status for Utah and New Mexico 3. Popular sovereignty is recognized 4. The Texas and New Mexico boundary dispute is resolved 5. The Federal Government takes of Texas’s debt. 6. No slave trade in the District of Columbia 7. New fugitive slave law. VI. Compromise: Not really A.

As Stephen Douglass basically used congressmen from different sects to get each individual passed, he had basically backed Congress into signing into law the Compromise of 1850. B. The majority of congressmen in one or another section opposed practically all of the specific bills that made up the compromise. C. The Compromise both benefited and hindered the North and South. 1. The North: a. Gets California as a free state and New Mexico and Utah as probable free states as well. b. It also gets a favorable settlement of the Texas-New Mexico boundary as most of the land went to New Mexico, a probable free state. c.

Abolition of Slave trade in the District of Columbia. 2. The South: a. By stipulating popular sovereignty for NM and UT, the compromise buried the Wilmot Proviso’s insistence that Congress formally prohibit slavery in these territories. i. However, Congress leaves open the issue of whether it could prohibit slavery outside the Mexican Cession which dismays southerners. b. A more stringent fugitive slave law i. It wasn’t that big a deal because of the small number of slaves that had been taken into the Mexican Cession. ii. However, it was a big deal because now southerners could pursue real fugitives on northern soil.

VII. The new fugitive Slave Act A. Denied alleged fugitives the right of trial by jury B. Didn’t allow them to testify on their own behalf C. Permitted their return to slavery on the sole testimony of the claimant D. Enabled court-appointed commissioners to collect ten dollars if they ruled for the slave holder but only five if they ruled for the fugitive. E. It targeted recent and past runaways F. There were immediate attempts to defy the law 1. Vigilance committees sprang up to help get blacks to Canada. 2. Lawyers used obstructive tactics to drag out legal proceeding to raise slave catchers expenses. . In the 1850s, nine northern states passed personal liberty laws which prohibited the use of state jails to incarcerate alleged fugitives VII. The election of 1952 A. At this point in history, the major parties are the Whigs and the Democrats B. In this election, the Whigs nominated Mexican War hero Winfield Scott 1. The party’s platform existed primarily of improving roads and harbors. They didn’t really focus on the sectional issues that. C. The Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce, a dark horse candidate whose chief attraction was that no faction of the party strongly opposed him. . They rallied behind the compromise and the idea of popular sovereignty. D. Pierce won with all but four state votes in the Electoral College. The Collapse of the Second Party System introduction: President Pierce is the last president to serve under the second party system- Whigs against democrats. This system lasted approximately 20 years. Within the four years of Pierce’s tenure, the Whigs would disintegrate while two new parties, the American (Know-Nothing) Party and the Republican Party rose in its place. VIII. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1954 A.

Background: Senator Stephen Douglas wants a transcontinental railroad through the central US and wants to promote western settlement. This action would increase his real estate in Chicago. In order for this to occur, Congress had to approve it. However, many southern democrats preferred a more southerly route for the railroad. Thus, in order to get his railroad where he wanted, the devised a bill that would accomplish this but was related to a different matter. B. The bill proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided into the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory and that the settlers there be able to decide the issue of slavery.

C. Impact: 1. Since these territories were north of the 36°30’ line, it gave more opportunities to southern slave owners. 2. Renews the sectional conflict 3. In effect repeals the Compromise of 1850 IX. The Whigs Disintegrate A. Major cause of the disintegration is the Kansas-Nebraska Act. B. The Whigs are divided between the conservatives (believed that the Whigs had to follow the compromise of 1850 to survive as a national party) and the Conscience Whigs (they were anti slavery). X. Rise and the Fall of the Know-Nothings A. Evolved out of a secret nativist organization: The order of the star-spangled banner.

B. Came about in response to the unprecedented immigration of the 1840s. C. They sought to rid the US of immigrant and Catholic political influence. D. In between 1953-1955, they became extremely popular (capturing all congressional seats and governorship in Massachusetts in 1954. ) E. They quickly lost influence because of conflicting sectional issues over slavery within the party. XI. The Rise of the Republican Party A. Founded in Reaction to the Kansas Nebraska Act. B. Made of Free-soilers and antislavery Democrats and Whigs C.

Platform of 1854 called for a repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Act/Fugitive Slave law. D. Bleeding Kansas helps to unite the Republicans and bolsters them to national political affluence. E. From 1854-1860, the party became the second largest political party next to the democrats. 1. As it was primarily a northern or sectional party, its success threatened the South. XII. The Crisis in Kansas A. In the wake of the Kansas Nebraska Act, an organization known as the New England Immigrant Aid Company, sent antislavery settlers into Kansas in order to stifle escalation attempts to turn Kansas into a slave state. . Unfortunately they arrive slowly. 2. The bulk of the settlers came from Missouri or elsewhere in the Midwest. 3. Kansas soon becomes a battleground for antislavery. B. Border ruffians 1. Led by Sen. David R. Atchison 2. Come to Kansas to vote illegally in the first election for a territorial legislature. a. Because the votes were illegal, a cloud of fraudulence thereafter hung over the proslavery legislature subsequently established at Lecompton, Kansas. i. This legislature passed a succession of outrageous acts and expelled antislavery legislators. ii.

The laws limited office holding to people who would swear allegiance to slavery, punished the harboring of fugitive slaves w/10 years imprisonment, a d made the circulation of abolitionist literature a capital offence. C. The Sac of Lawrence 1. Because of the legislations actions, a rival government was organized at Topeka, Kansas in 1855 2. In response, the Lecompton government dispatches a posse to Topeka. a. Henry Ward Beecher advised that rifles would to more than bibles to enforce morality in Kansas encourages this posse to take up arms. i. They dubbed their guns “Beecher’s Bibles. ” b.

The proslavery mob tore through the town, killing none, but burning buildings and destroying two free-state printing presses. D. John Brown 1. Led his sons and other men (totaling seven) towards Pottawatomie Creek and killed 5 men associated the Lecompton government. a. Called the Pottawatomie Massacre 2. This act completed the transformation of Bleeding Kansas into a battleground between the North and South. Note:These events show how, in Kansas, popular sovereignty failed. Instead of quickly resolving eh issue of slavery extension, it merely institutionalized the division over slavery by creating rival governments in Lecompton and Topeka.

E. Bleeding Sumner 1. Republican Senator Charles Sumner gives a wrathful speech in which he verbally whipped most of the U. S. Senator for complicity in slavery. 2. He singles out Senator Andrew Butler for his choice of harlot slavery as his mistress and for the loose expectoration of his speech (a nasty reference to his tendency to drool). 3. Two days later, a relative of Butler, Preston Brooks (dem. representative) strode into the senate chamber and beat the crap out of Sumner. Naw, JK. but he did strike him with a cane repeatedly until it broke after the fifth or sixth blow. XIII. Election of 1856

A. Party Nominees 1. Republicans, in their first election, nominated John C. Fremont, the famed “pathfinder” who had played a critical role in the Mexican War. a. They maneuvered northern Know-nothings into endorsing him. b. He called for congressional prohibition of slavery in the slave states. 2. Southern Know-nothings selected the last Whig President Millard Fillmore. a. Appealed primarily to traditionally Whig votes and called for moderation in the face of secessionist threats. 3. Democrats selected James Buchanan. a. Buchanan pledged congressional “non-interference” as apart of his platform. B.

Buchanan wins with a majority of both the popular vote and the Electoral College. C. This election yielded three clear conclusions. 1. The American Party (Know-Nothings) was finished as a national party. 2. The Republicans did very well despite the facts that they were scarcely year old, lacked any support in the South, and was running a political novice (Fremont). 3. As long as the democrats could unite behind a single national candidate, they would be hard to defeat. Note:The election of 1856 foreshadowed the emergence of a powerful political party (Republicans) that would win all but four presidential elections between 1860-1932.

The Crisis of the Union Introduction: Although Buchanan disapproved of slavery, he believed that his administration could not stop it. His administration encountered a secession of controversies, first over the Dred Scott decision, the Lecompton constitution, the raid by John Brown on Harpers Fairy, and finally concerning secession itslef. These controversies arose less from his own actions but more from the fact that forces driving the country apart were already spinning out of control. Southerners looking north saw creeping abolitionism in the guise of free soil, while northerners looking south saw an insatiable slave power.

IVX. The Dred Scott Case A. Dred Scott, a slave, was taken from the slave state of Missouri to the Free state of Wisconsin. When his master died, he sued for his freedom on the grounds of his residence in a free territory. B. The Court faced two key issues: 1. Did Scott’s residence in free territory during the 1830s make him free? 2. Regardless of the answer to the above question, did Scott, again enslaved in Missouri have the right to sue for his freedom in federal courts. C. The Court Ruled with the following: 1. Dred Scott had no right to sue in federal Ct. ecause the framers of the constitution didn’t intend blacks to be citizens. 2. Congress couldn’t deprive any person property w/o due process of law; and, if slaves were a form of property, then Congress couldn’t exclude slavery from a federal territory. 3. Because the Missouri Compromise excluded slavery from Wisconsin and other northern territories, it was unconstitutional. D. With this decision, though the K-N act had already basically nullified the MC, the court now rejected even the principle behind it that congress could prohibit slavery in the territories. E.

The decision causes increases northern suspicions of a southern slave power conspiracy. XV. The Lecompton Constitution A. Its acceptance created a dilemma for Buchanan. 1. It didn’t have the support of the majority of the people. 2. While Buchanan would support it, it would be blocked twice by congress and Kansas settlers. XVI. Lincoln Douglas Debates A. Lincoln begins with his famous “House Divided” speech. – a nation cannot exist permanently half slave and half free. B. Douglass used the debates to portray Lincoln as a virtual abolitionist and an advocate of racial equality. C.

Lincoln confirmed that Congress had no Constitutional authority to abolish slavery in the South. D. Freeport speech 1. Lincoln asks if the people of a territory could lawfully exclude slavery. 2. Douglas replied with his Freeport Doctrine: not with standing the Dred Scott decision, the voters of a free territory could effectively exclude slavery by refusing to enact laws that gave legal protection to slave property. XVII. Legacy of Harpers Ferry A. Browns raid on Harpers Ferry exacerbate the feelings the South had towards the north- that it was controlled by demented leaders bent on civil war.

B. It also rekindles southern fears of a slave insurrection. C. Southerners blamed the Republican party for the raid. XVIII. South Contemplates Secession A. Southerners actually didn’t want to leave the union- they thought of them selves as the most American of the Americans However, the events of the 1850s led many to believe that the North had deserted the true principle of the Union. B. Talk of secession was an expression of the South’s outrage at what southerners’ views as the irresponsible and unconstitutional course that the Republicans were taking in the North. C.

Southerners believed that the North was treating it as its inferior. The Collapse of the union: While Buchanan was in office, Southerners merely talked of Secession. However, with Lincoln’s election, the wheels of the train that would eventually lead the south to leave the union would be put in motion. In deed, in the election of 1860, voters were deciding more than who would be the next president would be; they were deciding the fate of the union. Election of 1860 A. Candidates: Lincoln (Republican) Douglas ( Southern Democrat) John C. Breckinridge ( Northern democrat) and John Bell ( Constitutional Union) 1.

Internal turmoil in the democrat party would lead to two separate conventions and thus two separate candidates. B. Republicans, in reaction to a panic in 1857, developed an economic plan and used that as its primary platform. C. Lincoln wins with an electoral vote of 180 to 123. The Movement for Secession A. Lincolns election prompted southern states to leave. Starting with a convention in South Carolina where it was unanimously decided the leave the union on December 20, 1860. 1. By February 1861, Alabama, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, Florida and Georgia followed. B.

Even though Southern states left, many were still not ready to leave. Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy stayed in the Union two weeks after his state of Georgia had left. 1. The upper south especially was hesitant as, unlike the lower south, depended heavily on economic ties to the North. Search for Compromise A. Crittenden Compromise was a last ditch effort to keep the union together. 1. Was Rejected by Lincoln and other republicans; they viewed it as a surrender not a compromise since it would call for the abandonment of free soil, they foundation of their party. 2.

Moreover, as the south was leaving in the face of a lost election, for Lincoln to agree, it would have violated majority rule, a principle the nation had been founded on. Coming of War A. Fort Sumner: it’s in NC, a confederate state. Lincoln pledges to defend all gov. territories inside confederate states. Upon trying to send succor to the fort, the Confederacy began to bomb it. Lincoln claimed it an “Insurrection” in the lower south and calls for militia from the loyal states to defend it. This causes 4 mores states to leave the Union. Literature of the Day A. Uncle Toms Cabin 1. By Harriet Beecher Stowe. . Stirred deep feelings and prompted northerners and Europeans to regard all slave owners as monstrously cruel and inhuman. 3. Reflected prevailing stereotypes of blacks. B. The Impeding Crisis of the South 1. By Hinton Helper 2. Described slavery as a curse upon poor white southerners and questioned one of the most sacred southern doctrines, the ideas that slavery made all whites equal. It’s basically saying that slavery has a negative effect on the south’s economy. Chapter 15 (1861-1865) Crucible of Freedom: Civil War Mobilizing For War -Both North and South were unprepared for war. North had a small army of sixteen thousand men, mostly in the West. -One-third of the Union officers resigned to join the Confederacy. -No strong president since James Polk and Lincoln was viewed as a “yokel” -Union -The federal government had levied no direct tax structure -Never imposed a draft. -Confederacy -No tax structure -No navy -Two tiny gunpowder factories -Poorly equipped -Unconnected railroad lines. -Recruitment and Conscription -Largest army organization created in America -2 million in Union -800,000 in Confederate -Recruitment depended on local efforts than national or state. Citizens opened recruiting offices in hometowns, held rallies, and signed up volunteers. -Union instituted examinations for officers. -As casualties mounted, military demand soon exceeded the supply of volunteers. -Confederacy enacted the first conscription law: All able-bodied white men aged eighteen to thirty-five were required to serve in the military for three years. -The act antagonized the southerners. Opponents charged that the draft was an assault on state sovereignty. -20-Negro law exempted an owner or overseer of twenty or more slaves from service. New conscription law of 1864 required all soldiers to stay in the duration of the war. -After recruitment, the Confederacy had to supply it. -South relied on arms and ammunition imported from Europe, weapons from federal arsenals, and guns captured on the battlefield. -Assigned ordnance contracts to privately owned factories like the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, provided loans to establish new factories, and created government-owned industries like the giant Augusta Powder Works in Georgia. -Clothes were more difficult: -Southern soldiers frequently went without shoes -Supplying the South was difficult: railroads that fell into despair or were captured -an economy that relied more heavily on producing tobacco and cotton than food. -Union invasion early in the war. -the Impressment Act was passed, which authorized army officers to take food from farmers at prescribed prices. It also empowered agents to impress slaves into labor for the army -Union supplement was easier -The Enrollment Act of March 1863 made every able-bodied white male citizen aged twenty to forty-five eligible for draft into the Union army. -Offered two means of escaping the draft -Substitution Paying a $300 fee to the government. -Financing the War -The federal government met its revenue needs from tariff duties and income from the sale of public lands. -Gross national product rose to 15% -Neither the Union nor Confederates wanted to impose tax, but did so in 1861. -Both sides turned to war bonds: to loans from citizens to be repaid by future generations. But must be paid in gold or silver coin. -Both sides agreed to print paper money. -Legal Tender Act issued $150 million of “greenbacks” -Greenbacks would only work if the public has confident in the government that issued it.

The Union officials made the greenbacks legal to pay most public and private debts. But the Confederacy never made it legal, and suspicions rose. By printing more money in the south, it suffered from an inflation rate over 9,000 percent! -The National Bank Act established that banks could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank notes. It gave private bankers the right to purchase war bonds. -Political Leadership in Wartime -Democrats wanted to prosecute the war without conscription, without the National Bank Act, and without the abolition of slavery. -Lincoln became a Radical Republican Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) suffered from frequent resignation in his cabinet. His main objective is to secure the independence of the South from the North. -The Confederate Constitution guaranteed the sovereignty of the Confederate states and prohibited the Confederate Congress from enacting protective tariffs and from supporting internal improvements. -The parties in the South agreed to suspend party rivalries, but rather, it encouraged disunity. -Securing the Union’s Borders -Lincoln moved to safeguard Washington that was bordered by two slave states. A week after Fort Sumter, a Baltimore mob attacked a Massachusetts regiment bound for Washington, but troops protected the capital. Lincoln then dispatched federal troops to Maryland, where he suspended the writ of habeas corpus (a court order requiring that the detainer of a prisoner bring that person to court and show cause for his detention) -Lincoln authorized the Union army in Kentucky, a slave state with a Unionist legislature and a thin chance of staying neutral. He stationed troops under General Ulysses S. Grant across the Ohio River from Kentucky in Illinois.

When the Confederates invaded, the state turned to Grant and became part of the Union. Missouri was ravaged by four years of fighting between Union and Confederate troops and between bands of guerrillas and bushwhackers, a name for Confederates. Missouri never left the union. West Virginia was admitted to the Union. -In Ex parte, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his authority in suspending the writ of habeas corpus in Maryland. Lincoln ignored the ruling. In Battle (1861-1862) -Armies, Weapons, and Strategies -The North had 3. times as many white men of military age and two-thirds of its railroad track. -Its goal was to force the South back into the Union, whereas the South was fighting merely for its independence. -The North -Had more men, but needed to defend long supply lines and occupy captured areas. -More railroads. But was often destroyed by the guerillas. -New Weapons -Submarine, the repeating rifle, and the multibarreled Gatling gun. -Trenches provided protection against rifle fire. -At the Battle of Fredericksburg, Confederate troops attacked the Union forces uphill over open terrain. At Gettysburg, Union armies shredded the charging southerners. -Anaconda plan -Proposed by General Winfiled Scott -Union blockading the southern coastline and to thrust, like a huge snake, down the Mississippi River. -Scott expected that sealing off and severing the Confederacy would make the South recognize the futility of secession and bring southern Unionists to power. But he overestimated the strength of Unionist spirit in the South. -Stalemate in the East -Confederates moved their capital from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia. -Union armies tried to reach the capital.

But they had to dislodge a Confederate army encamped at Manassas Junction. -Lincoln ordered General Irvin McDowell to attack. -First Battle of Bull Run -Amateur armies clashed in bloody chaos. -After Bull Run, Lincoln replaced McDowell with General George B. McClellan as the Army of the Potomac, the main Union army force. -McClellan formulated a plan to attack the Confederates (Peninsula Campaign) -The army would move by water to the tip of the peninsula formed by the York and James Rivers and then move northwestward to Richmond. -Advantages: Water transport than railroads reduced the supply lines. -By moving Southeast, it threatened the South’s supply lines. -The plan unfolded fine at first, but he overestimated the Confederates’ strength and refused to launch a final attack without reinforcements. -General Robert E. Lee took command of the Confederacy’s Army. -The Seven Days’ Battles cost the South nearly twice as many men as the North and ended in virtual slaughter of Confederates at Malvern Hill. -McClellan panicked and Lincoln called off the campaign. -At the Second Bull Run, Confederates struck North and won.

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson then invaded Maryland. Hoping to seize Maryland, Lee could then threaten Washington, improve the prospects of peace candidates in the North’s election, and induce Britain and France to recognize the Confederates as an independent nation. -The Battle of Antietam proved a strategic victory for the North because lee called off his invasion. (Important because the South was never recognized by the foreign nations) -Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamtion, a war measure that freed all slaves under rebel control. Lincoln replaced McClennan with General Ambrose Burnside because he had “the slows. ” -At Battle of Fredericksburg, Burnside led 122,000 federal troops against 78,500 Confederates. He captured the town of Fredericksburg. Lee was shaken by the northern casualties. -The War in the West -Grant controlled the West. -Confederate forces under generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard tried to relieve the Union pressure on Corinth by a surprise attack on Grant’s army near Shiloh. Grant called for reinforcements. Unions won. -Confederacy had stripped the defenses of New Orleans.

Union forces took the city in late April. -Union armies were joined by Mexican-American companies and drove a Confederate army from Texas out of New Mexico. -The Soldiers’ War -Soldiers on both sides shared a vision of military life as a transforming experience in which they became warriors. To serve in combat was to achieve “manhood. ” -At least 250 women disguised as men. -Military training proved notoriously weak, and much of army life was tedious and uncomfortable. -Food was horrible. -Confederate diets were small in portion. -Both sides were infested with diseases by poor sanitation. Confederates enlisted to defend slavery, which they paired with liberty. -Union soldiers in the South had become agents of liberation; they harbored fugitives who fled behind federal lines. -Ironclads and Cruisers: The Naval War -North began the war with over forty active warships against none for the South. -Confederate’s ironclad, Merrimac, attacked Union’s ships. It destroyed two northern warships. -Union’s Monitor fought against Merrimac. -South constructed other ironclads and the first submarine, but could never build enough to beat the North. -The Diplomatic War Confederates began to campaign to gain European recognition of its independence. -The southerners reasoned that Britain, dependant on its cotton, would break the Union blockade and provoke a war with the North. -The Confederacy send James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. -When a Union ship captain boarded the British vessel, Trent, which was carrying Mason and Slidell, and brought the two men to Boston as prisoners, British tempers exploded. Lincoln released the two. -Neither Britain or France recognized the South as a nation. Emancipation Transforms the War (1863) From Confiscation to Emancipation -Confiscation Act, which authorized the seizure of all property used in military aid of the rebellion, including slaves. Slaves who had been employed directly by the armed rebel forces and who later fled to freedom became “captives of war. ” -Radicals agreed with black abolitionist Frederick Douglass that “to fight against slaveholders without fighting against slavery, is but a half-hearted business. ” -Each Union defeat reminded northerners that the Confederacy, with a slave labor force in place, could commit a higher proportion of its white men to battle.

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