APUSH Unit #2

Albany Plan
Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
Benjamin Franklin
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution. March 5 1770
Boston Tea Party
Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Coercive Acts
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Common Sense
This was a pamphlet that was written by a Thomas Paine, a common man in the colonies. The pamphlet supported and gave reason to support secession from Britain as well as promote a representative type of government.
Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
First Continental Congress
The assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts.
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
George Grenville
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
Iroquois Confederacy
The Iroquois Confederacy was nearly a military power consisting of Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Senecas.IT was founded in the late 1500s.The leaders were Degana Widah and Hiawatha. The Indians lived in log houses with relatives. Men dominated, but a person’s background was determined by the women’s family. Different groups banded together but were separate fur traders and fur suppliers. Other groups joined; they would ally with either the French or the English depending on which would be the most to their advantage.
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
King George III
• King George III, the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.
Lexington and Concord
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Loyalist
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Patrick Henry
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a “state of defense” in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, “Give me liberty or give me death.” Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Peace of Paris (1763)
Ended the Seven Year’s War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba, but had to cede East and West Florida to England
Pontiac’s Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac’s Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac’s Rebellion led to Britain’s Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King goege III following Great Britain’s acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War. organize Britain’s vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians.
Samuel Adams
Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies
Saratoga
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Seven Years’ War
fought between England and France, 1756-1763; known as the French and Indian War in the colonies, it started in 1754, over control of the Ohio River Valley and resulted in France’s withdrawal from North America. It was the impetus for Parliament’s taxing policy that led to the American Revolution.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 – British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville’s revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
Sugar Act
Reduced taxes for molasses by 1/2. Taxed wine, sugar. British hoped to reduce smuggling and stimulate trade with Britain. Resentment in colonies., halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court.
Tea Act
Act eliminated import duties entering England, lowering the selling price to consumers, also allowing selling directly to consumers, hurting middlemen. It angered the colonies since it gave a monopoly to the British East India Tea Company, thus forcing local tea sellers out of business.
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington’s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation’s third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Townshend Acts
In 1767 “Champagne Charley” Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
While there have been many Treaties of Paris throughout history. The most important in American History is the treaty signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, which ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes.
Virginia Resolve
Patrick Henry (VA) wanted to pass a resolve against the Stamp Act – colonies had no representatives in Parliament, Parliament had no right to tax them
virtual representation
The British claimed that all British subjects were represented by members of the House of Commons, while the colonials argued that they were not at all represented as they did not choose their representatives. This caused more anger in the colonies, and influenced how representation functioned after the war.
Yorktown
the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington’s armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an “end” to the war.
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