At least 2000 years before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Philippines are home to small seafaring communities. These communities traded with neighboring countries such as Malaysia, Vietnam and China through barter. Chinese Ming Dynasty porcelain and metal ware have been unearthed in various parts of the Philippines. Tropical items such as gold pieces, beeswax, and pearls were among the trading goods of pre-colonial Filipinos; Chinese merchants brought with them porcelain, metal ware and silk.

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The first form of coinage in the country was gold beads, referred to as piloncitos. Beads, barter rings of varying sizes and other gold pieces were some of the objects used in commerce. The term piloncito comes from the word pilon, a local sugar container that resembles the coin. They are engraved with the Brahmanic character “ma” which looks like an upside down “R”. We can only guess that this character refers to the pre-colonial kingdom of Ma-yi which is roughly the Philippines we know today. Spanish Era

Manila became the trading center of oriental goods under the Spanish rule. The setup introduced alternative forms of currencies to the Philippines. Macuquinas (cobs),dos mundos (pillar dollars),counter stamped and portrait series coins, all made of silver, slowly replaced the gold beads. Due to the shortage of fractional coins, the Royalty of Spain authorized the production of copper coins by the Municipality of Manila. In 1728, the first copper coins called barillas were issued. Peso Fuertes, the first bank notes, was circulated in 1852.

In 1861, Casa de Moneda de Manila minted the first gold coins called Isabelinas and Alfonsinos. Both of these gold coins are inscribed with the word “Filipinas. ” Revolutionary Period After Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed the President of the First Philippine Republic, two kinds of 2-centavo coins were struck in the army arsenal in Malolos, Bulacan. Paper money was also issued. The American Regime In 1901, America defeated Spain and took over the country. The Philippine Coinage Act was passed by the US Congress. It authorized the production of silver coins from 1903 to 1912. These coins were minted from the

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Philadelphia, San Francisco and Denver mints. The coin was designed by a young Filipino artist named Melecio Figueroa. Silver certificates were issued until 1918, later replaced with Treasury Certificates from 1918 to 1935. Because of high cost of minting and transportation, the American government decided to re-open the Manila mint in 1920. The mint produced coins until the Commonwealth government. Notable coins during this period are those issued for use within the Culion Leper Colony.

Republic Period In 1949, the Central Bank of the Philippines was created through the Republic Act No. 265. The English Series, the CBP’s first official banknotes, was issued in 1951. It was followed by the Pilipino Series in 1967, the Ang Bagong Lipunan Series in 1973 and the New Design Series in 1985. English Series coins were introduced in 1959, followed by the Pilipino Series in 1967, the Ang Bagong Lipunan Series in 1975. The Flora and Fauna Series was introduced in 1983. An improved version was circulated in 1992.

All of these series were demonetized in 1998. GANITO KAMI: Saint Catherine of Sienna MAGULO, MAINGAY, LOKO-LOKO, PASAWAY, SAKIT SA ULO AT IRESPONSABLE: Ganyan kami kung ituturing. Pero syempre, kung may hindi magaganda, meron namang katanggap-taggap sa lahat; May PAGKAKAISA, PAGMAMAHALAN, PAGKAKAIBIGAN at higit sa lahat, may MALASAKIT SA BAWAT ISA. Ayan ang mga bagay na hinding-hindi namin maitatanggi sa iba. Kung minsan, kami’y sakit sa ulo, ngunit gagawa at gagawa kami ng paraan para lang makabawi sa taong nagawan namin ng mali o kasalanan.

Lahat ng gulo, pag-aaway o hindi pagkakaunawaan sa loob ng klase ay nagagawa naming solusyonan; dahil lamang sa aming PAGMAMAHAL. Mga pag-aaway na minsa’y nagdudulot ng hirap at pasakit sa aming guro. Lalong lalo na sa aming Gurong-tagapayo na si Ms. Cherrylyn L. Nitoral. Madalas kaming magkaroon ng alitan sa kanya. Pero syempre, gagawa kami ng paraan para maayos ang aming relasyon sa kanya. Sabi nila, ang St. Catherine daw ang pinakamatalino sa lahat ng seksyon sa aming “batch”. At ito ang aming hindi pinababayaang mawala.

Dahil dito, labis na natutuwa ang aming “Adviser”. Iniisip tuloy namin na ito ang nakakapagpawala ng “stress” na dulot ng iba naming kaklase sa kanya. Kaya naman, sinusubukan talaga naming maging responsible para lang sa kanya. Ganyan ang ST. CATHERINE. MAGULO, MAINGAY, LOKO-LOKO, PASAWAY, SAKIT SA ULO AT IRESPONSABLE pero may kaya parin kaming maipagmalaki. May PAGKAKAISA, PAGMAMAHALAN, PAGKAKAIBIGAN at higit sa lahat, may MALASAKIT SA BAWAT ISA ang tanging mayroon kami na pinagkakaingat-ingatan namin.

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