Asexual v. sexual reproduction

6 June 2017

Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Reinforcement (51 points) 1 . Compare and contrast asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. (2pts) Asexual: Occurs when offspring are produced from a single parent Advantageous in stable conditions Offspring are genetically identical to their parent (clones) Sexual: Occurs when offspring are produced by the Joining of two haploid cells from two different parents Advantageous in changing conditions 2. What are six types of asexual reproduction? (2pts) Mitosis, Binary fission, Budding/ Runners(plants), Spore formation, Fragmentation/ Regeneration, Vegetative propagation 3.

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What are two types of sexual reproduction? (2pts) Meiosis, Conjugation 4. What types of cells are produced through mitosis? Meiosis? (2pts) Body Cells 5. How many divisions are there in mitosis? Meiosis? (2pts) one 6. Cells produced through mitosis are genetically identical daughter cells, whereas cells produced through meiosis are genetically four genetically different gamete cells. (2pts) 7. Describe the process of binary fission. (2pts) Duplicates its DNA and divides into two new organisms. 8. Explain the process of budding. (2pts) A small part of the parent organisms body breaks off and grows into a new organism .

What is vegetative propagation? (2pts) Runners/rhizomes/tubers spread from the parent plant and form “plantlets” at the ends of vines or leaves 10. Explain what happens during fragmentation/regeneration. (2pts) Part of the parent’s body breaks off and forms a complete, new organism 1 1 . Describe the process of conjugation. (2pts) Direct transfer of DNA from a unicellular organism to another unicellular organism 12. Why is the process of conjugation in bacteria important evolutionarily? (2pts) It is the primary method of DNA exchange in bacteria 13. Which type of reproduction creates greater genetic diversity?

Explain. (2pts) Sexual reproduction Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction Venn Diagram (1 pt each) Use the terms below to fill in the Venn diagram Used by plants Used by animals Used by single celled organisms Budding DNA from two parents Regeneration Mitosis Meiosis Conjugation DNA from one parent Binary fission Offspring are genetically identical Requires special reproduction cells Offspring are genetically different Simple Produces fewer offspring Fast Slower Efficient Creates new offspring Asexual Asexual Reproduction One parent needed Sexual Two parents are required to mate

Cells divide by Fission, budding , or regeneration Cells divide by Meiosis Budding, vegetative reproduction, fragmentation, spore formation Syngamy and conjugation Time Efficient; no need to search for mate, requires less energy Variation, Unique. , organism is more protected No variation – if the parent has a genetic disease, offspring does too. Requires two organisms, requires more energy There is very little chance of variation with asexual reproduction. Mutations in DNA can still occur but not nearly as frequently as sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction leads to genetic variation in new generations of offspring.

This is fundamental to evolution. no formation or fusion of gametes(sex cell) formation or fusion of gametes(sex cell) occurs lower organisms higher invertebrates and all vertebrates may be whole parent body or a bud or a fragment or a single somatic cell gamete less more two(minimum) or more than two one(minimum) or more than one Things that are the same: Produce offspring use DNA And grows and develop 1 . What are the advantages and disadvantages to sexual and asexual reproduction? (2pts) Asexual reproduction is well suited for organisms that remain in one place and re unable to look for mates, in environments that are stable.

It is usually used by variation between organisms, meaning that entire groups can be wiped out by disease, or if the stable environment changes. Sexual reproduction allows for variation, the most fundamental element of evolution. It therefore creates species that can adapt to new environments and that cannot be wiped out by a single disease. However, sexual reproduction requires significant energy on the part of the organism to find a mate. It is not well suited to organisms that are isolated or stuck in place.

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