Attributive Appositive Clauses
Only the unity of these three elements forms a language; without any one of them there is no human language in the above sense. The phonological system is the subfoundation of language; it determines the material (phonetical) appearance of its significative units. The lexical system is the whole set of naming means of language, that is, words and stable wordgroups. The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances as the embodiment of thinking process.
The grammatical description of language is effected by the science of grammar. In the following work you’ll be introduced to the main unit of speech-the sentence, and specifically to the attributive appositive clauses. I’ll illustrate them from the grammatical viewpoint. The term paper is composed of two chapters. The first chapter gives a minute introduction to the sentence, i. e. we’ll go through different definitions of a sentence stated by different linguists, will discuss the types of sentences according to their purpose of utterance and structure.
We’ll learn that according to the structure simple and composite sentences are distinguished. Going further we’ll see that composite sentences, in their turn, are divided into more complex groups. In the second chapter attributive appositive clauses will be illustrated with their respective subgroups. And in the end you’ll be introduced to the conclusion of the term paper, the purpose of which is to combine and dispose all the information we have in the following work. So, let’s go ahead and begin reading from the first chapter. Chapter 1 1. General Overview of Sentence The notion of sentence has not so far received a satisfactory definition, which would enable us by applying it in every particular case to find out whether a certain linguistic unit is a sentence or not. There are different definitions of sentence given by linguists. Now I’ll introduce some of them in the following 3 paragraphs: According to Bloomfield a sentence is an “independent linguistic form, not included by virtue of any grammatical construction in any larger linguistic form”.
Kaushanskaya thinks that a sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of the language and which serves as the chief means of conveying a thought (line 1, page 221, chapter 15, V. L. Kaushanskaya “Grammar of the English Language”, Moscow 2000). M. Y. Blokh states that a sentence is the immediate integral unit of speech built up of words according to a definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a contextually relevant communicative purpose. Any coherent connection of words having an informative destination is effected within the framework of the sentence.
Therefore the sentence is the main object of syntax as part of the grammatical theory (line 19, page 236, chapter 21, M. Y. Blokh “A Course In Theoretical English Grammar”, Moscow 1983). 1. 2 Classification of Sentences. The Classification of Sentences According to the Purpose of Utterance The classification of sentences is based on two factors: A) the purpose of utterance B) the structure According to the purpose of the utterance we distinguish between four kinds of sentences. 1) The declarative sentence. A declarative sentence states a fact in the affirmative or negative form.
In a declarative sentence the subject precedes the predicate. It is generally pronounced with a falling intonation. Ex. George Gordon Byron was a British poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. I don’t know anything more dismal than that business. (Thackeray) 2) The interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence asks a question. It is formed by means of inversion, i. e. by placing the predicate (or part of it) before the subject (unless the subject of the interrogative word, in which case there is no inversion.
There are four kinds of questions: a) General question requiring the answer yes or no and spoken with a rising intonation. They are formed by placing part of the predicate, i. e. the auxiliary or modal verb before the subject of the sentence. Ex. What’s the matter now, my dear? (Thackeray) Can you walk now? (Thackeray) b) Special questions beginning with an interrogative word and spoken with a falling intonation. The order of words is the same as in general questions, but the interrogative word precedes the auxiliary verb. Ex. When are you coming back? Thackeray) c) Alternative questions, indication choice and spoken with a rising intonation in the first part and falling intonation In the second part. Ex. Is he coming tonight or tomorrow? (Thackeray) d) Disjunctive questions requiring the answer yes or no and consisting of an affirmative statement followed by a negative question, or a negative statement followed by an affirmative question. The first part is spoken with a falling intonation and the second part with a rising intonation. Ex. She is beautiful, isn’t she? (Thackeray) 3) The imperative sentence.
An imperative sentence serves to induce a person to do something, so it expresses a command, a request, an invitation, etc. Commands are characterized by a falling tone. Ex. Leave the room immediately! (Thackeray) Requests and invitations are characterized by a rising intonation. Ex. Hand me that paper, please! (Thackeray) 4) The exclamatory sentence. An exclamatory sentence expresses some kind of emotion or feeling. It often begins with the words what and how, it is always in the declarative form, I. e. no inversion takes place. It is generally spoken with a falling intonation. Ex. Good Heavens Miss Sharp! Thackeray) Though In modern linguistics it has been demonstrated that exclamatory sentences do not possess the necessary qualities that could place them on one level with those mentioned above, but still, we do consider it as a type of a sentence according to the purpose of utterance. So, this principle of classification is also called “types of communication”. 1. 3 The Classification of Sentences According to the Structure Depending on their predicative complexity sentences can be monopredicative (one predicative line in them) and polypredicative (more than one predicative line).
So, according to the structure we state two main types: simple sentences (one predicative line) and composite sentences (more than one predicative line). 1. 3. 1 The Simple Sentence A simple sentence is a sentence having only a subject, a predicate, and sometimes an object. According to their structure simple sentences are divided into two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two principal members- a subject and a predicate. Ex. Fleur established immediate contact with an architect. (Galsworthy) This sentence has both a subject and a predicate.
The subject is Fleur and the predicate is established. So, that’s why it is considered to be a two-member sentence. A two-member sentence may be complete or incomplete. It is complete when it has a subject and a predicate. Ex. He gave Harry a hearty wink. (Harry potter and the Chamber off secrets) In the above mentioned sentence he is the subject and gave is the predicate. So, the sentence is complete because it has both a subject and a predicate. A sentence is considered incomplete when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context.
Such sentences are called elliptical and are mostly used in colloquial speech and especially in dialogue. Ex. What were you doing? Drinking (Shaw) In the above mentioned sentence (“Drinking”) the subject is missing and the predicate is partially present, but from the context we can easily infer that the subject would be I, and the full sentence would look like this: I was drinking. A one-member sentence is a sentence having only one member which is neither the subject nor the predicate.
This does not mean, however, that the other member is missing, for the one member makes the sense complete. One-member sentences are generally used in descriptions and in emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member sentence is expressed by a noun, the sentence is called nominal. The noun may be modified by attributes. Ex. Freedom! Bells ringing out, flowers, kisses, wine. (Heym) The main part of a one member sentence may often be expressed by an infinitive. Ex. To be or not to be! Simple sentences, both two-member and one-member, can be unextended and extended.
A sentence consisting only of the primary or principal parts is called an unextended sentence. Ex. She is a student. Winter! An extended sentence is a sentence consisting of the subject, the predicate and one or more secondary parts (objects, attributes, or adverbial modifiers). Ex. The two native women stole furtive glances at Sarie. (Abrahams) 1. 3. 2 The Composite Sentence A composite sentence is a sentence that consists of two or more clauses. A clause is a part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate of its own.
There are two main types: independent (principal clauses), dependent (subordinate clauses). An independent (principal) clause is a complete sentence; it contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning. Ex. The door opened. A dependent (subordinate) clause is part of a sentence; it contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. Subordinate clauses can make sense on their own, but, they are dependent on the rest of the sentence for context and meaning. When these clauses join they form composite sentences.
The composite sentence, as different from the simple sentence, is formed by two or more predicative lines. Being a polypredicative construction, it expresses a complicated act of thought, i. e. an act of mental activity which falls into two or more intellectual efforts closely combined with one another. In terms of situations and events this means that the composite sentence reflects two or more elementary situational events viewed as making up a unity; the constitutive connections of the events are expressed by the constitutive connections of the predicative lines of the sentence, i. . by the sentential polypredication. Each predicative unit in a composite sentence makes up a clause in it, so that a clause as part of a composite sentence corresponds to a separate sentence as part of a contextual sequence. Ex. When I sat down to dinner I looked for an opportunity to slip in casually the information that I had by accident run across the Driffields; but news travelled fast in Blackstable. (S. Maugham) The cited composite sentence includes four clauses which are related to one another on different semantic grounds.
The sentences underlying the clauses are the following: I sat down for dinner. I looked for an opportunity to slip in casually the information. I had by accident run across the Driffields. News travelled fast in Blackstable. The use of composite sentences, especially long and logically intricate ones, is characteristic of literary written speech rather than colloquial oral speech. This unquestionable fact is explained by three reasons: one relating to the actual needs of expression; one relating to the possibilities of production; and one relating to the onditions of perception. Composite sentences display two principal types of construction: subordination (hypotaxis) and coordination (parataxis). The initial rise of subordination and coordination as forms of composite sentences can be traced back to the early stages of language development, i. e. to the times when language had no writing. By coordination the clauses are arranged as units of syntactically equal rank, i. e. equipotently; by subordination, as units of unequal rank, one being categorically dominated by the other.
In terms of the positional structure of the sentence it means that by subordination one of the clauses (subordinate) is placed in a notional position of the other (principal). The means of combining clauses into a polypredicative sentence are divided into syndetic, i. e. conjunctional, and asyndetic, i. e. non-conjunctional. Ex. He knew here were excuses for his father, yet he felt sick at heart. (Cronin) The month was July, the morning fine, the glass-door stood a jar, through it played a fresh breeze. (Ch.
Bronte) Besides the classical types of coordination and subordination of clauses, we find another case of the construction of composite sentence, namely, when the connection between the clauses combined in a polypredicative unit is expressly loose, placing the sequential clause in a syntactically detached position. In this loosely connected composite, the sequential clause information is presented rather as an afterthought, an idea that has come to the mind of the speaker after the completion of the foregoing utterance, which later, by this new utterance-forming effort, is forcibly made into the clausal fore-part of a composite sentence.
This kind of syntactic connection comes under the heading of cumulation. Its formal sign is often the tone of sentential completion followed by a shorter pause than an inter-sentential one, which intonational complex is represented in writing by a semi-final punctuation mark, such as semi-colon, a dash, sometimes a series of periods. Ex. He uttered no other words of greeting; there was too strong a rush of mutual consciousness. (Eliot) In the composite sentences the constitutive predicative lines are expressed separately and explicitly: composite sentences are formed by minimum two clauses each having a subject and a predicate of its own.
Alongside of these “completely” composite sentences, there exist constructions in which one explicit predicative line is combined with another one, the latter being not explicitly or completely expressed. To such constructions belong, for instance, sentences with homogeneous predicates, as well as sentences with verbid complexes. Ex. Philip ignored the question and remained silent. These predicative constructions should be called semi-composite sentences. We divide composite sentences into compound and complex sentences.