B2b In SmeS Perspectives And Future Challenges

7 July 2017

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? B2b In Sme? S: Positions And Future Challenges? , Essay, Research Paper

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Purpose and Content

The Forrester study ( Feb. 2000 ) in an article entitled? eMarketplaces Boost B2B Trade. ? Predicts that? B2B ( concern to concern ) e-commerce will make $ 2.7 trillion in 2004. While Internet trade between single spouses will go on to boom, eMarketplaces will fuel most of the growing making 53 % of all online concern trade in five years. ? These figures would propose that it is imperative that SME? s embrace the e-commerce universe that is blossoming around them, to disregard it, could be the concern equivalent of harakiri.

In this thesis entitled? B2B in SME? s: Positions and Future Challenges? , The chances and challenges faced by SME? s in the B2B environment will be examined in item. Disruptive engineerings and reiterating forms in retailing will be reviewed and the new developing schemes and concern theoretical accounts available utilizing the Internet will be discussed and the benefits they bring to both purchasers and Sellerss will be investigated as portion of the research survey. Primary research will be conducted, analysed, reviewed and presented to exemplify the manner in which SME directors? position B2B commercialism. The research inquiries steering the reported work will be detailed subsequently.

1.2 E-commerce: An Introduction

Electronic Commerce ( e-commerce ) is a agency of utilizing the power of computing machines, the Internet and shared package to direct and have merchandise specifications and drawings ; commands, purchase orders and bills ; and any other type of informations that needs to be communicated to clients, providers, employees or the public. ( thirty ) E-commerce is the new, profitable manner to behavior concern which goes beyond the simple motion of information and expands electronic minutess from point-of-sale demands, finding and production programming, right through to invoicing, payment and reception. E-commerce utilizations cardinal criterions and engineerings including Electronic Data Interchange, Technical Data Interchange, Hypertext Mark-up Language, extensile Mark-up Language, and the Standard for Exchange of Product theoretical account informations. E-commerce is made possible through the expanded engineerings of the Internet, the World Wide Web, and Value-Added Networks.

The Internet is making unprecedented and apparently infinite chances for both its concerns and clients. Yet it is altering so fast that the velocity of alteration and the sheer figure of picks available to companies frequently overwhelm directors and clients likewise. In add-on to this the regulations of the Web are somewhat different to those of traditional concerns. E-commerce is non constrained by the regulations that have restricted companies historically in the normal codifications of concern behavior. Companies can now put new criterions in profitableness and efficiency. This is turn leads to the consumer, in either the concern to concern ( B2B ) sector or concern to client ( B2C ) sector, acquiring the right merchandise, in the right clip, to the right topographic point for the right monetary value, this will be referred to as the retail merchants mission. ( Thirty )

An extra property of the Internet is that it lacks a cardinal authorization, in other words, there is no? Internet, Inc. ? which controls the Internet. Beyond the assorted government boards that work to set up policies and criterions, the Internet is bound by few regulations and replies to no individual administration.

1.3 Disruptive Technologies

? A riotous engineering enables advanced companies to make new concern theoretical accounts that alter the economic sciences of their industry? . ( Christensen and Bower 1995 )

In retailing the Internet is non the first such break that came with the outgrowth of the section shop and was closely followed by the mail order catalogue. Then followed price reduction section shops and eventually, in the early 1990? s came the Internet, the 4th disrupter. Internet companies such as Amazon.com are altering the manner things are bought and sold. These Internet companies pose powerful menaces to rivals with more conventional concern theoretical accounts. ? As with earlier breaks, Internet retailing has ab initio focused on simple ware. The inquiry is how fast will e-tailers travel upmarket? ? Evans and Wurster ( 1999 )

1.4 Retailing Forms

? The Past may non state us everything about the hereafter of electronic commercialism but it reveals more than we anticipate? Christensen and Tedlow ( 2000 ) . Retailing since its origin has been all about profitableness. Profitableness is mostly determined by two factors: borders and the frequence at which stocks can be turned over. However, while such breaks change the economic sciences if an industry they do non needfully hold to consequence profitableness. Department shops in the early 1900? s were gaining a gross border of 40 % this coupled with an mean stock list turnover of three times per annum, gave an one-year return on capital invested of 120 % . The price reduction section shops so operated with gross borders of 23 % with one-year stock list turnover of five, giving 115 % , a figure rather similar to their predecessors. The 4th retailing break is now underway, instituted by the Internet, a company like Amazon.com can turn their stock list over a astonishing 25 times a twelvemonth, a simple generation now determines that a gross border of 5 % is merely necessary to vie with their traditional challengers. It is clearly seeable that the Internet is presenting unusually good on three out of four points of the retail merchant? s mission, with the exclusion being clip.

1.5 Deductions for SME? s in Ireland

The reported work seeks to analyze such alterations in an Irish context and measure the deductions of Internet alterations for the SME sector in Ireland. Specifically, the undertaking will analyze managerial attitudes and sentiments towards B2B commercialism and the challenges faced by such companies in the germinating Internet economic system. The undermentioned research inquiries are of significance to the survey:

Is there an apprehension of e-commerce, the Internet and B2B amongst SME directors?

Are they familiar with the ways of to the full using B2B?

What are the chances for engagement in B2B?

What are the benefits for engagement in B2B? Are at that place effects if non?

What investings are necessary in preparation and development?

What manner will it consequence bing concern relationships?

Chapter 2

The Evolving E-commerce Economy

2.1 Introduction

This thesis will analyze B2B minutess in an SME context and will seek to find the nature and extent of B2B among little concerns in the Southeast part. The alteration the Internet offers, is the improved efficiency in interchanging information. The dealing costs have declined and it is easier and cheaper for a company to interchange information with other companies. Enormous information engineering investings are no longer needed to interact with supply concatenation spouses electronically. The solutions should be within range for all companies independent of size.

2.2 Definitions of E-commerce

? E-commerce is the ability to execute minutess affecting the exchange or usage of goods or services between two or more parties utilizing electronic tools and techniques? . Treese and Stewart ( 1998 ) Some chief engineerings have made e-commerce feasible? World Wide Web, Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ) , Electronic Fundss Transfer ( EFT ) and E-mail.

? EDI is the inter-organisational, computer-to-computer exchange of concern certification in a criterion, machine-processable format. EFT was designed to optimize electronic payments with electronically provided remittal information. ? Kalakota and Whinston ( 1997 )

E-commerce provides the capableness of purchasing and merchandising merchandises and information via telephone lines, computing machine webs, and other electronic agencies. The Internet, the largest web of computing machine webs, is the medium normally favoured for electronic commercialism because it allows an administration to cut service costs while increasing the velocity of service bringing.

E-commerce is considered a primary agencies by which administrations may spread out quickly into the high growing emerging markets of the universe. This is possible because, foremost as multinational companies become skilled in their usage of the Internet, they will be able to prosecute planetary electronic commercialism more expeditiously, salvaging of import advertisement, communicating, and administrative costs. Second, the Internet can increase reactivity by advising single clients when new merchandises in their countries of involvement become available and by making customised merchandises and services. Third and eventually, multinational companies utilizing the Internet can increase their cognition about consumer wonts, be able to specify tendencies, and turn consumer statistics into long-run client relationships. Boudreau et Al ( 1998 )

2.3 B2B E-commerce

Forrester Research defines business-to-business e-commerce as? inter-company trade in which the concluding order is placed over the Internet? . The definition is constricted, since the order is merely one of the minutess needed between merchandising spouses.

It is? Information and telecommunication enabled coaction across horizontal and perpendicular value ironss? . ( Eloranta 2000 ) E-business creates a platform for co-ordinating demand/supply ironss and wider concern webs. Another facet at micro degree is that e-business makes it possible to capture a huge figure of one-to-one relationships.

E-business theoretical accounts are? all the concern theoretical accounts utilizing the Internet as a agency of information bringing? ( Huttunen 2000 ) . This definition is embracing, since it includes all sorts of relationships.

B2B e-commerce was born out of an effort to work out an administrative job. It developed a new computing machine criterion to manage these demands, which became known as EDI, Electronic Data Interchange. Today its descendent, XML, a igniter, simpler informations interchange criterion is used by B2B sites. Simple e-commerce sites foremost appeared in 1992. The early e-commerce sites were practical catalogues, merely naming merchandises for sale. Ordering was off-line, through electronic mail, phone or facsimile. By 1996 the engineering had advanced greatly to bring forth practical shops with shopping carts, client histories and, with the development of protocols such as Secure Socket Layer, enabled clients to order and pay for their purchase on-line straight by recognition card. ( World Wide Web. Shelron.com? E-commerce: A Brief History? . 2000 )

B2B e-commerce rapidly became popular with consumers and providers. For clients, it was fast, easy and efficient, leting them to compare merchandises, monetary value and service before purchase. For providers, it allowed them to make an limitless international audience, 24 hours a twenty-four hours, 7 yearss a hebdomad at decreased costs. Today e-commerce is widely used and turning fast. B2B is the largest, fastest turning and most profitable market. Harmonizing to the Internet Development Company ( IDC ) , this twelvemonth, it is expected to account for two tierces of universe broad e-commerce. B2C is besides expected to turn, boosted by Broadband ( high-speed ) Internet entree to more online families. Future progresss include digital money and e-wallets, and & # 8216 ; personal agents & # 8217 ; that aid users find what they are looking for and of class WAP phones. Sites can work with fulfilment Centres supplying clients with first-class service and providers with information, and can back up the newest tendency for human interaction in e-commerce client service.

2.4 The Importance of the Internet in B2B trade

In an AT Kearney Report ( AT Kearney, 1999 ) possible channel schemes that the Internet offers are outlined as follows:

a ) Selling

B ) Electronic selling, advertisement and publicity

degree Celsius ) Digital distribution of goods and services

vitamin D ) After-market merchandises and client support

In the country of operations, the undermentioned utilizations of the Internet have been listed ( AT Kearney, 1999 ) :

a ) Online publications and communications

B ) Procurement and sourcing

degree Celsius ) Digital co-operatives

vitamin D ) Transportation system and logistics

vitamin E ) Digital supply concatenation

degree Fahrenheit ) Digital constellation

g ) Global communicating and production

H ) Integrated enterprise resource planning systems

I ) Variable pricing

2.5 Some Impacts of the Internet on Business-to-Business ( B2B ) E-commerce

It has already been suggested that the Internet will revolutionize the traditional ways of making concern ; and it will besides convey alterations for the B2B sector. These may be detailed as follows: –

a ) Entree to more spouses, clients or providers

If within consumer concerns there exists an chance to make a broad group of consumers, in the B2B country at that place besides exists an chance to make more providers, even globally. It is non a job to portion gross revenues and stock list information with more providers with company benefits through lower buying monetary values.

B ) Outsourcing and specialization

Manufacturers and distributers are in a more hard state of affairs. While demands have grown, velocity, truth, service degree and customisation demands are high. While specialization is needed, outsourcing has become more attractive as it is more cost-efficient than earlier thanks to more efficient communicating. Henriott ( 1999 )

However, non all companies outsource their production. They fear losing control over rational belongings and quality or leaking inventions to rivals. They besides want to maintain in touch with clients and industry tendencies. Engardio ( 1998 )

degree Celsius ) The altering function of the client

Relationships may alter in B2B e-commerce. Customer know-how is employed in many e-commerce instances, as the client has the installation to configure the merchandise required and in some instances the control of the supply concatenation is besides client controlled. The client is now more demanding and is pleased to acquire information about the bringing phases. A more active client now exists and performs tasks old carried out by the provider. The terminal consequence, a more satisfied client. Henriott ( 1999 ) , Slywotzky ( 2000 )

In incorporate supply chains the spouses become more loyal, the relationships deeper and the ties between the companies stronger. However, the Internet offers the client a manner to seek out lowest monetary values and forms a menace for strong trueness. Slywotzky ( 2000 ) Prahalad ( 2000 )

Customers are equipped with more information utilizing e-commerce. They become more demanding and this requires the supply concatenation to be flexible, speedy and accurate. As clients control the supply concatenation, the power displacements from providers to clients.

vitamin D ) The altering constructions

Lancioni et Al. ( 2000 ) in an article? The Role of the Internet in Supply Chain Management? Predict that supply ironss will shorten as a effect of B2B e-business. Companies may be in direct communicating with clients, industrial or consumers, when it is a inquiry of gross revenues or selling. But, because outsourcing additions, there will be instances where supply chains become longer and/or more complicated.

vitamin E ) Better service degrees

The article farther lineations that? quality degrees of the operations will increase in B2B e-commerce. Tradeoffs are no longer needed, ends refering service degrees and stock list degrees, for illustration, are no longer options. However, the demands and outlooks have grown excessively. What was antecedently regarded as an first-class service may now be taken as a given.

degree Fahrenheit ) Collaboration

? In the country of supply concatenation direction, the usage of the Internet is on a rather low degree. A study of the function of the Internet in supply concatenation direction? ( Lancioni et al. 2000 ) indicated that the Internet seems to be used merely in individual minutess. The study did non concentrate on coaction or the alterations in the construction of a supply concatenation caused by the Internet. There appears to be huge possibilities that remain fresh.

2.6 The Impact of B2B E-commerce for Irish SME? s

Jim Coffey, SoftCo CEO, addressed the Chartered Accountants in Business Conference of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland, 26 September 2000. He saying that? B2B ecommerce is all about set uping win-win trading relationships. Astute concerns view the Internet as a omnipresent web, enabling them to streamline their supply ironss, enter moneymaking new markets and trade electronically. The New Economy demands that administrations rethink their existing concern schemes, as those that do non take an aggressive attack and follow new and advanced concern theoretical accounts could happen themselves at a terrible competitory disadvantage?

Further McGowan has suggested that? I see electronic commercialism is nil less than a revolution, which will alter the footing of making concern? McGowan ( 1999 )

Electronic Commerce represents as Kieran McGowan justly pointed out nil less than a revolution in the manner concern is carried out. As the reported work has indicated before, e-commerce basically changes the concern environment. It leads to different mediators, new merchandises, new markets and new concern consumer relationships every bit good as new channels for spreading cognition and for interaction in the workplace. The potency is immense as Irish B2B ecommerce minutess are predicted to turn from $ 500million in 1996 to $ 62 billion by the year-end 2000. McGuinness ( 1999 )

The SME sector is critical to the economic success of the Irish state, given the part of little concern to economic growing and occupation creative activity. Business with under 50 employees account for 98 % of the state & # 8217 ; s concerns and more than 90 % of Irish concerns employ fewer than 10 people. Harmonizing to the National Competitiveness Council & # 8217 ; s Annual Competitiveness Report 1998, SME & # 8217 ; s are an indispensable component of national fight. A well-developed and vivacious SME sector will be an of import beginning of invention. Most new houses begin in the SME sector and they can besides be a genteelness land for new merchandises and services.

2.7 The Irish Situation

Given the above statistics, it would be just to state that B2B e-commerce offers legion chances to concerns, but are Irish SME? s taking advantage of the chances afforded to them by e-commerce, specifically in the concern to concern context.

The Annual Competitiveness Report 1998 points out that in general IT applications are used less by SME? s than by larger concerns. The chief grounds for this are the high costs associated with the applications, their hapless suitableness to the demands of the little concern and the SME? s ain deficiency of IT knowledge. The study besides points out that SME? s are besides at a disadvantage with respect to telecommunication costs. Unlike larger endeavors they are non they are non in a place to negociate bulk price reductions. Given these barriers it would look improbable that Irish SME? s are prehending the chances offered by ecommerce.

A recent study by the Information Society Commission besides had some distressing statistics sing the usage of information engineering by SME? s. While 62 % of big companies in Ireland see new engineerings as indispensable, merely 22 % of little companies do. A distressing 25 % of SME? s feel that new engineerings will hold small or no impact on their fight. These are issues of importance.

2.8 the Southeast state of affairs

Mary Harney T.D. , An T? naiste and Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment officially launched the Wales & A ; Ireland e-commerce ( WIRECOM ) enterprise in Ireland. WIRECOM is an Interreg supported inaugural designed to assist SMEs in the South East of Ireland and West Wales place how e-Commerce can help in the development of their concern. It is envisaged that, with the aid of WIRECOM, Southeast SMEs will be better prepared and resourced to vie in the e-commerce universe of the hereafter.

Talking at the launch the T? naiste said & # 8220 ; The planetary nature of modern communicating engineerings will shrivel the planet and make off with the obstruction of distance. This presents many chances for little concern. Small concern has the quality of flexibleness, rapidly accommodating to a quickly altering environment and reacting to new market conditions and alterations originating from such things as economic restructuring, technological alteration and new production methods. Today & # 8217 ; s launch of an advanced new e-Commerce enterprise, will ease advanced SMEs in successfully viing in the planetary marketplace. & # 8221 ;

Initial research by the WIRECOM undertaking squad has revealed that the acceptance of e-commerce by SMEs in the South East of Ireland is dawdling behind that of the National norm.

& # 8220 ; We have found that although there is strong general consciousness of e-Commerce amongst the concern community in the South East, there is still a reluctance or awkwardness to implement e-Commerce tools such as e-mail and online merchandising which is at discrepancy with National tendencies. & # 8221 ; said Patrick Munden Project Manger WIRECOM.

& # 8220 ; Merely 35 % of fabrication companies in the South East usage electronic mail and an even lower figure ( 12 % ) have implemented web sites or electronic catalogues & # 8221 ; , he continued.

These statistics when viewed against the recent findings of the Information Society committee, which stated that the National norm for e-mail use is 80 % and Website execution at 55 % , indicate that concern in the Southeast is dawdling behind.

The WIRECOM undertaking will turn to these issues and is offering free e-Commerce ratings to selected SMEs in the Southeast which will be undertaken by experient concern advisers from the South East Business Innovation Centre, in association with research helpers from the Waterford Institute of Technology.

Advisers will see the SME, learn its procedures, discourse its concern issues and place how e-commerce can better concern efficiencies. Research will so set up how e-commerce is impacting on that SME? s peculiar Industry and place what providers, rivals and clients are making online. A study is so presented to the SME detailing the options available and urging possible schemes for the best manner frontward.

If an SME has already implemented e-commerce tools, such as a Website, the undertaking advisers can give a non-biased position of its effectivity and will place selling techniques to increase the site? s productivity and the overall benefit of the site to the SME.

The undertaking is unfastened to all little and average sized companies in fabrication or Internationally Traded Services in the Southeast part and is being operated in concurrence with several bureaus in West Wales where a similar programme for Welsh SMEs is presently in operation.

The undertaking is funded by the EU Interreg II Programme and will be running until March 2001.

Chapter 3

B2B: The Challenges and Potential Benefits for the SME Sector.

3.1 Introduction: B2B E-commerce Potential Benefits and Challenges

A 3 Com proficient paper Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? States there is a broad scope of possible benefits actuating today? s SME? s to set about B2B e-commerce enterprises, including the followers:

a ) Cost decrease via improved logistics and direction. The chances range from basic electronic information bringing to easing transactional exchanges of information. Such applications can make tighter links among concern spouses, bettering the efficiency of the assorted support maps involved in conveying merchandises to market.

B ) Improved competitory position. Rapid growing, efficient decrease of merchandise time-to-market, and optimization of merchandise distribution channels contribute to a superior competitory place.

degree Celsius ) Improved internal information entree. Quantitative and qualitative betterments to information entree for forces can give large final payments for the SME. Business countries such as the development of concern chances and concern scheme are peculiarly rich in this regard.

In the emerging networked economic system, established companies are happening that they must follow B2B e-commerce in order to fend off competition. Newer, smaller, and/or other-market companies are come ining new markets as traditional barriers fall. Unless bing SME? s prepare to run into this competitory challenge, these new participants may be better positioned to heighten their supply ironss, acquire to market more rapidly, or purchase engineering to gain procedure efficiencies.

3.2 Challenges to Implement Operations Models Enabled by the Internet

? Gaining those immense possibilities the Internet offers is non an easy undertaking. Implementing a new operations theoretical account is hard. The companies must hold on rules, specifications, duties and cost sharing. This undertaking is expensive and time-consuming. ? Lee, Whang, ( 1999 )

Besides the whole industry may hold to be restructured. ? A Company must be able to transform itself to vie efficaciously in the new state of affairs. It is hard to alter established concern patterns. This state of affairs attracts new advanced companies, because they don? Ts have old constructions and methods? Prahalad, Ramasvamy ( 2000 ) .

? Material handling may go a hurdle for implementing a new concern theoretical account. Many authors propose, that outsourcing transit or repositing or constellation is a solution? Wilson ( 1999 ) Requirements are high for such jobbers. Implementing a cost-efficient bringing solution that is fast, accurate and flexible and is able to custom-make merchandises may be a hard equation to work out.

3 Com farther adds that? Businesss successful with B2B e-commerce are those that have learned to turn to several cardinal challenges?

a ) Identify/measure quantifiable concern aims Businesses must accurately mensurate the impact an e-business enterprise has on a concern procedure in order to guarantee that enterprises are presenting on their promises. A common ground for non making this is a deficiency of apprehension of the relevant engineerings and their e-business deductions.

B ) Define concern procedures. To back up measuring, concern procedures must be good defined. Companies should make theoretical accounts of bing procedures and interactions, finding the relevant events, clip frames, resources, and costs associated with the concern procedure. This theoretical account is so used to assist streamline and measure new electronic procedures, and serves as a benchmark for finding return on investing.

degree Celsius ) Identify distinguishable value-propositions of equal value-chain entities. Each concern entity in the value concatenation must clearly understand the value propositions of each other entity. An e-commerce-enabled application may stand for value to one participant but have impersonal or even negative value to others. Enterprises with such instabilities can gnaw the concern confederation they were intended to back up.

vitamin D ) Align concern administrations with IT architecture. The concern must be organised to let the demands of lines-of-business ( LOBs ) to be reconciled with the common architectural model developed by IT. IT may move as a accelerator within the endeavor to organize assorted LOB enterprises within the range of an e-business commission. A LOB may besides defend e-business enterprises, while the IT group maps as affair, guaranting architectural unity across the LOB enterprises.

vitamin E ) Understand security issues. Even the most demanding security considerations can be addressed cost-effectively for the huge bulk of concerns. The nucleus security issue is unchanged. Security demands must be accurately identified and matched with appropriate mechanisms.

degree Fahrenheit ) Ensure organisational/operational flexibleness. Business dealing growing, expanded markets, and increased information handiness can go resistless alteration agents. However good organised the concern was before deployment of e-business enterprises, the state of affairs will needfully alter as the consequence of the enterprises. Administrations must preposition themselves in their construction every bit good as in executing to boom in a significantly more dynamic environment. Businesss must put accomplishable ends and parametric quantities and run within them. ? Do non assure following twenty-four hours bringing if this is unattainable. ?

SMEs have challenges similar to that of large concerns but they do non hold the benefits of economic sciences of graduated table, which make it riskier for SMEs to put in E-business engineering. The Challenges are frequently the same for SMEs whether they pattern conventional or practical concern.

A major challenge for the SME is whether they have the fiscal resources to put in engineering and other related costs for developing an E-business, or including E-business as a scheme to their existing operations.

Human resources need to be in topographic point to run into the demands, so holding staff to develop a new type of concern, holding the appropriate accomplishment base within the administration, pulling and retaining employees with applicable accomplishments are all critical for the SME. This may be really hard in today? s concern clime but it is indispensable to run E-business decently.

Finding sufficient clip to put in the development and execution of an E-business bundle is besides a critical factor. Hazard taking can be dashing for an SME compared to larger administrations, peculiarly in ventures that are still comparatively new, unfamiliar and unsure.

3.3 B2B E-Commerce Quality Challenges

Speer ( 2000 ) in an article: ? Requirements in E-Commerce Testing? provinces that? The importance of quality confidence and proving mechanisms is supported by the well-publicised clangs of outstanding e-commerce sites, and relentless concerns about bandwidth, security, and privateness. In an intensely competitory market place, rigorous quality criterions are associated with concerns that survive. With the competition merely a chink off, quality must be an active scheme alternatively of simply a motto. ?

If, during peak purchasing seasons a ample fraction of effort

ed Web purchases fail, or if users complain of dropped connexions, so the economic and public dealingss effects can be terrible. The same is besides true when inaccurate records are generated about minutess or clients can non find at the clip of telling if the coveted points are in stock or when bringing can be expected, or if the purchased goods ne’er arrive. Cardinal inquiries about whether it is safe to shop online and, if safe, so if truly cheaper, faster and more convenient than on Main Street, are asked and answered in each possible customer’s site trial experience. If the visitant experience is negative due to decelerate response times, straight-out clangs, or misdemeanors of privateness, consumer assurance can be undermined.

Chapter 4

B2B Strategy and the Future

4.1 Syndication

4.1.1 Syndication an Introduction

Werbach ( 1999 ) opens in an article from the Harvard Business Review entitled? Syndication: The Emerging Model for Business in the Internet Era? that? There? s no inquiry that the Internet is turn overing the old regulations about competition and scheme. But what are the new regulations? Many of them can be found in the construct of syndication, a manner of making concern that has its beginnings in the amusement universe but is now spread outing to specify the construction of e-business. As companies enter syndication webs, they will necessitate to rethink their merchandises, relationships, and even their nucleus capablenesss. ?

The form of content and concern relationships on the Web is tied to an old construct, and that construct is syndication. Traditionally based on the closed universe of the media, it may be the theoretical account that allows the Web to stay unfastened as it grows. As with most new mediums, the Internet incorporates elements of media that existed in the yesteryear. Syndication trades are the lifeblood of today & # 8217 ; s broadcast medium, overseas telegram and newspaper industries, an illustration of this is the sketch heroic poem? The Simpson? s? , which at any given clip on NTL? s web in operation in Ireland they may look on three different channels at the same time. In such agreements, entities that create content ( Gracie Films ) license it out to distributers ( NTL ) , who integrate it with their ain and other offerings ( Network 2, BBC 2 and Sky One ) . Several major Web-based companies adopted the syndication attack early on, though the market has remained reasonably limited.

Werbach ( 1999 ) suggests. ? On-line syndication is now poised to detonate, but even as it changes the Internet, the Internet will alter syndication. On the Web, the construct applies to commerce every bit good as content, and shortly it will widen to dynamic applications. Syndication will germinate into the nucleus theoretical account for the Internet economic system, leting concerns and persons to retain control over their on-line character while basking the benefits of monolithic graduated table and range. The Internet is a communications medium, a platform for commercialism and a distributed computer science environment, all at one time. ?

Syndication unambiguously cuts across the linguistic communication of content, commercialism and computer science. Though normally seen as an artifact of traditional inactive media, syndication tantrums absolutely with the Web & # 8217 ; s fluidness and interactivity. The foundations for permeant Web-based syndication are now being laid, but everyone is still seeking to calculate out merely what the constructions on top will look like. Software sellers, service agency? s, content Godheads, synergistic bureaus and merchandisers are cheating to specify the theoretical accounts for syndication webs. Competitive conflicts are being fought in both criterions organic structures and distinct market places. Whether they realise it or non, all the participants are viing around a deep but under-appreciated Internet challenge: distributed information direction.

4.1.2 Why should Syndication Work?

Werbach ( 1999 ) explains? Up to now Web syndication engineerings and patterns haven & # 8217 ; t generated much attending outside narrow communities of involvement. But shortly, syndication will be perfectly cardinal to the development of most Net concerns. At the same clip, it & # 8217 ; s the hereafter theoretical account for the 1000000s of independent and personal Web-sites that give the Internet its verve. The Internet is acquiring so large that no 1 can be everyplace. Syndication allows sites to widen their presence out to their clients, and gives those clients tools to aggregate the information and maps they wish to see.

Syndication works so good on-line because everything takes the signifier of information. In the physical universe, syndication involves a batch of printing, collection and driving picture reels about. On the Web, as the transportation of content becomes simpler, the relationships can go more complex. Add to that the ability to assemble information dynamically or even to put to death applications with rights and privileges assigned among assorted parties, and things start to acquire interesting. Syndication has been traditionally rare in the concern environment for three grounds. First syndication works merely with information goods ; this is because information is non a consumable

Merchandise, it remains available and infinite sum of people can utilize the same information. Second, syndication requires modularity. Syndicated goods are non normally merchandises in themselves, despite holding considerable value. Shane Ross? s concern subdivision in? The Sunday Independent? is really popular, nevertheless, would it be purchased as a individual entity? Finally, to guarantee the success of syndication many distributers are required. There would be small point of making many different combinations and constellations of content if there is merely one distributer or the content Godhead controls distribution. This would put a chokehold or monopolize the state of affairs, as was the instance in the early yearss of film in the US, with Warner Bros. declining to demo MGM movies in their theaters and visa versa.

4.1.3 The Three Syndication Roles

Werbach ( 1999 ) high spots that within syndication webs concern can play one or more of three functions.

a ) Originator Originators create as their name suggests original content. The Internet increases the range of conceivers in two ways. It expands the range of the original content and makes it easier for companies to circulate their content globally. It is possible to syndicate any merchandise, service or procedure once they can be as information.

B ) Syndicator Syndicators bring together content from a figure of beginnings and so do it available through digital information. This relieves the distributer from holding to happen and negociate with huge Numberss of conceivers to garner the content they require. Syndicators are rare in the physical concern universe except in the amusement field, but it is going increasingely popular as concern theoretical account on the Internet.

degree Celsiuss ) Distributor Distributors are the clients confronting facet of the concern. Distributors utilizing syndication to take down the cost for geting client content. This allows them to increase value to clients.

Syndication allows conceivers to spread out their range and rush their time-to-market, both critical elements for success in a Web concern. It besides makes it possible for smaller, less commercially oriented sites to portion the benefits of the Internet economic system.

4.1.4 Syndication Summary

As Werbach has discussed, ? The true trademark of the Internet is choice. ? With syndication, any information can be anyplace, because the nexus between creative activity and distribution is broken. There will be many possible waies between companies and their audiences. Many of these waies will be at the same time. The great chance for engineering and service suppliers lies in voyaging the tangle, taking advantage of the best distribution concatenation for a given client at a given minute.

4.2 E-Hubs: The New B2B Markets

4.2.1 Introduction

? As concern to concern commercialism displacements to the Internet, companies that have control over the online markets can exercise enormous influences on the manner participants carry out minutess, form relationships and gaining control profits. ? In an article? E-Hubs: The New B2B Marketplaces. ? Kaplan and Sawhney ( 2000 ) examine the subject of efficient and profitable customisation from a B2B lens by analyzing four types of E-Hubs in the B2B market place, these E-Hubs Lashkar-e-Taiba companies purchase precisely what they want and precisely how they want to purchase it.

Kaplan and Sawhney place four types of E-Hubs:

1. MRO hubs

2. Output Directors

3. Exchanges

4. Catalog Hubs

4.2.2 MRO Hub

MRO ( Maintenance, Repair, and Operating ) hubs are horizontal markets that enable a systematic sourcing of operating inputs. Systematic sourcing of inputs involves negotiated contracts with qualified providers, because the contacts tend to be long term, the purchasers and Sellerss build up a stopping point relationship. By and large used with low value goods with comparatively high dealing costs supplying mostly increasing efficiencies in the procurance procedure.

4.2.3 Output Manager

Output directors are besides horizontal markets that enable topographic point sourcing of operating inputs. Topographic point sourcing is when the purchaser? s end is to carry through an immediate demand at the lowest possible cost. Commodities trading for oil or steel are a good illustration of topographic point sourcing. There is now relationship between purchaser and marketer in fact it is possible for the purchaser non to cognize whom they are covering with. Output directors create topographic point markets for common operating resources like advertisement or labor. This allows companies to spread out or contract their operations on short notice. This type of E-Hub adds the most value in state of affairss with a high grade of monetary value and demand volatility, such as electricity or with high fixed cost assets that can non be liquidated rapidly such as work force.

4.2.4 Exchanges

Exchanges are perpendicular markets that enable topographic point sourcing of fabrication inputs.

They enable procurement specializers to smooth out the extremums and the vales in demand and supply by quickly interchanging the trade goods or close trade goods required for production. The exchange hub maintains relationships with purchasers and Sellerss, this makes it easy for them to carry on concern without the holding to flesh out the castanetss of a relationship with all the connected paperwork.

4.2.5 Catalog Hubs

Catalog hubs are perpendicular markets that enable systematic sourcing of fabrication inputs. They automate the sourcing of non-commodity fabrication inputs, making value by cut downing dealing costs. Catalog hubs conveying together many providers to the easy to utilize Web site. They are industry specific and can be purchaser or marketer focused.

The B2B Matrix

What Businesses Buy?

How Businesses Buy?

Systematic Sourcing

Spot Sourcing Operating Inputs Manufacturing Inputs

MRO Hubs

MRO.com

BizBuyer.com Catalog Hubs

Chemdex

PlasticsNet.com

Output Directors

Steptstone.com

AdAuction.com Exchange Hubs

e-Steel

PapersExchange.com

Fig. 1.The B2B Matrix

4.2.6 Aggregation and Matching

There are obvious differences between systematic and topographic point sourcing this in bend makes the market mechanisms for MRO and Catalog hubs rather distinguishable from that of Yield troughs and Exchange Hubs. E-Hubs creates value by two basically different mechanisms, collection and matching.

E-Hubs under collection brings together a big figure of purchasers and Sellerss under one practical roof. They can cut down dealing cost by supplying one halt store. The collection mechanism is inactive in nature, as monetary values are pre negotiated. An of import facet of collection is that the add-on of another purchaser benefits merely the marketer and the add-on of another marketer benefits merely the purchaser. The ground behind this is that in collection both the purchasers and Sellerss places are fixed.

Unlike in the collection mechanism the matching mechanism is non-static and brings purchaser and Sellerss together in a dynamic existent clip environment. Matching used topographic point sourcing where monetary values are determined at the minute of purchase ; it is possible for the purchase to take topographic point in the signifier of an auction. The functions of the participants in matching is unstable, purchasers can be Sellerss and frailty versa. Therefore the debut of any new traders in to the mechanism can be good to both parties.

4.3 Choiceboards: The age of the Choiceboard

Slywotzky ( 2000 ) suggests that, ? Thankss to the Internet an option to the unhappy theoretical account of supplier-customer interaction is eventually going possible. In most markets clients will be able to plan or depict the exact merchandise or service that they want and supplier will be able to present it with out via media or hold, this is made possible through Choiceboards. Choiceboards are synergistic on line systems the allow persons to plan their ain merchandises by taking from a bill of fare of properties, constituents and monetary values. The client can now travel from being the merchandise taker to merchandise shaper. ?

In? The age of the Choiceboard? , Slywotzky ( 2000 ) , a direction adviser, looks at this synergistic on-line system that allows consumers to custom-make the merchandises or services they order. He anticipates that Choiceboards will rule commercial activity this decennary, as the U.S. economic system displacements from a supply-driven to a demand-driven system. Slywotzky theorises that? because the companies that control Choiceboards will besides command client relationships, ? these companies will be the industry powerhouses that? harvest the king of beasts & # 8217 ; s portion of the net incomes? . The same chances exist for SME? s in the B2B sector.

Dell are already runing a successful on line constellation where clients are planing their ain forces computing machines.

4.4 Hypermediation: Commerce as Clickstream

Carr, a senior editor at Harvard Business Review, argues in an article entitled? Hypermediation: Commerce as clickstream? 2000, that electronic commercialism has greatly enlarged, non eliminated the jobber & # 8217 ; s function in online concern a phenomenon he calls? Hypermediation. ? Those who stand to profit most from electronic commercialism, he says, will be the overplus of Internet mediators such as jobbers and retail merchants ; content suppliers ; developers of affiliate sites, hunt engines, and portals ; Internet service suppliers ; and package shapers. The emerging economic construction of e-commerce, he says, indicates that? net incomes lie in intermediate minutess, non in the concluding sale of a good. ? Carr refers to this as? net income for chinks? . Furthermore, he foresees the most net income fluxing to the proprietors of specialized content sites and the applied scientists who are progressing e-commerce engineerings.

Chapter 5

Primary Research Objectives and Methodology

5.1 Introduction

This chapter shall depict the intents of the research that was undertaken and detail the methods that were employed in the pursuit of these aims. The literature reappraisal has highlighted the impacts that B2B ecommerce is holding on the Irish SME and the manner they in which they conduct concern. The hereafter challenges and alterations for the SME have besides been reviewed. The reported work? B2B in SME? s: Positions and Future Challenges? seeks to analyze such alterations in an Irish context and measure the deductions of the Internet and related engineerings on the SME sector in Ireland. Specifically, the reported work will analyze managerial attitudes and sentiments towards B2B ecommerce and the challenges faced by such companies in the germinating Internet economic system. In order to finish such an scrutiny primary research will be conducted, analysed, reviewed and presented to exemplify the ways in which SME? s directors view B2B ecommerce.

5.2 Aims of Primary Research

The aims of the research may be outlined as follows: –

1. To look into the degrees of apprehension of B2B ecommerce issues in Irish SME? s

2. To detail the extent to which directors are familiar with the chances for take parting in B2B ecommerce

3. To analyze the cost of engagement for SME? s in B2B ecommerce

4. To look into the challenges for troughs of SME? s in take parting in farther ecommerce enterprises

5.3 Secondary and Primary Research

The secondary research that was examined in the literature reappraisal was undertaken utilizing concern diaries, books, newspaper articles, the Internet, desk research and libraries. Ecommerce was introduced with a simple history and background. Followed by the chances and challenges faced by the SME director in the B2B ecommerce environment. Disruptive engineerings and reiterating forms in retailing, the challenges, hurdlings and benefits of e-commerce from the SME? s directors point of view were reviewed. Finally the new developing schemes and concern theoretical accounts available utilizing the Internet were discussed and the benefits they bring the B2B ecommerce environment.

The primary research is to be conducted across a random choice of SME? s in the south E of Ireland. These SME? s were selected across a wide spectrum of industries and service suppliers runing from fabricating companies to linemans, from transport/logistic companies to retail stores. The list was derived partly from the Industrial Development Authority ( IDA ) and partly from the? Business and Shopping Guide? . This was done in order to acquire a wide cross subdivision of SME? s.

5.4 Methodology

The information to be collected is quantitative, based on a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 28 inquiries, which will be forwarded to 100 SME? s via electronic mail, station and from concern relationships. Upon reception of the questionnaire the receiver will be asked to return their completed questionnaire to the writer within a period of two hebdomads. Once the completed questionnaires have been completed, analysis of the information will take topographic point and the consequences will be presented, analysed and discussed. Due to rush of response electronic mail will be utilised to send on and return the questionnaire. However the writer appreciates that this may bias the findings of the research, so a lower limit of 25 per centum of questionnaires will non be sent via electronic mail or any other electronic medium.

5.4.1 Quantitative versus Qualitative Research

Quantitative research designs strive to place and insulate specific variables within the context of the survey. It is a difficult scientific discipline with a narrow focal point and is concise, it? s logical thinking is deductive and logistic. Quantitative research involves nonsubjective measurings where the decrease to Numberss allows for the testing of the hypothesis and the derivation of statistical informations. In quantitative research there is cogency because of the chance to generalize. Quantitative information is collected under controlled conditions in order to govern out the possibility that variables other than the one under survey can account for the relationships identified

Qualitative design focuses on a holistic position of what is being studied via paperss, instance histories, observations and interviews. Qualitative informations are collected within the context of their natural happening. Qualitative research involves the aggregation, analysis and reading of informations that are non easy reduced to Numberss.

Quantitative research has been selected as the methodological analysis for primary research in the reported work because it should give a wide overview of the attitudes and sentiments of SME director? s and B2B ecommerce. Quantitative research is undertaken cognizing that it does hold disadvantages, such as, low response rates, response times, and possible misinformation due to miss of apprehension of the inquiries posed.

5.4.2 Questionnaire

1. How many Employees are at that place in the Company?

2. What is the specific industry/service supplier sector that your concern is involved in? E.g. Electronicss, contract cleansing, retail mercantile establishment.

3. Is there an Information Technology ( IT ) section within the Company?

4. How many Personal Computers ( Personal computer? s ) are at that place in the Company?

5. Make your company have entree to the Internet?

6. Make your company have entree to e-mailing installations?

7. Department of energies you company hold it? s ain Web site?

8. Is there an apprehension of Business to Business ( B2B ) ecommerce within the company? If so give a brief account of what you understand this to be.

9. Make your company use the Internet to do purchases?

10. Make your company use the Internet to do gross revenues?

11. Is your company committed to B2B ecommerce?

12. Make your company believe that B2B ecommerce it is merely another passing craze? Please rate your reply, strongly hold, unsure or strongly differ

13. If the company is already involved in B2B ecommerce is this portion of the company? s strategic program?

14. If so are at that place specific marks for the B2B ecommerce set?

15. If so are these marks monitored?

16. Is your company aware of the deductions of non being involved in B2B ecommerce?

17. What costs did your company experience in going involved in B2B ecommerce?

18. Make your company have to utilize external advisers when puting up your B2B ecommerce?

19. If yes, are these advisers still necessary for the right care of your IT and B2B ecommerce related systems?

20. Was developing and development necessary among your bing staff to derive entry into B2B ecommerce?

21. Has any extra preparation / retraining taken topographic point since get downing in B2B ecommerce?

22. Make your company hire forces specific to the B2B ecommerce map?

23. Make your company experience barriers in deriving entry to B2B ecommerce? Please item e.g. Security issues, velocity of response, bringing clip, methods of payment.

24. Make your company experience any troubles with bing concern relationships whilst following B2B ecommerce?

25. Have your company experienced any troubles since get downing B2B ecommerce?

26. Make your company utilize its engagement in ecommerce as a selling tool?

27. If yes how would you rate the following statement? The usage of B2B ecommerce promotes the company as a progressive forward believing concern?

Please rate your reply, strongly hold, unsure or strongly differ

28. Make your company believe that there is no hereafter for companies who are non involved in B2B ecommerce? Please rate your reply, strongly hold, unsure or strongly disagree.

Mentions

Kafta S J. 2000: ? eMarketplaces Boost B2B Trade? The Forrester Report February 2000

Christensen CM. and Bower JL. 1995: ? Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave? Harvard Business Review January? February 1995

Evans P. and Wurster TS. 2000: ? Geting Real About Virtual Commerce? Harvard Business Review November? December 1999 Product No.4525

Christensen CM. and Tedlow RS. 2000: ? Forms of Disruption in Retailing? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681

Treese GW and Stewart LC 1998: ? Planing Systems for Internet Commerce? Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 1998.

Kalakota R and AB. Whinston 1997: ? Electronic Commerce-A Manager & # 8217 ; s Guide. ? Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1997.

Boudreau MC and Loch KD, Robey D et al.1998: ? Traveling planetary: Using information engineering to progress the fight of the practical multinational administration? . Associated Press, 1998

Eloranta E. 1999: ? A Literature Survey About Current Issues in B2B E-commerce? Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology 1999.

Huttunen M. 2000: ? The Role of Business-to-Business e-Business in Demand-Supply Chain Management. ? A Seminar Work, March 6, 2000, Helsinki University of Technology.

World Wide Web. Shelron.com? E-commerce: A Brief History? . 2000

Kearney AT 1999: Digital Pioneers & # 8211 ; A White Paper on the Practical Applications of Electronic Commerce: ? Separating Ballyhoo from Reality. ?

Henriott LL 1999: ? Transforming Supply Chains into eChains? , Supply Chain Management Review Global Supplement, Spring 1999.

Engardio P 1998: ? Souping up the Supply Chain: Today & # 8217 ; s supercontractors are turning makers into theoretical accounts of efficiency? . Business Week, New York, Aug 31

Slywotzky AJ 2000: ? The Age of the Choiceboard, ? Harvard Business Review January & # 8211 ; February 2000

Prahalad R 2000: ? Co-opting client competence? . Harvard Business Review January? February 2000

Lancioni RA, Smith MF and Oliva TA 2000: ? The Role of the Internet in Supply Chain Management? . Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29, Jan 2000, New York, January 2000

McGuinness J 1999: ? The Impact of Ecommerce on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises? Report prepared by Deputy John McGuinness on behalf of the Joint Committee on Enterprise and Small Business May 1999

Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000

Lee HL and Whang S 1999: ? Sharing Information to Hike the Bottom Line. ?

www-gsb.stanford.edu/research/reports/1999/whang_lee.html

Prahalad R and Ramasvamy N 2000: ? Co-opting client competency. ? Harvard Business Review January & # 8211 ; February 2000

Wilson T 1999: ? Transportation/Logistics: Shippers Deliver the Logistics Goods & # 8211 ; transit service suppliers revamp traditional concern theoretical accounts to streamline client? s supply chain. ? Internetweek, Manhasset, October 1999

Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000

JB Speer Jr.2000: ? Requirements in E-Commerce Testing? Microsoft Enterprise Services White Paper E-Commerce Technical Readiness 2000

Werbach K. ? Syndication: The Emerging Model for Business in the Internet Era. ? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 4703

Kaplan S and Sawhney M. ? E-Hubs: The New B2B Marketplaces? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 469X

Carr N.G. ? Hypermediation: Commerce as Clickstream? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681

Bibliography

Mentions

Kafta S J. 2000: ? eMarketplaces Boost B2B Trade? The Forrester Report February 2000

Christensen CM. and Bower JL. 1995: ? Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave? Harvard Business Review January? February 1995

Evans P. and Wurster TS. 2000: ? Geting Real About Virtual Commerce? Harvard Business Review November? December 1999 Product No.4525

Christensen CM. and Tedlow RS. 2000: ? Forms of Disruption in Retailing? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681

Treese GW and Stewart LC 1998: ? Planing Systems for Internet Commerce? Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 1998.

Kalakota R and AB. Whinston 1997: ? Electronic Commerce-A Manager & # 8217 ; s Guide. ? Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 1997.

Boudreau MC and Loch KD, Robey D et al.1998: ? Traveling planetary: Using information engineering to progress the fight of the practical multinational administration? . Associated Press, 1998

Eloranta E. 1999: ? A Literature Survey About Current Issues in B2B E-commerce? Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Helsinki University of Technology 1999.

Huttunen M. 2000: ? The Role of Business-to-Business e-Business in Demand-Supply Chain Management. ? A Seminar Work, March 6, 2000, Helsinki University of Technology.

World Wide Web. Shelron.com? E-commerce: A Brief History? . 2000

Kearney AT 1999: Digital Pioneers & # 8211 ; A White Paper on the Practical Applications of Electronic Commerce: ? Separating Ballyhoo from Reality. ?

Henriott LL 1999: ? Transforming Supply Chains into eChains? , Supply Chain Management Review Global Supplement, Spring 1999.

Engardio P 1998: ? Souping up the Supply Chain: Today & # 8217 ; s supercontractors are turning makers into theoretical accounts of efficiency? . Business Week, New York, Aug 31

Slywotzky AJ 2000: ? The Age of the Choiceboard, ? Harvard Business Review January & # 8211 ; February 2000

Prahalad R 2000: ? Co-opting client competence? . Harvard Business Review January? February 2000

Lancioni RA, Smith MF and Oliva TA 2000: ? The Role of the Internet in Supply Chain Management? . Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29, Jan 2000, New York, January 2000

McGuinness J 1999: ? The Impact of Ecommerce on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises? Report prepared by Deputy John McGuinness on behalf of the Joint Committee on Enterprise and Small Business May 1999

Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000

Lee HL and Whang S 1999: ? Sharing Information to Hike the Bottom Line. ?

www-gsb.stanford.edu/research/reports/1999/whang_lee.html

Prahalad R and Ramasvamy N 2000: ? Co-opting client competency. ? Harvard Business Review January & # 8211 ; February 2000

Wilson T 1999: ? Transportation/Logistics: Shippers Deliver the Logistics Goods & # 8211 ; transit service suppliers revamp traditional concern theoretical accounts to streamline client? s supply chain. ? Internetweek, Manhasset, October 1999

Anon 2000: ? Business to Business Electronic Commerce. Market Landscapes and Solutions? 3 Com Technical paper 2000

JB Speer Jr.2000: ? Requirements in E-Commerce Testing? Microsoft Enterprise Services White Paper E-Commerce Technical Readiness 2000

Werbach K. ? Syndication: The Emerging Model for Business in the Internet Era. ? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 4703

Kaplan S and Sawhney M. ? E-Hubs: The New B2B Marketplaces? Harvard Business Review May? June 2000. Product No. 469X

Carr N.G. ? Hypermediation: Commerce as Clickstream? Harvard Business Review January? February 2000. Product No. 4681

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