1. Whose financial statements should we prepare (e. g. , the baron, vassals, farms, etc..? ) Solution: The financial statements will be prepared for “Vassals” i. e. for Ivan and Frederick and additionally for “Baron”. 2. What financial statements should we prepare? Solution: The financial statements which should be prepared are as following: ? Income Statement ?Statement of Retained Earnings ?Statement of Cash Flows ?Balance Sheet 3. What period do these statements cover and why (e. g. , year, quarter, month, etc..? ) Solution: The statements will cover two quarters. ?1st Quarter – Summer: When the farmers will grow the wheat.

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Quarter – Fall: When the wheat will be harvested. 4. What currency are these financial statements going to use? Solution: The currency used for the financial statements is “Bushels of Wheat”. 5. Who/ What would be the modern day equivalent of the Baron? Solution: Modern day equivalent of Baron would be private equity firms or investors who invest in businesses to gain maximum value for their investments. 6. Who/ What would be the modern day equivalent of the vassals? Solution: Companies, corporations or even managers can be considered as modern day equivalent to vassals. 7. Who/ What would be the modern day equivalent of the ox?

Solution: Non-current assets which is utilized to manufacture or to increase the efficiency of work with a depreciation value can be considered as modern day equivalent of the ox. More precisely, equipment would be a perfect example of modern day ox which has a depreciation value over time. 8. Answer Financial Statements of Ivan: Beginning Balance Sheet for Ivan Ivan Beginning Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed20 Fertilizer2 Non-Current Assets Ox40 Land100 Total Assets162 LIABILITIES0 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital162

Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity162 Income Statement for Ivan Ivan Income Statement For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Revenue Wheat produced243 Operating Expenses Seed Used20 Fertilized Used2 Ox (Value 40 Bushels, 1 Year Depreciation = 4)4 Plow Usage 3 Total Operating

Page 2 Baron Coburg Case Essay

Expenses 29 Net Income214 Earnings per share(Net Income / # of Shares; = 214/162 = 1. 32)1. 32 **** Assuming every bushel contributed by Baron is worth 1 share **** Statement of Retained Earnings for Ivan Ivan Statement of Retained Earnings For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Beginning Balance,

Retained Earnings at the Start of the Period0 Add: Net Income for the period 214 Total214 Less: Dividends or Withdrawals Baron’s withdrawal (20) Total Deductions(20) Ending Balance Retained Earnings at the end of the period194 Cash Flow Statement for Ivan Ivan Statement of Cash Flows For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Indirect Method Cash Flow from Operations Net Earnings214 Depreciation of Ox4 Plow Usage3 Decrease in Inventory – Fertilizer 2 Net Cash Flow from Operations223 Cash Flow from Investing Activities Plow Purchase0 Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities0 Cash Flow from Financial Activities

Baron Withdrawal (20) Net Cash Flow from Financial Activities(20) Net Increase (Decrease) during the period 203 Balance at the Beginning of the period 20 Balance at the end of the period223 Ending Balance Sheet for Ivan Ivan Ending Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed223 Fertilizer0 Non-Current Assets Ox36 Land100 Total Assets359 LIABILITIES A/C payable 3 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital162 Retained Earnings194 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity359 Financial Statements for Frederick: Starting Balance Sheet for Frederick Frederick

Beginning Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed10 Fertilizer1 Non-Current Assets Ox40 Land50 Total Assets101 LIABILITIES0 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital101 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity101 Income Statement for Frederick Frederick Income Statement For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Revenue Wheat produced138 Operating Expenses Seed Used10 Fertilized Used1 Ox (Value 40 Bushels, 1 Year Depreciation = 4)4 Plow Usage 1 Total Operating Expenses 16 Net Income122 Earnings per share(Net Income / # of Shares; = 122/101 = 1.21)1. 21 **** Assuming every bushel contributed by Baron is worth 1 share **** Statement of Retained Earnings for Frederick Frederick Statement of Retained Earnings For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Beginning Balance, Retained Earnings at the Start of the Period0 Add: Net Income for the period 122 Total122 Less: Dividends or Withdrawals Baron’s withdrawal (30) Total Deductions(30) Ending Balance Retained Earnings at the end of the period92 Cash Flow Statement for Frederick Frederick Statement of Cash Flows For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Indirect Method Cash Flow from Operations

Net Earnings122 Depreciation of Ox4 Plow Usage1 Decrease in Inventory – Fertilizer 1 Net Cash Flow from Operations128 Cash Flow from Investing Activities Plow Purchase (3) Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities(3) Cash Flow from Financial Activities Baron Withdrawal (30) Net Cash Flow from Financial Activities (30) Net Increase (Decrease) during the period 95 Balance at the Beginning of the period 10 Balance at the end of the period 105 Ending Balance Sheet for Frederick Frederick Ending Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed105 Fertilizer0 Non-Current Assets Ox36

Total Assets193 LIABILITIES A/C payable to Feyedor for Plow0 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital101 Retained Earnings92 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity193 I am adding Baron’s Income Statement and Balance Sheet as well. Baron Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Wheat328 Non-Current Assets Ox72 Land150 Plow2 Total Assets552 LIABILITIES A/C payable for Plow3 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital263 Retained Earnings286 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity552 Baron Income Statement For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD

(In Bushels of Wheat) Revenue Wheat produced381 Operating Expenses Seed Used30 Fertilized Used3 Ox (Value 40 Bushels, 1 Year Depreciation = 4)8 Plow Usage4 Total Operating Expenses45 Net Income336 Earnings per share(Net Income / # of Shares; 336/263)1. 28 **** Assuming every bushel contributed by Baron is worth 1 share **** 9. How should we measure the performance of the vassals in this case? What can we use this information for? Solution: In order to measure performances of the vassals, we can apply financial ratios such as return on assets, return on equity, net profit margin, assets turn-over ratio on the vassals’ financial statements.

These calculations have been completed (see below). The following financial ratios can be utilized to determine and analyze which vassal is more effective, efficient and delivered higher returns to investor i. e. Baron. Debt Ratio = Total Debt / Total Assets Ivan: 3/359 = . 0083565 = 0. 8% Frederick: 0/193 = 0. 00 = 0. 0% Debt Ratio is a ratio that indicates what proportion of debt a company has relative to its assets. According to the above analysis, since Frederick has Debt ratio of 0 because he has no debt, in regards to Debt Ratio he has performed better. Return on Assets = Net Income / Total Assets Ivan: 214/359 = . 596 = 59. 6%

Frederick: 122/193 = . 6321 = 63. 21% Return on Assets Ratio is a ratio that is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. According to the above analysis, Frederick has Return on Assets ratio of 63. 21% as compared to Ivan’s 59. 6% which indicates that his net profit is higher compared to the total assets he had. Profit Margin = Net Income / Sales Ivan: 214/243 = 0. 8806 = 88. 06% Frederick: 122/138 = 0. 8840 = 88. 40% Profit Margin Ratio is a ratio of probability calculated as net income divided by revenues or sales. It measures how much out of every dollar of sales a company actually keeps in earnings.

According to the above analysis, Frederick has slightly higher Profit Margin i. e. 88. 4% compared to 88. 06%, which implies that Frederick has retained higher profits based on his wheat production. Asset Turn-over Ratio = Sales / Average Total Assets Ivan: 243/260. 5 = 0. 9328 = 93. 28% Frederick: 138/147 = 0. 93877 = 93. 88% Asset Turn-over ratio is the amount of sales generated for every dollar’s worth of asset. As given above, it is calculated by dividing sales by average total assets i. e. assets at the beginning of the period and assets at the end of the period divided by 2 to find the average.

As per the above analysis, Frederick has slightly higher Asset Turn-Over ratio therefore it implies that Frederick has generated better bushels of wheat over his average total assets than Ivan. Production of Wheat Per Acre = Wheat Production / Land in Acres Ivan: 243/100 = 2. 43 Frederick: 138/50 = 2. 76 Production of wheat per acre is a ratio being used to find out who has performed or generated more wheat based on the land provided. In this case, Frederick has performed considerably better than Ivan, his production efficiency on the per acre basis is better than Ivan. 10.

Using your answer to the previous question analyze the performance of Ivan and Frederick. Who was the better manager of the two? Solution: Based on the above financial ratios and explanations provided, it can be concluded that Frederick is a better manager than Ivan. Frederick has shown better debt ratio, return on assets, profit margin, asset turn-over ratio and production of wheat per acre which clearly indicates that he has been more efficient than the comparative percentages related to Ivan. 11. How will the answer to question 10 affect our strategy in the future? Solution:

As an investor, in future, to achieve maximum value for the capital investment, it will be more profitable and less perilous to invest more in Fredrick than Ivan. For next season, Baron should give 100 acre of land to Frederick and 50 acre of land to Ivan. It could also have been concluded that since Frederick had been a better manager, Baron should devise a strategy to provide all the material and land to Frederick, but, it will mean putting all the eggs in the same basket which would not be the best strategy to implement, assuming what if Frederick will have a poor season, Baron will lose the opportunity to break-even.

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