Base and Superstructure
Base and Superstructure
Mechanical philistinism and its wake
The replies given to these inquiries lead to really different positions about how society develops.
At the one extreme, there is the position that the base is the forces of production, that they necessarily progress, and that this in bend leads to alterations in society.
Political and ideological battle is so seen as playing no existent function. Human existences are merchandises of their fortunes, and history returns wholly independently of their will. The result of wars, revolutions, philosophical statements or what-not is ever determined in progress. It would hold made non one shred of difference to history if Robespierre had walked under a passenger car in 1788 or if the certain train had crashed in April 1917.
This position of Marxism is based upon a certain reading of Marx himself, in peculiar upon a powerful polemical transition in The Poverty of Doctrine:
& # 8216 ; In geting new productive forces, work forces change their manner of production ; and in altering their manner of production, in altering their manner of gaining a life, they change all their societal dealingss.
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The handmill gives you society with a feudal Godhead ; the steam factory society with an industrial capitalist. & # 8217 ; [ 1 ]
It is in the old ages after Marx & # 8217 ; s decease that such a mechanical, determinist position of history comes to be regarded as & # 8216 ; Marxist & # 8217 ; orthodoxy. It was during this period that Marxism came to hegemonise the German workers & # 8217 ; motion, and through it the Second International. But it was Marxism as seen through the eyes of Karl Kautsky, the & # 8216 ; Pope of Marxism & # 8217 ; .
For Kautsky, historical development had necessarily produced each manner of production in bend & # 8211 ; antiquity, feudal system, capitalist economy & # 8211 ; and would finally take to socialism. There was an & # 8216 ; inevitable & # 8230 ; version of signifiers of appropriation to signifiers of production & # 8217 ; . [ 2 ]
Revolutionary motions could non change this form of development. Thus the Hussites of the fifteenth century and the radical Anabaptists of the sixteenth century had been able to contend bravely and to show the vision of a new society ; but, for Kautsky, they could non change the inevitable development of history:
& # 8216 ; The way of societal development does non depend on the usage of peaceable methods or violent battles. It is determined by the advancement and demands of the methods of production. If the result of violent radical battles does non match to the purposes of the radical battlers, this lone signifies that these purposes stand in resistance to the development of the demands of production.
Violent radical battles can ne’er find the way of societal development, they can merely in certain fortunes accelerate their gait & # 8230 ; & # 8217 ; [ 3 ]
The undertaking of radical socialists under modem capitalist economy was non to seek to cut short the historical procedure, but merely to reflect its development by carefully constructing up socialist administration until capitalist economy was ready to turn into socialism. But, at the same clip, counter-revolutionaries could non halt the onward March of the forces of production and, hence, of historical development. Kautsky insisted that & # 8216 ; arrested development & # 8217 ; from more advanced to more backward forces of production ne’er occurred. [ 4 ]
& # 8216 ; Economic development & # 8217 ; , said his most influential work, his debut to the German Social Democratic Party & # 8217 ; s Erfurt Programme, & # 8216 ; will take necessarily to the & # 8230 ; conquest of the authorities in the involvements of the [ working ] category & # 8217 ; . [ 5 ]
Very near to Kautsky & # 8217 ; s preparations were those of the innovator Russian Marxist, Plekhanov. He held that the development of production automatically resulted in alterations in the superstructure. There is no manner human enterprise can barricade the development of the forces of production. & # 8216 ; Social development & # 8217 ; is a & # 8216 ; procedure showing Torahs & # 8217 ; . [ 6 ]
& # 8216 ; The concluding cause of the societal relationships lies in the province of the productive forces. & # 8217 ; & # 8216 ; Productive forces & # 8230 ; find & # 8230 ; societal dealingss, i.e. economic dealingss & # 8217 ; . [ 7 ]
He provides a & # 8216 ; expression & # 8217 ; which sets out a hierarchy of causing in history. The & # 8216 ; province of the productive forces & # 8217 ; determines the & # 8216 ; economic dealingss & # 8217 ; of society. A & # 8216 ; socio-political system & # 8217 ; so develops on this & # 8216 ; economic footing & # 8217 ; . & # 8216 ; The outlook of work forces populating in society [ is ] determined in portion straight by the economic conditions obtaining and in portion by the full socio-political system that has arisen on that foundation. & # 8217 ; Finally, the & # 8216 ; assorted political orientations & # 8230 ; reflect the belongingss of that outlook & # 8217 ; . [ 8 ]
He would asseverate that & # 8216 ; history is made by work forces & # 8217 ; , but so travel on to take a firm stand that & # 8216 ; the mean axis of world & # 8217 ; s rational development & # 8217 ; runs & # 8216 ; parallel to that of its economic development & # 8217 ; , so that in the terminal all that truly affairs is the economic development. [ 9 ]
The result of great historical events like the Gallic Revolution did non depend at all on the function played by persons like Mirabeau or Robespierre:
& # 8216 ; No affair what the qualities of a given person may be, they can non extinguish the given economic dealingss if the latter conform to the given province of the productive forces.
Talented people can alter merely single characteristics of events, non their general trend. & # 8217 ; [ 10 ]
Merely as Kautsky & # 8217 ; s reading of Marxism dominated in the parties of the Second International, Plekhanov & # 8217 ; s was taken up as the orthodoxy by the Stalinist parties from the late 1920s onwards. [ 11 ]
In the custodies of Stalin and his & # 8216 ; theorists & # 8217 ; it became an firm historical jurisprudence: development of the forces of production necessarily led to matching alterations in society, so the growing of industry in Russia would necessarily take from a & # 8216 ; workers & # 8217 ; province & # 8217 ; to & # 8216 ; socialism & # 8217 ; and from & # 8216 ; socialism & # 8217 ; to & # 8216 ; communism & # 8217 ; , irrespective of the wretchedness and adversity involved ; by contrast, the clearest indicant that Western capitalist economy had outlived its lifetime was the diminution in its forces of production.
The reaction against determinism
Stalinist Marxism did non long outlast Stalin himself. The & # 8216 ; new left & # 8217 ; of the late fiftiess and the Maoist left of the mid-1960s both launched assaults on the rough mechanical fatalist history of history.
They insisted, justly, that in Marx & # 8217 ; s ain historical Hagiographas & # 8211 ; the Class Struggles in France, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, The Civil War in France & # 8211 ; there is non a intimation of a inactive, fatalistic attack to historical alteration. They besides laid great accent on certain comments Engels had made in a series of letters he wrote at the very terminal of his life, in the 1890s, knocking an over-crude usage of historical philistinism. Engels had written to Starkenburg:
& # 8216 ; Political, juridical, philosophical, spiritual, literary, artistic, etc development is based on economic development. But these all react on one another and besides upon the economic footing. It is non that the economic state of affairs is cause, entirely active, while everything else is merely inactive consequence. There is instead interaction on the footing of economic necessity which finally ever asserts itself. & # 8217 ; [ 12 ]
And to Bloch:
& # 8216 ; Harmonizing to the materialist construct of history, the finally finding component in history is the production and reproduction of existent life. More than that neither Marx nor I have of all time asserted. Hence if person twists this into stating that the economic component is the lone finding one, he transforms that proposition into a nonmeaningful abstract senseless phrase.
The economic state of affairs is the footing, but the assorted elements of the superstructure & # 8211 ; political signifiers of the category battle and its consequences, to humor: fundamental laws established by winning categories after a successful conflict, etc, juridical signifiers and even the physiological reactions of these existent battles in the encephalons of the participants, political, jural, philosophical theories, spiritual positions and their farther development into systems of tenet & # 8211 ; besides exercise their influence upon the class of the historical battles and in many instances preponderate in finding their signifier & # 8230 ;
There is an interaction of all these elements in which, amid all the eternal host of accidents, the economic component eventually asserts itself as necessary. & # 8217 ; [ 13 ]
The post-1956 new left went on to reason that even the footings & # 8216 ; base and superstructure & # 8217 ; were merely a metaphor, non to be taken excessively earnestly. The & # 8216 ; mutual & # 8217 ; influence of the superstructure on the base meant that & # 8216 ; finding & # 8217 ; was non to be seen as a rigorous causal relationship.
The Maoist left did non get down with such an expressed interruption with the yesteryear. The dean of this school, Louis Althusser, was rather willing in his early 1960s Hagiographas to cite Stalin himself favorably.
But the Althusserians created a new theoretical construction which destroyed most of the content of the old impressions of & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; finding & # 8217 ; . Society consisted of a figure of different constructions & # 8211 ; the political, the economic, the ideological, the lingual & # 8211 ; each development at its ain velocity, and holding an impact on the others. At any peculiar point in history it could be any one of them that dominated the others. It was merely & # 8216 ; in the last case & # 8217 ; that the economic was & # 8216 ; deciding & # 8217 ; .
The new left and the Maoist-Althusserian schools were ab initio really hostile to each other. [ 14 ]
Yet both of them redefined historical philistinism in a manner that opened the door to a great dosage of voluntarism.
For the 1950s new left, this meant traveling off from any tight definition of category or any existent concern with how societal being might impact societal consciousness. In the Hagiographas about current events by the most outstanding British new left figure, E P Thompson & # 8211 ; right through from his 1960 essay & # 8216 ; Revolution & # 8217 ; [ 15 ]
to his anti sail missile Hagiographas of 1980 & # 8211 ; there is the repetitive message that energy and good will and a renunciation of tight classs can be plenty in themselves to open the route to triumph. In his more theoretical Hagiographas he rejects the position that & # 8216 ; economic & # 8217 ; factors play any kind of finding function in history, or even that they can be separated out from other factors such as the ideological or judicial. [ 16 ]
Althusser & # 8217 ; s tone is different: in his earlier Hagiographas the key to alter is still a party of an basically Stalinist kind. But there is the same component of voluntarism as in Thompson: if merely the party understands the articulation of the different constructions, it can coerce the gait of history, irrespective of & # 8216 ; economic & # 8217 ; factors.
Most of his followings have abandoned any impression of & # 8216 ; finding & # 8217 ; , even in & # 8216 ; the last case & # 8217 ; , and have moved to places that deny any possibility of understanding how societies change. So, for case, one English post-Althusserian, Gareth Stedman Jones, now tells us that the lone manner to understand any political orientation is in its ain footings and that you must non do any effort to construe its development in footings of the material fortunes of those who adhere to it. [ 17 ]
We are right back to the old empiricist proverb, & # 8216 ; Everything is what it is and nil else. & # 8217 ; Such is the mouse that the gargantuan constructions of Althusserianism have given birth to.
The convergence of the old new left and the Althusserians has created a kind of & # 8216 ; common sense & # 8217 ; among Marxists which holds that any talk of base and superstructure is truly old chapeau. So widespread has the influence of this & # 8216 ; common sense & # 8217 ; been that it has even affected people who reject wholly the political decisions of Thompson or Althusser. [ 18 ]
The merely conjunct opposition to this inclination has come from supporters of the Orthodox analytical philosopher G A Cohen. [ 19 ]
But his defense mechanism of Marx involves a complete retreat to the mechanical reading of Kautsky and Plekhanov.
The radical materialist option
Historically, nevertheless, there has ever been a radical option to either mechanical philistinism or voluntarism. It existed in portion even in the flower of Kautskyism in some of the Hagiographas of Engels and in the work of the Italian Marxist, Labriola. [ 20 ]
But the demand for a theoretical option did non go more widely evident until the old ages of the First World War and the Russian Revolution proved the bankruptcy of Kautskyism. It was so that Lenin reread Hegel and concluded, & # 8216 ; Intelligent ( dialectical ) idealism is closer to intelligent philistinism than stupid ( metaphysical ) philistinism & # 8217 ; . [ 21 ]
In the old ages that followed, minds like George Luk & # 225 ; Cs, Karl Korsch and Antonio Gramsci all tried to supply versions of historical philistinism which did non see human activity as merely a inactive contemplation of other factors. And in his brilliant History of the Russian Revolution, Leon Trotsky provided an history of a universe historical event which placed monolithic accent on subjective every bit good as nonsubjective factors & # 8211 ; and was criticised from a Plekhanovite point of position for making so. [ 22 ]
A non-mechanical, non-voluntarist version of historical philistinism is perfectly critical today. It can easy be found in the plants of Marx himself, if you supplement his authoritative history in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy with what he says at assorted points in The German Ideology, The Poverty of Philosophy, The Communist Manifesto, and elsewhere.
Production and society
Marx foremost sets out his history of historical philistinism in The German Ideology of 1846.
He starts from a materialist acknowledgment that human existences are biologically portion of nature:
& # 8216 ; The premises from which we start are non dogmas, but existent premises from which abstraction can merely be made in the imaginativeness. They are existent persons, their activity and the material conditions under which they live, both those which they find bing and those which they produce by their ain activity.
The first fact to be established is the physical administration of these persons and their consequent relationship to the remainder of nature & # 8230 ; The authorship of history must ever put out from these natural bases and their alteration in the class of history through the actions of work forces.
We must get down by saying the first existent premiss of human being, and hence of all human history, the premiss that work forces must be able to populate in order to & # 8216 ; do history & # 8217 ; . But life involves before everything else feeding and imbibing, a habitation, vesture and many other things. .
[ This is ] a cardinal status of all human history which today as 1000s of old ages ago must be day-to-day and hourly fulfilled simply in order to prolong human life. & # 8217 ; [ 23 ]
So there is a nucleus activity at any point in history which is a stipulation for everything else which happens. This is the activity of work on the material universe in order to acquire nutrient, shelter and vesture.
The character of this activity depends upon the concrete stuff state of affairs in which human existences find themselves.
This determines the content of the most basic signifiers of human action. And so it besides determines what persons themselves are like.
& # 8216 ; The manner of production must non be considered merely as being the reproduction of the physical being of the persons. Rather it is a definite signifier of activity of these persons, a definite signifier of showing their life, a definite manner of life on their portion.
As persons express their life so they are. What they are hence coincides with their production, both of what they produce and how they produce.
The nature of persons therefore depends on the stuff fortunes finding their production & # 8230 ; & # 8217 ; [ 24 ]
These transitions can non be decently understood unless Marx & # 8217 ; s cardinal point about human activity & # 8211 ; best expressed in the Thesiss on Feuerbach ( written at the same clip as The German Ideology ) & # 8211 ; is understood. For Marx humanity is portion of nature. It arises as a merchandise of biological development, and one must ne’er bury its physical dependance on the material universe around it. All of its establishments, thoughts, dreams and ideals can merely be understood as originating from this stuff world & # 8211 ; even if the path through which they so originate is frequently long and roundabout. As Labriola put it, & # 8216 ; Ideas do non fall from Eden and nil comes to us in a dream & # 8217 ; . [ 25 ]
But that does non intend worlds are non qualitatively distinguishable from the remainder of nature. Like any other species, humanity has its ain shaping characteristics. For Marx the key such shaping characteristics are that human existences have to respond back upon the stuff fortunes in which they find themselves in order to last:
Work force can be distinguished from animate beings by consciousness, by faith or anything else you like. They distinguish themselves from animate beings every bit shortly as they begin to bring forth their agencies of subsistence, a measure which is conditioned by their physical administration. By bring forthing their agencies of subsistence work forces are indirectly bring forthing their existent stuff life. [ 26 ]
Worlds can non move independently of their fortunes. But this does non intend they can be reduced to them. They are continually involved in & # 8216 ; contradicting & # 8217 ; the stuff nonsubjective universe around them, in responding upon it in such a manner as to transform both it and themselves.
At each point in history, human existences have to happen some manner to get by with the demands of stuff endurance. How they cope is non something independent from the nonsubjective physical universe ; instead it is a merchandise of that universe. Yet it can ne’er be grasped merely as a mechanical effect of the physical fundamental law of nature. It is non mechanical causality, but human action which mediates between the universe in which human existences find themselves and the lives they lead.
Production is ne’er single production. It is merely the corporate attempt of human existences that enables them to acquire a support from the universe around them.
So the cardinal nucleus activity & # 8211 ; work & # 8211 ; has to be organised socially. Every peculiar phase in the development of human labour demands certain kinds of societal relationships to prolong it.
In The German Ideology Marx refers to the societal dealingss between people at any peculiar point in history as the & # 8216 ; signifier of intercourse & # 8217 ; . And he insists that, & # 8216 ; The signifier of intercourse is once more determined by production & # 8217 ; . [ 27 ]
The assorted establishments that embody human relationships can merely be understood as developing out of this nucleus productive interaction:
& # 8216 ; The fact is that definite persons who are fruitfully active in a definite manner enter into these definite societal and political dealingss & # 8230 ; The societal construction and the province are continually germinating out of the life processes of definite persons, but of persons, non as they appear in their ain or other people & # 8217 ; s imaginativenesss, but as they truly are ; i.e. as they operate, produce materially and therefore as they work under definite stuff bounds, presuppositions and conditions independent of their will. & # 8217 ; [ 28 ]
In order to keep their stuff lives, human existences are forced to move on the universe in certain ways & # 8211 ; to prosecute in stuff production. But that requires certain signifiers of cooperation between them.
These core relationships provide a model which everything else worlds do has to suit on to. Everything else is, in this sense, based on them. They provide the bounds to what is possible in any society.
So, for case, a hunter-gatherer society does non hold the agencies to hive away nutrient for more than a few yearss, and can merely last if its members are continually on the move looking for more groceries. It is hence restricted in a figure of ways: it can non be made up of sets of more than 20 or so people ; the adult females in it can non bear more than one kid every four or five old ages, since the kids have to be carried when the set looks for nutrient ; there is no agencies by which one subdivision of society could be freed from labor in order to prosecute in authorship, reading, higher arithmetic, etc.
This is the narrowest manner in which you can hold on Marx & # 8217 ; s statement. But he sees it as holding even wider deductions than this. The dealingss of stuff production non merely limit the remainder of dealingss in society, they are besides the beginning of the content of these wider dealingss as good.
The history of society is the history of alterations in the ways in which production takes topographic point, each associated with alterations in the dealingss between human existences instantly around the productive procedure. And these alterations in bend so exert a force per unit area on all the other societal dealingss.
If, for case, a set of hunter-gatherers adopts a me of radically increasing the nutrient available to them ( by, say seting root veggies for themselves alternatively of holding hunt for them ) and of hive awaying nutrient for long periods of clip ( for case, in earthenware pots ) , this needfully changes their societal dealingss with each other. Alternatively of continually traveling, they have to remain in one topographic point until the harvest can be harvested ; if they are remaining in one topographic point, there is no longer any necessity for limitation on the figure of kids per adult female the harvest becomes something which other sets of people can prehend, so providing, for the first clip, an inducement for warfare, between rival sets.
Changes in the manner material production takes topographic point lead alterations in the dealingss of society in general.
And even dealingss between people which do non originate out production & # 8211 ; the games people play with each other, the signifiers sex takes, the dealingss of grownups and immature babes & # 8211 ; will impact.
Marx does non at all deny the world of dealingss other than straight productive 1s. Nor does he deny that they can act upon the manner production itself takes topographic point. As he puts it in Theories of Surplus Value:
& # 8216 ; All fortunes which & # 8230 ; affect adult male, the topic of production, have greater or lesser consequence upon his maps and activities, including his maps and activities as Godhead of stuff wealth, of trade goods. In this sense it can be genuinely asserted that all human dealingss and maps, nevertheless and wherever they manifest themselves, act upon material production and have a more or less finding consequence upon it. & # 8217 ; [ 29 ]
This is even true in pre-class societies. There is a inclination for old forms of working and populating to clear into comparatively inflexible constructions. They become & # 8216 ; sanctified & # 8217 ; with the development of systems of faith, thaumaturgy, tabu, rites and so or At first these systems are carried on even in & # 8216 ; bad times & # 8217 ; , when the short term demands or desires of the person might take Ti actions which ruin the long term involvements of the societal collectivity. But, by this really fact, they discourage invention and travel to new signifiers of production, which would be of long-run every bit good as short-run benefit.
Exploitation and the superstructure
Something more is needed than simple cooperation between people for the forces of production to develop beyond a certain point. Exploitation is besides needed.
While the excess left after the satisfaction of everyone & # 8217 ; s minimum demands is little, resources can merely be gathered together for farther development of the forces of production if the excess is controlled by a little, privileged minority of society. Hence it is that wherever there is the development of agribusiness proper out of gardening, the growing of trade, the usage of dikes and canals for inundation bar and irrigation, the edifice of towns, there are besides the beginnings of a polarization within society between those who exploit and those who are exploited.
The new working group has its beginnings in its function in production: it is constituted out of those who were most efficient in presenting new methods of agricultural production, or those who pioneered new kinds of trade between one society and its neighbors, or those who could warrant themselves non prosecuting in backbreaking manual labor because of their ability to anticipate inundation forms or design water company. But from the get downing the new working group secures its control by means other than its function in production. It uses its new wealth to pay war, so farther heightening its wealth through loot and the pickings of slaves. It establishes & # 8216 ; particular organic structures of armed work forces & # 8217 ; to safeguard its old and its new wealth against internal and external enemies. It additions control of spiritual rites, imputing the progress of the societal productive force to its ain & # 8216 ; supernatural powers & # 8217 ; . It rewrites old codifications of behavior into new sets of legal regulations that sanctify its place.
The new working group, in short, creates a whole web of non-productive dealingss to safeguard the privileged place it has gained for itself. It seeks through these political, judicial and spiritual agencies to procure its ain place. It creates a non-economic & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; to safeguard the beginning of its ain privileges in the economic & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; .
The very map of these & # 8216 ; non-economic & # 8217 ; establishments means that they have tremendous economic impact. They are concerned with commanding the base, with repairing bing dealingss of development, and hence in seting a bound on alterations in the dealingss of production, even if this besides involves halting further development of the productive forces.
In ancient China, for illustration, a opinion category emerged on the footing of certain kinds of stuff production ( agribusiness affecting the usage of hydraulic installings ) and development. Its members so sought to continue their place by making political and ideological establishments. But in making so they created instruments that could be used to oppress any new societal force that emerged out of alterations in production ( eg out of the growing of handcrafts or trade ) . On occasions that meant physically destructing the new productive agencies.
So great is the mutual impact of the & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; on the base, that many of the classs we normally think of as & # 8216 ; economic & # 8217 ; are in fact constituted by both. So, for case, & # 8216 ; belongings rights & # 8217 ; are judicial ( portion of the superstructure ) but regulate the manner development takes topographic point ( portion of the base ) .
The manner the political and judicial provender back into the economic is perfectly cardinal to Marx & # 8217 ; s whole attack. It is this entirely which enables him to speak of successive, distinguishable & # 8216 ; manners of production & # 8217 ; & # 8211 ; phases in history in which the administration of production and development is frozen in certain ways, each with its typical opinion category seeking to model the whole of society to suit in with its demands.
Far from disregarding the impact of the & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; on the & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; , as many nescient critics have claimed for more than a century, Marx builds his whole history of human history around it.
Old dealingss of production act as hobbles, hindering the growing of new productive forces. How? Because of the activity of the & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; in seeking to halt new signifiers of production and development that challenge the monopoly of wealth and power of the old opinion category. Its Torahs declare the new ways to be illegal. Its spiritual establishments denounce them as immoral. Its constabulary usage anguish against them. Its ground forcess poke towns where they are practised.
The monolithic political and ideological battles that arise as a consequence, decide, for Marx, whether a lifting category, based on new forces of production, displaces an old opinion category. And so it is an absolute farce of his positions to claim that he & # 8216 ; disregards & # 8217 ; the political or ideological component.
But the growing of superstructural establishments non merely freezes bing production dealingss, it can besides hold profound effects on the dealingss between the members of the opinion category themselves, and hence on the manner they react to the other categories in society.
Those who command the ground forcess, the constabulary and the priesthoods live off the excess obtained by development merely every bit much as do the direct users. But they besides develop peculiar involvements of their ain: they want their portion of the excess to be every bit great as possible ; they want certain kinds of stuff production to take topographic point to accommodate the peculiar demands of their establishments ; they want their kind of life style to be valued more extremely than that of those involved in direct production.
Their effort to derive their ain peculiar purposes can take to the edifice of of all time more complex establishments, to lucubrate regulations about societal behavior, to endless conflicts for topographic point and influence. The terminal consequence can be labyrinthine constructions in which the beginning of wealth and privilege in stuff production is wholly forgotten.
When this happens, the superstructure can travel beyond merely stop deading the economic activities on which it is based. It can go a drain on them that prevents their reproduction & # 8211 ; and, in making so, destroys the resources upon which the whole of society, including the superstructure itself, depends. Then material world catches up with it and the whole societal building comes toppling down.
But none of these developments take topographic point without monolithic political and ideological battles. It is these which determine whether one set of societal activities ( those of the superstructure ) cramp a different set of societal activities ( those involved in keeping and developing the stuff base ) . It is these which decide, for Marx, whether the bing opinion category maintains its power until it ruins society, or whether a lifting category, based on new signifiers of production, displaces it.
& # 8216 ; The history of all hitherto bing society is the history of category battle & # 8217 ; , wrote Marx and Engels at the beginning of The Communist Manifesto. But the category battle is exactly the battle between those who use the political and ideological establishments of the superstructure to keep their power over the productive & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; and development, and those who put up opposition to them.
The superstructure exists to support development and its fruits. Any existent battle against the bing constructions of development becomes a battle against the superstructure, a political battle. As Lenin put it, & # 8216 ; Politics is concentrated economics. & # 8217 ;
Marxism does non see political battle as merely an automatic, inactive contemplation of the development of the forces production. It is economic development that produces the category forces that battle for control of society. But how that battle goes depends upon the political mobilization that takes topographic point within each category.
The cardinal function of alterations in production
We are now in a place to reevaluate Engels & # 8217 ; statement that & # 8217 ; assorted elements of the superstructure & # 8230 ; besides exercise their influence on the class of historical battles and in many instances preponderate in finding their signifiers & # 8217 ; . [ 30 ]
Under any signifier of category regulation a scope of constructions are built to reenforce and commit development. Those in control these establishments have involvements of their ain, which influence everything else which happens in society & # 8211 ; including the nature of stuff production itself.
However, that can non be the terminal of the affair, as the & # 8216 ; voluntarist & # 8217 ; rendering of Engels & # 8217 ; comments implies. There is still I inquiry of where the superstructural establishments themselves come from. And there is the all important inquiry of what happens if the superstructure develops in such ways as to hinder the reproduction of its ain stuff base.
Marx insists that merely to asseverate that everything in society influences everything & # 8211 ; the superstructure the base every bit good as frailty versa & # 8211 ; leads nowhere. He takes the point up in The Poverty Philosophy, his polemic against Proudhon, written shortly after The German Political orientation:
& # 8216 ; The production dealingss of society signifier a whole. M Proudhon considers economic dealingss as so many societal stages breeding one another, ensuing one from the other & # 8230 ; The lone drawback to this method is that when he comes to analyze a individual one of these stages, M Proudhon can non explicate it without holding resort to all the other dealingss of society ; which dealingss he has non yet made his dialectical motion engender. & # 8217 ; [ 31 ]
In his Hagiographas Marx points to three different effects of such a position of society as an uniform whole, with everything act uponing everything else.
First, it can take to a position in which the bing signifier of society is seen as ageless and unchanging ( the position which Marx ascribed to bourgeois economic experts, seeing societal dealingss as governed by & # 8216 ; ageless Torahs which must ever regulate society. Therefore there has been history, but there is no longer any & # 8217 ; ; it is the position that underlies the barrenness of the modern pseudo-science of society, sociology ) .
Second, it can take to sing the moral force of society as prevarication in some mystical force that lies outside society ( Hegel & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; universe spirit & # 8217 ; or Weber & # 8217 ; s & # 8216 ; rationalization & # 8217 ; ) .
Third, it can take to the position that what exists today can merely be grasped in its ain footings, through its ain linguistic communication and thoughts, without any mention to anything else ( the place of those idealist philosophers who followed Hegel in 19th century Germany, and of more recent minds like Collingwood, Winch and the ex-Althusserians ) .
Marx & # 8217 ; s manner out of this deadlock is to turn up the one component in the societal whole that has a inclination to cumulative development of its ain. This is the action of worlds in working on their environment to acquire a life for themselves. Past labor provides the agencies for increasing the end product of present labor: both stuff means ( tools, machines, entree to raw stuffs ) and new cognition. But in following the new ways of working, worlds besides adopt new ways of associating to each other.
These alterations will frequently be so little as to be hardly perceptible ( a changed relationship between two people here, an extra individual engaged in a peculiar labor procedure someplace else ) . But if they continue, they will convey approximately systematic molecular alteration in the whole societal construction. The sequence of quantitative alterations so has a qualitative impact.
Marx does non deny the possibility of alterations in other facets of societal life. A swayer may decease and be succeeded by another with a rather different personality. Peoples may pall of one game and get down playing another. The accident of birth or upbringing may bring forth a talented instrumentalist or painter. But all such alterations are accidents. There is no ground why they should take to cumulative societal alteration of any kind. They can bring forth random alteration in society, but non a dynamic which moves society in any specific way.
Material production, on the other manus, does hold a inclination to travel in one way instead than another. Its end product is wealth, the resources that allow lives to be free from material want.
And these resources can be piled up in of all time greater measures.
This does non intend that forces of production ever develop as Kautsky, Plekhanov and, more late, G A Cohen have claimed. As we have seen, the clang between new ways of bring forthing and old societal dealingss is a cardinal characteristic in history.
Marx noted in The Communist Manifesto that & # 8216 ; preservation of the old manners of production in unchanged signifier was the first status of being of all earlier industrial categories & # 8217 ; . [ 32 ]
The result of the clang between the new and the old did non hold to be the licking of the old. It could be the suppression of the new. There could be the & # 8216 ; common devastation of the contending classes & # 8217 ; . [ 33 ]
& # 8216 ; Regression & # 8217 ; ( from more advanced signifiers of production to more backward ) is far from being exceeding historically. Civilization after civilization has collapsed back into & # 8216 ; brutality & # 8217 ; ( i.e. agricultural production without towns ) & # 8211 ; witness the dead & # 8216 ; metropoliss in the jungle & # 8217 ; to be found in Latin America, south east Asia or cardinal Africa ; there are several cases of hunter-gatherer peoples who show marks of one time holding been horticulturalists ( eg some folks of the Amazon ) . [ 34 ]
It depends upon the peculiar, historically developed characteristics of any society whether the new forces of production can develop and the categories associated with them break through. At one extreme, one can conceive of societies which have become so sclerosed that no invention in production is possible ( with, for case, closely circumscribed spiritual rites finding how every act of production is performed ) . At the other extreme, there is modem capitalist society where the be all and stop all of life is meant to be increasing the productiveness of labor.
In fact, most human societies have been someplace in between. Because human life is rough, people have wanted to increase the support they can acquire for a certain sum of labor, even though certain activities have been sanctified and others tabooed. Generally talking, there has been a really slow development of the forces of production until the point has been reached where a new category begins to dispute the old. What has happened so has depended on the balance of category forces on the one manus, and the leading and understanding available to the rival categories on the other.
However, even if the development of the forces of production is the exclusion, non the norm, it does non annul Marx & # 8217 ; s statement. For those societies where the forces of production interruption through will boom and, finally, reach the point of being able to rule those societies where the forces of production have been stifled. Very few societies moved on from the phase of brutality to that of civilization ; but many of those that did non were enslaved by those that did. Again feudal barons and oriental despotic aristocracy were normally able to crush back the challenge of urban shopkeepers and merchandisers ; but this did non halt them all being overwhelmed by the moving ridge of capitalist economy that spread out from the western periphery of Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries.
It did non affair, at the terminal of the twenty-four hours, how grandiose or lucubrate the superstructure of any society was. It rested on a & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; in stuff production. If it prevented this base from developing, so the superstructure itself was finally doomed. In this sense Engels was right to state that the & # 8216 ; economic component eventually asserts itself as dominant & # 8217 ; .
As a affair of historical fact, the forces of production did win in interrupting down and transforming the entirety of societal dealingss in which they grew up.
Base, superstructure and societal alteration
Much of the confusion which has arisen among Marxists over the reading of Marx & # 8217 ; s Preface to A Critique of Political Economy lies in the definition of the & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; on which & # 8216 ; the legal and political superstructure & # 8217 ; rises.
For some people the & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; has, in consequence, been the material interaction of human existences and nature & # 8211 ; the forces of production. For others it has been the societal dealingss within which this interaction occurs, the societal dealingss of production.
You can warrant any one of these places if you take peculiar citations from the Preface in isolation from the remainder of the transition and from Marx & # 8217 ; s other Hagiographas. For at one point he talks of the & # 8216 ; sum sum of these dealingss of production & # 8217 ; as & # 8216 ; the existent footing on which arises a political and legal superstructure & # 8217 ; . But he says earlier that & # 8216 ; dealingss of production & # 8230 ; correspond to a definite signifier of development of their stuff productive forces & # 8217 ; , and he goes on to contrast & # 8216 ; the material transmutation of the material conditions of production, which can be determined with the preciseness of natural scientific discipline & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; legal, political, spiritual, aesthetic, or philosophical signifiers & # 8217 ; . It is the & # 8216 ; material productive forces & # 8217 ; which come into struggle with & # 8216 ; the bing dealingss of production & # 8217 ; .
In fact he is non doing a individual differentiation in the Critique between & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; . Two differentiations are involved. There is the differentiation between the & # 8216 ; forces of production & # 8217 ; and the dealingss of production. And so there is the differentiation between the dealingss of production and the staying societal dealingss.
The ground for the confusion is this. The & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; is the combination of forces and dealingss of production. But one of the elements in this combination is & # 8216 ; more basic & # 8217 ; than the other. It is the & # 8216 ; forces of production & # 8217 ; that are dynamic, which go frontward until they & # 8216 ; come into struggle & # 8217 ; with the inactive & # 8216 ; dealingss of production & # 8217 ; . Relationss of production & # 8216 ; correspond & # 8217 ; to forces of production, non the other manner unit of ammunition.
Of class, there is a certain sense in which it is impossible to divide material production from the societal dealingss it involves. If new ways of working do affect new societal dealingss, so evidently they can non come into being until these new societal dealingss do.
But, as we saw supra, there are grounds for delegating precedence to the forces of production. Human groups who win in altering the ways they work in order to develop the forces of production will be more successful than those that don & # 8217 ; t. Small, cumulative alterations in the forces of production can take topographic point, promoting alterations in the dealingss between people which are merely as little but besides merely cumulative. Peoples change their dealingss with each other because they want to bring forth the agencies of support more easy: increasing the agency of support is the purpose, alterations in the societal dealingss of production the unintended effect. The forces of production Rebel against the bing dealingss of production, non the other manner unit of ammunition.
So, for case, if hunter-gatherers decide to alter their societal dealingss with each other so as to prosecute in gardening, this is non chiefly a consequence of any belief that horticultural societal dealingss are superior to hunter-gatherer societal dealingss ; it is instead that they want entree to the increased stuff productiveness of gardening over hunting and assemblage.
In the same manner, it is non penchant for one set of dealingss around the production procedure instead than another that leads the burgesss to get down to dispute feudal society. It is instead that for this peculiar grouping of people within feudal system, the lone manner to increase their ain control over the agencies of support ( to develop the forces of production under their control ) is to set up new production dealingss.
Even when the manner one society is organised alterations, because of the force per unit area of another society on it ( as when India was compelled to follow a European manner land term of office system in the nineteenth century, or when hunter-gatherers have been persuaded by colonial decision makers and missionaries to accept a settled agricultural life ) , the ground the force per unit area exists is that the other society disposes of more advanced forces of production ( which translate into more effectual agencies of engaging war ) . And the & # 8216 ; societal dealingss of production & # 8217 ; will non digest unless they are successful in organizing stuff production & # 8211 ; in happening a & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; in stuff production & # 8211 ; in the society that is pressurised into following them. Where they do non happen such a & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; ( as with the Ik in Northern Uganda ) the consequence can even be the devastation of society. [ 35 ]
Expansion of stuff production is the cause, the societal administration of production the consequence. The cause itself can be blocked by the old signifier of administration of society. There is no mechanical rule which means that the enlargement of stuff production & # 8211 ; and with it the alterations in societal dealingss & # 8211 ; will automatically happen. But in any society there will be force per unit areas in this way at some point or other. And these force per unit areas will hold societal effects, even if they are successfully resisted by those committed to the old societal dealingss.
The differentiation between forces and dealingss of production is anterior to the 2nd differentiation, between & # 8216 ; economic base & # 8217 ; and the superstructure. The development of the forces of production leads to certain alterations in the dealingss of production. These in bend consequence in alterations in the other dealingss of society being made, until a whole scope of establishments of a non-economic kind aid reproduce bing economic dealingss ( and so defy farther economic alteration ) .
The point of these differentiations is to supply an apprehension of how society alterations. If the forces of production are inactive, so there is no ground why any society should undergo systematic alteration at all. The bing societal dealingss will merely be given to reproduce themselves, so that at most there can be random, inadvertent alterations in the dealingss of people to each other. Neither the societal dealingss of production nor the wider societal dealingss will supply any drift to the radical societal alterations that do happen ( eg from societies of little sets to those of settled small towns, or from those of mediaeval feudal manors to those of advanced industrial capitalist metropoliss ) .
There is a farther confusion in some of the treatment on forces and dealingss of production. This concerns what the & # 8216 ; dealingss of production & # 8217 ; are.
At one point in the Preface Marx equates the societal relation of production with belongings dealingss. Peoples like Cohen have given this position a cardinal topographic point in their ain histories of historical philistinism.
It seems to me to restrict the impression of the & # 8216 ; societal dealingss c production & # 8217 ; far excessively much. Much of the power of Marx & # 8217 ; s history of history prevarications in the manner in which it shows how little alterations in the forces of production lead to little, cumulative alterations in the societal dealingss originating straight at the point of production, until these challenge the wider dealingss of society. These little alterations might affect new belongings dealingss, but in many, many of import instances do non.
For case, an addition in the figure of craftsmans working for the mean maestro craftsman in a mediaeval metropolis is non change in belongings dealingss. But it does alter the societal dealingss in the town in a manner which may hold really of import deductions. Similar considerations apply with many other important historical developments, from the first planting of seed by hunter-gatherers to alterations in production methods in capitalist states today.
To sum up the statement so far. There is non one differentiation in Marx, but two. The forces of production exert force per unit area on the bing dealingss of production. And those in bend come into struggle with the bing superstructure.
Once this is grasped, it is possible to cover with the inquiries which are sometimes raised as to whether peculiar establishments belong to the base or the superstructure.
There is a sense in which the inquiries themselves are misframed. The differentiation between base and superstructure is non differentiation between one set of establishments and another, with economic establishments on one side and political, judicial, ideological, etc establishments on the other. It is a differentiation between dealingss that are straight connected with production and those that are non. Many peculiar establishments include both.
So, for case, the mediaeval church was a superstructural establishment, supporting ideologically bing signifiers of feudal development. But it acquired such big landholdings of its ain that no history of the economic construction of mediaeval society can disregard it. In the same manner, modern capitalist provinces arose out of the demand for & # 8216 ; organic structures of armed work forces & # 8217 ; to protect peculiar capitalist opinion categories. But such protection has seldom been possible without the province step ining straight in production.
In pre-capitalist societies, even the inquiry of the category people belong to comes to depend upon superstructural factors. The effort to continue bing dealingss of production and development leads to lucubrate codifications delegating every person to one or other caste or estate. This, in bend, determines the productive activity ( if any at all ) open to them. As Marx put it: & # 8216 ; & # 8230 ; when a certain grade of development is reached the familial nature of castes is decreed as a societal jurisprudence & # 8217 ; . [ 36 ]
And & # 8216 ; in the estate & # 8230 ; a nobleman ever remains a Lord, a common man a common man, apart from his other dealingss, a quality inseparable from his individualism & # 8217 ; . [ 37 ]
There is a sense in which it is true to state that merely in businessperson society do at that place be & # 8216 ; pure & # 8217 ; classes & # 8211 ; societal groupings whose rank depends wholly upon dealingss to development in the productive procedure, as opposed to privileges embodied in judicial or spiritual codifications. [ 38 ]
Of class, these codifications had their beginning in material development, but centuries of frozen societal development have obscured that fact.
The state of affairs with the capitalist household is slightly similar to that of the mediaeval church or the modem province. It grew up to continue and reproduce already bing dealingss of production. But it can non make this without playing a really of import economic function ( in the instance of the working category household, organizing the huge sum of domestic labor that goes into the physical reproduction of labour power, in the instance of the capitalist household specifying the manner in which belongings is passed from one coevals to the following ) . [ 39 ]
This has led to efforts to delegate it to the & # 8216 ; base & # 8217 ; because of its economic function. [ 40 ]
But the differentiation between base and superstructure is a differentiation between societal dealingss which are capable to immediate alterations with alterations in the productive forces, and those which are comparatively inactive and immune to alter. The capitalist household belongs to the latter instead than the former class, even in its & # 8216 ; economic & # 8217 ; map of reproducing the labour force.
Changes in the manner reproduction is organised in general follow alterations in the manner production takes topographic point. The simple fact is that the & # 8216 ; forces of reproduction & # 8217 ; do non hold the inclination to cumulative alteration that the forces of production do. The possible ways of curtailing the figure of births barely changed from the hunter-gatherer societies of 30,000 old ages ago until the twentieth century & # 8211 ; whether these agencies were used depended non on the domain of reproduction at all, but on the domain of production. ( For case, while a hunter-gatherer society is forced to curtail the figure of births, many agricultural societies have an involvement in every bit many births as possible. ) The material conditions under which kids are reared do alter & # 8211 ; but as a byproduct of stuff alterations taking topographic point elsewhere in society. [ 41 ]
Finally, these considerations besides enable us to dispose of another statement that is sometimes raised & # 8211 ; the claim that all societal dealingss are & # 8216 ; dealingss of production & # 8217 ; . [ 42 ]
All parts of any societal construction owe their ultimate generation to the kingdom of production. But what Marx rather justly emphasised by talk of the & # 8216 ; superstructure & # 8217 ; was that, one time generated, some parts of the societal construction have the consequence of restraining the development of others. The old base in contradiction to the new. The old signifier of administration of the province, for case, rose out of the demands of development at a certain point in history and has go oning effects on production. But it stands in contradiction to the new relationships that are continually being thrown up by farther developments of production. To state that all societal dealingss are & # 8216 ; dealingss of production & # 8217 ; is to paint a image of societal development which ignores this of import component of contradiction. [ 43 ]
Base and superstructure under capitalist economy
So far this article has been about the relationship of base and superstructure in general. But there are certain distinctive features about their relation under capitalist economy that deserve a brief reference.
First is the curious consequence of dealingss of production on the forces of production. Marx stresses that, for pre-capitalist societies, the constituted dealingss of production tend to retard the forces of production. Under capitalist economy, by contrast, the endurance of each single capital depends upon spread outing the forces of production at its disposal more quickly than its challengers:
& # 8216 ; The middle class can non be without invariably revolutionizing the instruments of production and thereby the dealingss of production and with them the whole dealingss of society & # 8230 ; Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted perturbation of all societal conditions, everlasting uncertainness and agitation distinguish the businessperson era from all earlier ones. & # 8217 ; [ 44 ]
Marx holds that the contradiction between the forces of production and the dealingss of production still comes to the bow finally, but in a quite specific manner.
The growing of the societal productive forces of humanity & # 8211 ; increased productiveness & # 8211 ; involves uniting of all time greater sums of past labor to each unit of present labor. Under capitalist economy this takes the signifier of an addition in the ratio of investing to the work force. Investing grows more quickly than the beginning of all possible net income, populating labor. Yet the mainspring of production in this system is the rate of net income, i.e. the ratio of net income to investing.
The contradiction between the thrust to put and the low degree of net income to prolong investing finds look, for Marx, in a turning inclination to stagnancy in the system, of all time greater disproportions between the different elements of the economic system, and of all time deeper economic crises. For those of us who live in the twentieth century, it besides means an of all time present inclination for economic competition to turn into military struggle, with the menace of the forces of production turning into full fledged forces of devastation. [ 45 ]
A 2nd difference lies in the manner in which under capitalist economy there is non merely a struggle between the development of economic dealingss and non-economic restraints on them, but besides a struggle between different elements of the economic system, some of which are seen by Marx as & # 8216 ; more basic & # 8217 ; than others. The beginning of excess value lies in the kingdom of production. But turning out of the kingdom of production are a whole scope of activities to make with the distribution of this excess between different elements of the capitalist category & # 8211 ; the purchasing and merchandising of trade goods, the recognition system, the stock market, and so on. These take on a life of their ain in a similar manner to the different elements in the political and ideological superstructure, and that life affects what happens in the kingdom of production. Yet, at the terminal of the twenty-four hours, they can non get away the cardinal fact that the excess they dispose of comes from development at the point of production & # 8211 ; something which expresses itself in the sudden happening of cyclical crises.
None of this means that the differentiation between base and superstructure is excess under capitalist economy. What it does intend is that there are even more elements of contradiction in this system than antecedently. Analyzing these concretely is a stipulation for cognizing the manner the system is traveling and the possibilities of constructing a determined radical resistance to it.
Superstructure and political orientation
What is the relationship of thoughts and political orientation to the duality of base and superstructure?
Marx is repetitive that thoughts can non be divorced from the societal context in which they arise. He says: & # 8216 ; Definite signifiers of societal consciousness correspond to & # 8230 ; the economic construction, the existent footing & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; the manner of production of material life conditions the societal, political and rational life procedure in general & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; societal being & # 8230 ; determines & # 8230 ; consciousness & # 8217 ; [ my accents ] .
To understand these strong averments you have to understand how Marx sees thoughts and linguistic communication as development.
Ideas arise, for him, out of the material interaction of human existences with the universe and each other:
& # 8216 ; The production of thoughts of constructs of consciousness is at first straight interwoven with the stuff activity and the material intercourse of work forces, the linguistic communication of existent life. Conceiving, thought, the material intercourse of work forces appear at this phase as the direct outflow of their material behavior. The same applies to me
ntal production as expressed in the linguistic communication of political relations, Torahs, morality, faiths, metaphysics, etc of a people. Work force are the manufacturers of their constructs, thoughts, etc – existent active work forces, as they are conditioned by the development of their productive forces and the signifiers of intercourse matching to these, up to its furthest signifiers. Consciousness can ne’er be anything else than witting being, and the being of work forces is their existent life process.’ [ 46 ]
Every thought can be shown to hold its beginning in the stuff activity of worlds:
& # 8216 ; We set out from existent active work forces and on the footing of this we demonstrate the development of the ideological physiological reactions and reverberations of this life procedure. The apparitions of the human encephalon are needfully sublimates of work forces & # 8217 ; s material life procedure, which can be through empirical observation established and which is bound to material preconditions. & # 8217 ; [ 47 ]
He implies there are a figure of phases in the development of consciousness. Animals do non possess consciousness ; at most they are instantly cognizant of fugitive feelings around them. Humans begin to travel beyond this phase of immediate consciousness merely as they begin to interact socially with each other on a regular footing, in moving jointly to command their environment. So he argues that it is merely when worlds have developed to the phase of & # 8216 ; primary historical dealingss do we happen that adult male besides possesses & # 8220 ; consciousness & # 8221 ; . & # 8217 ; [ 48 ]
In the procedure of moving together to acquire a support, worlds create for the first clip a material medium that enables them to repair fugitive feelings as lasting constructs:
& # 8216 ; From the start the & # 8216 ; spirit & # 8217 ; is afflicted with the expletive of being & # 8216 ; burdened & # 8217 ; with affair, which here makes its visual aspect in the signifier of agitated beds of air, sounds, in short in linguistic communication. Language is every bit old as consciousness, linguistic communication is practical consciousness that exits for other work forces and for that ground alone it truly exists for me personally every bit good ; linguistic communication like consciousness merely arises from the deman