Basic Notes on English
BASIC ENGLISH NOTES SENTENCE: A group of words which expresses a complete thought. A sentence must contain a subject and a finite verb. There are four types of sentences: (1). STATEMENTS (2). QUESTIONS (3). EXCLAMATIONS (5). COMMANDS (IMPERATIVES) Sentences can be classified as simple sentences, compound sentences, or complex sentences. A Sentence may be divided into a subject [ (who or what? )- the word that follows the subject is not the object, it is the complement i. e was, became etc. ] and a predicate [ (the rest of the sentence) expands on the subject and begins with the verb.
The predicate is divided into verb, diect/indirect object ] PARTS OF SPEECH; Every word in a sentence is named according to it’s function. NOUN: Naming word [ (common noun)- ordinary everyday things (proper noun)- names of people places etc. ( collective nouns)- names a collection or group (absract noun)- something which is not visible or tangible ].
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PRONOUN: Stands in place of the noun i. e she, it etc. ADJECTIVE: Describing word. VERB: Doing word. ADVERB: Modifies the verb. CONJUNCTION: Joining word. PREPOSITION: ‘small words’ which relate phrases or words together.
ARTICLE: ‘a’ ‘an’ or ‘the’ which precede nouns or adjectives. FIGURES OF SPEECH: used to express ourselves imaginatively, visually and powerfully. Commonly classified as: (1) COMPARISIONS: (a) Simile: A direct comparison, contains the words ‘as’ or ‘like’. (b) Metaphor: A comparision without the use of the words ‘as’ or ‘like’. ( c) Personification: Gives human qualities to inanimative objects or abstract ideas. (d) Apostrophe: addressed or spoken to as if it were human. (2)SOUND DEVICES: (a) Alliterations: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. It often highlights the expression of movement. b) Assonance: The repitition of vowel sounds. ( c) Onomotopoeia: uses words that imitate or reproduce real-life sounds and actions. (d) Rhyme: Rhyme depends on sound rather than the word. It is used for effect. (3)CONTRADICTIONS: (a) Antithesis: compares and contradicts ideas or statements within a sentence. (b) Oxymoron: places seemongly contradictory words next to each other. ( c) Paradox: A seemingly absurd or contradictory statement that is found to be true when analysed. (d) Irony: implies the opposite of what is said. (e) Sarcasm: Something else is intended or understood to what is said. f) Satire: sharp with wit, irony or sarcasm. Used to ridicule human, social or political weaknesses or stupidities. Aims to educate the situation, educte and entertain through humour. (g) Parody: imitation and/or exaggeration of other text types in order to satirise (h) Appropriation: parts of an original texts are used ina different context for a different audience. (I) Epigram: an epigram is a brief and pointed statement which often contains humour or irony. Usually has a deeper underlying meaning. (4)EXAGGERATION & UNDERSTATEMENT: (a) Hyperbole: An over-exaggeration, not meant to be taken literally. b) Litotes: Uses a negative + an opposite to understate what is intended. ( c) Euphemism: Expresses an uncomfortable or unpleasant situation in a more sensitive kind and tactful manner. (d) Innuendo: An innuendo is a disapproving remark which hints at something without stateing it directly. (e) Climax: A build up of adcending ideas. (f) Anti-Climax: similar to the climax but the final statement is often flat and enexpected. (5)OTHERS: (a) Puns: a clever play on words, alike in sound but different in meaning. Double meaning used to convey humour. (b) Rhetorical Questions: Expects no answer. c) Synecdoche: a part is used for a whole, or a whole is used for a part. (d) Metonymy: something associated with the object represents the object. (e) Malapropism: A malapropism is the unintentional use of incorrect , similar sounding words. (f) Spoonerism: the transposition or mixing up of the initial sounds of spoken words. Prejudice A biased, unfair or unreasonable opinion of someone or something, especially when formed without enough thought or knowledge.. A Stigma A feeling that other people have a bad opinion of you or do not respect you. There is a stain placed on your good name.
Stigmatism describes “a process of discrediting an individual or group in the eyes of others”. A A stigma devalues the person rather than a specific action. Discrimination This refers to action taken against a person or group because of perceived differences such as race, religion or disability. Segregation, rejection and violence are forms of discrimination as is any action that treats a person or group of people differently from anyone else. The constitutional court has ruledA “the right to equality is violated whenever a person is treated differently in a way that is unfair”.