Binge Drinking Final Essay Research Paper Drinking

8 August 2017

Binge Drinking ( Final ) Essay, Research Paper

Drinking has become an increasing job in our society. Many people now see imbibing as a norm. Lisa McIntyre, writer of The Practical Skeptic provinces that, & # 8220 ; For one thing, we know that norms vary across societies & # 8221 ; ( 152 ) . So we besides know that what is considered to be aberrant varies across societies. & # 8221 ; How could members of our society see imbibing as anything but a norm when everyplace one turns intoxicant is being advertised? Whether it be on hoardings, coachs, in magazine ads, or telecasting commercials, intoxicant is everyplace and it seems as though everyone is imbibing it. Gone are the times of prohibition, when intoxicant was seen as immorality.

After making quantitative research on imbibing, including a literature reappraisal and analyzing study informations, we came to the decision that imbibing is a serious job in the United States. While both of us prefer non to imbibe, many of our equals do non portion our same attitude.

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In fact, it appears as if imbibing is now a step of societal credence among adolescents and college pupils. Looking at the topic of imbibing from a conflict theoretician point-of-view helped us to understand the issue. We discovered that every societal category drinks, irrespective of age, income, race, or sex.

We wanted to see the effects of imbibing in our society and which groups of people were more likely to take part in such activities. However, when we began to seek for variables of imbibing, we were discouraged to happen that none existed in our provided databases. & # 8220 ; To name a construct a variable agencies, in the first topographic point, that it is a thing of involvement in a peculiar piece of research & # 8221 ; ( McIntyre 50 ) . While we were interested in utilizing a variable of imbibing in our research, the deficiency of one made us presume that many members of society do non see intoxicant as a serious job, or are in denial of its effects. Because of this, we had to utilize a variable of drug usage, that being whether marihuana should be made legal or non, presuming that those who answered yes to the inquiry, were current marihuana tobacco users. Though we do non see marihuana usage as a job, it was the lone other mind-altering substance that we felt could be even mildly compared to alcohol. We do non experience that marihuana has any of the same societal effects as intoxicant, and is non a true job among our society, but one time once more, it was the lone variable we could mensurate. Make note that in all theories and hypothesis we tested, we really were saying our positions as though intoxicant was the variable, non marijuana.

We started our research by proving our theory that people who smoke marihuanas were more likely to hold unprotected sex, because marihuana alters the head & # 8217 ; s ability to believe clearly. Often times, people who are & # 8220 ; high & # 8221 ; make non believe about the hazards of holding unprotected sex, or even utilizing a rubber for that affair. We so developed the hypothesis that people who smoke marihuanas are more likely to non utilize rubbers during sexual intercourse. To trials these thoughts, we operationalized the dependent variable of rubber, which asks the inquiry, & # 8220 ; The last clip you had sex was a rubber used? This includes vaginal, unwritten, or anal sex. & # 8221 ; We so used the independent variable of grass, which asks the inquiry, & # 8220 ; Do you believe the usage of marihuana should be made legal or non? & # 8221 ; Here are the consequences:

Table I: Whether a Person Feels That Marijuana Should be Made Legal or Not and Condom Usage

The information showed that people who do non experience marihuanas should be made legal are more likely to non utilize rubbers during sex, hence, rejecting our hypothesis and turn outing the exact antonym. This could be due to the fact that married people or twosomes in serious relationships frequently do non utilize rubbers as a chief signifier of birth control. However, the correlativity was really weak, even though the chance was low.

To see if our anticipation about why that certain group of people were the most likely to non utilize rubbers, we controlled for matrimonial position. The consequences were fundamentally the same except that, as we predicted, married people were more likely to non utilize rubbers and do non experience that marihuana should be legalized. However, people who were ne’er married were more likely to smoke weed and non utilize rubbers. Once once more, the correlativities were really weak and had small or no statistical significance.

The 2nd theory we tested was that marihuana inhibits the head & # 8217 ; s ability to believe clearly and sometimes causes users to take actions they would non normally take under normal fortunes. Smokers frequently lose their suppressions while & # 8220 ; high, & # 8221 ; which could take them to hold sex with people they hardly know. We so hypothesized that people who smoke marihuanas are more likely to hold a higher figure of sex spouses. In order to prove our thoughts, we operationalized the dependent variable of sex spouses, which asks the inquiry & # 8220 ; How many sex spouses have you had in the last 12 months? & # 8221 ; . Respondents could reply none, one, or two or more. Again, we used the inquiry of whether or non a individual thinks marihuanas should be made legal or non as our independent variable. Here is what we found:

Table II: Whether a Person Feels That Marijuana Should be Made Legal or Not and Number of Sex Partners

The consequences showed that people who smoked marihuana did, on norm, have more sexual spouses than non-smokers. While non-smokers did hold higher per centums of one sex spouse ( 68.1 % to 59.6 % for tobacco users ) , our chief concern was with people who had two or more sex spouses. Smokers were decidedly more likely to hold two or more sex spouses ( 26.4 % to 10.9 % for non-smokers ) . Though the correlativity was merely moderate, the chance was an highly low 0.000, therefore doing the correlativity and consequences extremely statistically important.

We wanted to see if male or female marihuana tobacco users were more likely to hold a higher figure of sex spouses so we controlled for gender in the tabular array. The consequences were fundamentally the same, except that males and females who smoked marihuana had even higher per centums of two or more sex spouses ( 32.2 % for males and 20.1 % for females ) than in the initial informations. Once once more, the information was extremely statistically important and reasonably correlated.

We so theorized that females tend to hold more close friendly relationships than work forces. This is due to the fact that adult females are frequently more unfastened with one another and love to speak. Males may experiment with drugs in order to make full the clip frame they would be passing with friends, while adult females fill their clip with their friends speaking or shopping. Created from this theory, was our hypothesis that males are more likely to smoke marihuanas than females. In order to prove these thoughts, we had to utilize the step of marihuana as our dependant variable operationalized, and the independent variable of gender, or instead answering & # 8217 ; s sex. These are the consequences:

Table III. Gender and Whether a Person Thinks That Marijuana Should be Made Legal or Not

The information showed that work forces were more likely than adult females ( 31.4 % to 23.3 % ) to prefer the legalisation of marihuana, therefore taking us to deduce that they are more likely to smoke marihuana. Besides, work forces were less likely than adult females to experience that marihuana should non be made legal. Although the consequences were highly statistically important, the correlativity was really weak.

When we controlled for degree of employment, the consequences were reasonably much the same. No affair if they were working or unemployed, females were much less likely to prefer the legalisation of marihuana. Once once more, the consequences were extremely important, yet weakly correlated.

The following theory we tested was that people who work experience more societal integrating than those who are unemployed. Because marihuana alters the head & # 8217 ; s believing procedure, people who work are less likely to utilize the drug because they do non desire their public presentation to be effected. From our theory, we developed a hypothesis that people who are employed are less likely to smoke marihuana. In order to prove these thoughts we used the step of marihuana as our dependant variable, and operationalized the independent variable of working, which asks the inquiry, & # 8220 ; Was respondent working or unemployed the old hebdomad? & # 8221 ; . Here are the consequences:

Table IV: A Person & # 8217 ; s Level of Employment and Whether Marijuana Should be Made Legal or Not

The information supported our theory. Those who were unemployed at the clip of the study were far more likely

to prefer the legalisation of marihuana ( 46.9 % to 29.0 % ) than people who worked. While the correlativity was weak, the consequences were really statistically important.

Curious about whether a individual & # 8217 ; s age effected the consequences, we decided to command for age. The consequences remained the same. In each age class those who were unemployed were far more likely to prefer smoking marihuanas than people who worked. However, the control information was weakly correlated and non of statistical significance.

Yet another theory we tested was that people with higher incomes frequently experience more societal stratification. They frequently feel that they must populate up to high function outlooks and positions and hence see drugs as a aberrant step, one that is clearly unacceptable and would do others look down upon them. We so hypothesized that people with lower household incomes are more likely to smoke marihuana. Once once more, we used the step of marihuana as the dependant variable while utilizing household income which asks the inquiry, & # 8220 ; In which of these groups did your entire household income, from all beginnings, autumn last twelvemonth, before revenue enhancements that is? & # 8221 ; . Respondents could take three different classs which were: $ 1,000- $ 19,999, $ 20,000- $ 39,999, or $ 40,000 and up. These are the consequences:

Table V: Family Income and Whether a Person Believes Marijuana Should be Made Legal or Not

While the consequences did demo that every bit income increased the credence of marihuana being legalized decreased and as income increased the rate of those against the legalisation of marihuana increased, the consequences were non statistically important. In fact, the correlativity was highly weak and the chance was non in our favour, intending our hypothesis was rejected. Possibly these consequences were due to the fact that as we ab initio stated, aberrant behaviour, such as drug usage and alcohol addiction, are a manner for people to derive societal credence.

When we controlled for gender the consequences were a small different. Lower income females still favored the legalisation of marihuana over adult females in other income brackets, but females in the high-income bracket favored legalisation more than those in the in-between income bracket. Surprisingly, males in the in-between income bracket were more in favour of the legalisation of marihuanas than any other income bracket. They were besides the least likely to oppose legalisation.

When we began utilizing the States database, we were eventually able to utilize a step of intoxicant. Due to this new step, we were able to speculate that people who attend church experience higher degrees of societal integrating, and because of this integrating and friendly relationships, these people do non experience as lonely and are non every bit tempted to imbibe. Many church members are extremely spiritual and experience as though it is a wickedness to imbibe. We so hypothesized that provinces with higher degrees of church members would hold lower degrees of intoxicant ingestion. To prove these thoughts we used a step of intoxicant, gallons of alcoholic drinks consumed per individual 16 and over, as our dependant variable. We used church members, per centum of population belonging to a local church, as our independent variable operationalized. Here is what we found:

Scatterplot I: States & # 8217 ; Church Members and Gallons of Alcohol Consumed Per Person

The consequences of the scatterplot supported our theory. States with higher per centums of church members did hold lower rates of intoxicant ingestion. The correlativity was a strong negative, turn outing our hypothesis correct. The chance was an highly low 0.000 doing the correlativity extremely statistically important.

The following theory we tested with this new step of intoxicant was that divorced people lose many of their societal ties, such as in-laws, partner, relations, and even kids after a divorce. Often they are lonely and may turn to alcohol to kill the clip or even as an effort of run intoing new people. We hypothesized that provinces with higher per centums of divorced people would hold higher degrees of intoxicant ingestion. In order to prove these thoughts we one time once more used the step of intoxicant as the dependant variable and used per centum divorced, the per centum of those 15 and over who presently are divorced as the independent variable operationalized. These are the consequences:

Scatterplot II: States & # 8217 ; Percent Divorced and Gallons of Alcohol Consumed Per Person

The consequences of the scatterplot supported our theory. States with higher per centums of divorced people had higher rates of intoxicant ingestion. The correlativity was strongly positive, while the chance was highly low, in our favour. Besides, the consequences were extremely statistically important.

Finally, we looked at a step of societal stratification and formed a theory based on it. We theorized that hapless people frequently do non hold as many societal ties as wealthier people. They frequently lack the money to fall in nines, attend parties, and purchase nice vesture. Sometimes they experience less position outlooks and function strain and therefore may see imbibing as a wholly normal manner to pass their clip. We so hypothesized that provinces with higher per centums of hapless households will hold higher degrees of intoxicant ingestion. Again the step of imbibing was the dependent variable. The independent variable was the per centum of hapless households, or instead the per centum of households below poorness degree, in each province. Here are the consequences:

Scatterplot III: States & # 8217 ; Percent of Poor Families and Gallons of Alcohol Consumed Per Person

The scatterplot supports the exact antonym of our theory and hypothesis. The correlativity was a weak negative, while the chance was highly low, but non in our favour. The consequences were statistically important, taking us to believe that possibly hapless households are excessively hapless to even buy intoxicant, and possibly hold found cheaper ways to pass their clip.

After finishing our research, we discovered that intoxicant is a major job in the United States. Many people can non acknowledge the badness of the job, including pupils, parents, and society as a whole. We came to this decision due to the fact that intoxicant was non used as a variable or step in barely any databases or studies. We wish that we could hold tested all of our theories utilizing intoxicant alternatively of marihuanas because we believe they would hold resulted in higher correlativities. Besides, we would hold liked to hold been able to command all of the correlativities for high school and college age pupils, because we feel that these peculiar groups of people are most harmed by the effects of intoxicant ingestion. While we did detect that males are more likely to make drugs than females, marihuana tobacco users tend to hold more sex spouses, unemployed people smoke marijuana more than employed people, and hapless people are more acceptable of the legalisation of marihuana, we still feel that these thoughts would hold been more important if intoxicant was a variable.

Another job we had with the survey was that we questioned who the respondents were in the studies. We realize that older Americans are greatly against the legalisation of marihuanas and may non hold answered inquiries sing its legalisation as would adolescents or people in their mid-twentiess. Older Americans frequently do non see alcohol as such a job because they are over the legal imbibing age and do non gorge drink as frequently.

We still believe our initial theory, that people drink in order to derive societal credence, to be true. If there was any possible manner to prove this theory we would love to make so. However, as our available databases do non let, we will merely presume that this would be the consequence of extended surveies.

Plants Cited

& # 8220 ; Binge Drinking in College: A Definitive Study. & # 8221 ; Harvard School of Public Health. Aug. 1995. 23 Nov. 2000. *http: //www.hsph.harvard.edu/Organizations/cas/test/rpt1994/CAS1994rpt.shtml* .

1996 General Social Survey. ( 2,904 instances, 169 variables )

McIntyre, Lisa. The Practical Skeptic. Mountain View, CA. Mayfield, 1999.

The 50 States of the United States. ( 50 instances, 117 variables )

& # 8220 ; Binge Drinking in College: A Definitive Study. & # 8221 ; Harvard School of Public Health. Aug. 1995. 23 Nov. 2000. .

1996 General Social Survey. ( 2,904 instances, 169 variables )

McIntyre, Lisa. The Practical Skeptic. Mountain View, CA. Mayfield, 1999.

The 50 States of the United States. ( 50 instances, 117 variables )

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