BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay Research

BIO Notes On Organic Chemistry Essay, Research Paper

The chemical science of life

( Populating things made largely of saccharides, fat and protein )

CARBOHYDRATES energy manufacturer

& # 183 ; Contain C, H and O

& # 183 ; Glucose is the simplest ( dissolves easy in H2O ) monosaccharose

& # 183 ; Starch is besides common ( solid, tonss of glucose molecules in a concatenation ( condensation ) ) disaccharide

& # 183 ; Starch is broken down into glucose as good ( add H2O & # 224 ; hydrolysis )

FAT energy manufacturer insularity and energy shop

& # 183 ; Contain C, H and O

& # 183 ; Contains more C + H

& # 183 ; Fat molecule is made up of glycerin and fatty acids.

& # 183 ; Condensation and hydrolysis drama parts here?

Protein

& # 183 ; Contain C, H, O, N ( and sulfur )

& # 183 ; Made of blocks ( aminic acids ) and links ( peptide links )

& # 183 ; 22 amino acids in nature

& # 183 ; Hydrolysis & # 224 ; concatenation of proteins split ( polypeptides ) so broken to little amino acids

& # 183 ; Reverse in condensation

& # 183 ; Soluble proteins make up enzymes.

& # 183 ; Denaturalisation occurs when molecule form alterations when heated.

Chemical Chemical reaction

& # 183 ; Occur chiefly in intestine and cells

& # 183 ; Chemical reactions in cells is metamorphosis

& # 183 ; Interrupting down or connection options

& # 183 ; All reactions are catalysed by enzymes.

Enzymes

Importance

& # 183 ; To rush up reactions

& # 183 ; They are biological accelerators

& # 183 ; TYPES

Extracellular enzymes are produced and leave cell to work outside

& # 183 ; Intracellular enzymes work indoors cell

ENZYME CONTROLLED REACTION

& # 183 ; Maltose ( substrate ) & # 224 ; maltase ( enzyme ) & # 224 ; glucose ( merchandise )

Property

& # 183 ; Always proteins

& # 183 ; Specific

& # 183 ; Reclaimable

& # 183 ; Destroyed by heat over 45 Celsius

& # 183 ; Sensitive to pH

HOW DO THEY Work?

& # 183 ; Enzyme molecule has active site

& # 183 ; Substrate fits into active site

& # 183 ; Reaction takes topographic point

& # 183 ; Merchandises leave site.

Helping HINDERING

& # 183 ; Anything which helps substrate range enzyme speeds up reaction

& # 183 ; Poisons halt temporarily/ for good the active site

ENZYME Use

& # 183 ; Biological lavation pulverizations

& # 183 ; Tendering meats, clambering fish, taking hairs

& # 183 ; Softening veggies, taking seed coats

& # 183 ; Syrups, fruit-juices, cocoas

Food and Diet

OUR DIET

& # 183 ; Carbohydrates

& # 183 ; Fats

& # 183 ; Proteins

& # 183 ; Water

& # 183 ; Minerals

& # 183 ; Vitamins

Carbohydrates

& # 183 ; Sugar gives energy

& # 183 ; Starch are usually found in little grains called amylum granules they besides give us energy

& # 183 ; Cellulose for workss make a cell wall for worlds it makes a dietetic fiber maintaining the nutrient traveling along the intestine

Fat

& # 183 ; Chiefly give us energy

& # 183 ; Saturated means that there is no more room for atoms to add on to the bing molecule.

& # 183 ; Unsaturated is the antonym.

Protein

& # 183 ; Needed for growing fix and little sums of energy

& # 183 ; Kwashiorkor & # 224 ; disease with the deficiency of protein

& # 183 ; Proteins are made of aminic acids

& # 183 ; Essential amino acids are 1s we can non do but alternatively take in digestively

Water

& # 183 ; Absolutely indispensable

& # 183 ; Needed in all life signifiers and contained in largely all substances

Minerals

& # 183 ; Sodium. Is a salt. It helps messages to be sent and musculus contraction. Lack of causes spasms in musculuss

& # 183 ; Calcium used for indurating our castanetss and dentitions. Hardening can merely take topographic point when they take up Ca phosphate and carbonate ( calcification ) . Lack of causes rachitiss ( soft, weak, distorted castanetss ) .

& # 183 ; Phosphorus. We need it to be absorbed into the Ca. It occurs in membranes.

& # 183 ; Iron. Present in hemoglobin ( conveyances O2 ) . Lack of cause anemia: less O2 transported, less energy.

& # 183 ; Iodine. Trace component: needed in bantam measures. We get from sea nutrient and imbibing H2O. Needed to do tetraiodothyronine. Lack of causes goitre or? Derbyshire cervix? : puffiness of thyroid secretory organ next to Adam? s apple.

& # 183 ; Fluorine. Trace component. Prevents tooth decay.

Vitamins

& # 183 ; Collection of organic substances which control reactions in the organic structure.

& # 183 ; ( A ) . Vitamin a1: of import for our eyes. Lack of causes night-blindness or xerophthalmus. Fat soluble

& # 183 ; ( B ) . Niac

in ( nicotinic acid ) . Lack of: Pellagra. Vitamin b1: deficiency of is Beri-beri. Vitamin b2: causes sores in tegument around oral cavity. Water soluble

& # 183 ; ( C ) . Ascorbic acid. Keep epithelial tissue healthy. Lack of cause scorbutus: hemorrhage in assorted parts of the organic structure. Water soluble

& # 183 ; ( D ) . Calciferol. Helps child? s castanetss become strong. Lack of cause rachitiss. Can be obtained from fish liver oil or the organic structure through sunshine. Fat soluble

& # 183 ; ( E ) . Found in milk and egg yolk. Lack of cause asepsis. Fat soluble

& # 183 ; ( K ) . Helps blood coagulum. Lack of causes internal, external hemorrhage. Fat-soluble.

& # 183 ; Composition of different nutrients helps us place utile substances.

& # 183 ; Vegetarian: eats no carnal meat but does eat merchandises. Vegans do non eat carnal merchandises.

& # 183 ; Food additives: substances that are added to nutrient. Some give alteration to color, gustatory sensation, saving or consistence.

How substances are stored

WHY DO ORGANISMS STORE SUBSTANCES?

& # 183 ; So that they can last when nutrient is unavailable or scarce

& # 183 ; Man can last several hebdomads

WHERE ARE SUBSTANCES STORED?

& # 183 ; The chief storage topographic point is the liver for worlds.

& # 183 ; For workss they swell up and do the swelling the storage topographic point. The works storage organ can last rough conditions so a new works spouts and the nutrient is moved at that place.

PLANTS STORAGE SYSTEM

& # 183 ; Green workss produce glucose that is either used heterosexual off or turned into amylum and converted back to glucose when needed.

& # 183 ; Other substances can be made from glucose in workss ( oil, sugar )

REQUIREMENTS FOR TURNING STARCH INTO GLUCOSE

& # 183 ; Enzyme

& # 183 ; Can be tested with amylum

HOW STARCH IS TURNED INTO GLUCOSE

& # 183 ; Glucose molecules join together and gyrate up organizing a amylum grain ( condensation )

& # 183 ; The amylum grain can de-coil and divide up organizing Glucose ( hydrolysis )

ANIMALS STORAGE SYSTEM

& # 183 ; Get glucose from nutrient

& # 183 ; They turn glucose into animal starch

& # 183 ; Glycogen is a bondage of glucose molecules linked together

& # 183 ; Stored in the liver

& # 183 ; It is besides stored as fat

Mobilization

& # 183 ; This is when a solid signifier of nutrient has to be transported and it is broken down into a solution.

& # 183 ; Starch and animal starch are broken down into glucose.

& # 183 ; Fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerin

IMPORTANCE OF FOOD STORES

& # 183 ; Storage of nutrient in beings normally mean they are traveling to be packed together closely, this means anything like this can be a rich beginning for worlds

Obtaining energy from nutrient

FOOD CONTAINING ENERGY

& # 183 ; We can look into this by firing nutrient and gauging the sum of heat given out. ( kJ )

& # 183 ; kJ per Gram carbohydrates-17, fat-39, protein-18

ENERGY CONTAINED IN FOOD

& # 183 ; determines how it should be cooked

& # 183 ; Depends on substances inside the nutrient.

ENERGY PER DAY

& # 183 ; Basal metabolic rate: rate at which organic structure procedures take topographic point

& # 183 ; Approximately 7000kj per twenty-four hours if lying down making nil

& # 183 ; At least 9200 kJ per twenty-four hours for making nil but indispensable undertakings

EXCESS Eating

& # 183 ; Most extra non used is turned into fat. Body weight additions

& # 183 ; Obesity is when we take in more energy ( through nutrient ) than we give out.

& # 183 ; More exercising, ingestion of less energy-containing nutrients halt or lessening fleshiness

MINIMAL EATING ( STARVATION )

& # 183 ; First energy shops from fat will be used up.

& # 183 ; Takes energy from musculuss

& # 183 ; Becomes thin and weak

& # 183 ; Anorexia nervosa: psychological loss of appetency

& # 183 ; Marasmus blowing off due to starvation

Energy release-respiration

FOOD Burning

& # 183 ; Oxygen is needed

& # 183 ; Carbon dioxide, H2O and heat are produced

ENERGY PRODUCTION IN HUMANS

& # 183 ; C6H12O6 + 6O2 & # 224 ; 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY

& # 183 ; We can look into the relationship between O2+CO2 and interrupting down of nutrient by utilizing radioactive tracers and mice.

ENERGY USES

& # 183 ; Animal-movement, messages, transit, heat, growing, cell division, osmosis, and life!

& # 183 ; Plants taking up mineral salts, opening/closing pores, transporting nutrient substances, growing, cell division, osmosis, and life!

CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION

& # 183 ; Respirometer measures sum of O taken in

& # 183 ; Energy produced from glucose is linked to adenosine triphosphate ( ATP )

& # 183 ; Breakdown of glucose is used to do ATP

& # 183 ; ATP non Glucose gives energy towards musculus contractions

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