Biology Essay Research Paper Living things make

7 July 2017

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Biology Essay, Research Paper

Populating things make up the universe as we know it. Populating things are involved in our life invariably, seeing that we are alive. There are five features that are common to all living things. Populating things are made up of one or more cells. Each cell is made up of life affair and is separated by a barrier that encloses the cell from its milieus. However, there are many different sorts of cells that make up living things. A individual cell can be one being. These beings are known as unicellular. Most of the beings that we know best such as people, trees, and Canis familiariss are all made up of more than one cell. Organisms made of more than one cell are said to be multicellular.

Another feature that populating things portion is that they reproduce. They reproduce, or do new beings of the same kind. In order for a species to last, it is a necessity for them to reproduce because all beings die finally. There are two ways populating things reproduce, sexually and asexually. Sexual reproduction needs two cells from two different beings to unify and organize the first cell of a new being. Asexual reproduction is when merely one being can reproduce without the aid of another.

The 3rd feature of life things, is that all living things need to turn and develop. When an being is turning, most go through a rhythm called development. The individual cell that starts the cell divides over and over once more to do all the cells that the being has when in maturity. As the rhythm continues the being ages. Aging is when the being becomes less efficient in the procedure of life. The being will non be able to reproduce, and decease comes as eventually excessively.

The 4th feature of a living thing is the ability to obtain and utilize energy. Populating things obtain energy from their environment or their milieus. All living things require energy to populate and construct their cells. This procedure is constructive metabolism. Anabolism is the procedure in a living thing that involves seting together complex substances from simpler substances. Plants get their energy from the sunshine through a procedure called photosynthesis. Animals get their energy from nutrient that is eaten. The nutrient is so broken down through digestion, ensuing in a release of energy called katabolism. Populating things pattern constructive metabolism and katabolism through the whole clip they are populating. The balance of constructive metabolism and katabolism is called metamorphosis.

The fifth and concluding feature that all life things portion is that all living things respond to their environment. Response to their environment can be sudden, through behaviour, or gradual, in metabolic procedure or growing. Stimulus is anything in the environment that causes a living thing to respond. Stimuli include light, temperature, olfactory property, gravitation, sound, H2O, and force per unit area. Plants by and large act to stimuli slower than animate beings. The procedure in which populating things respond to stimuli in ways to maintain conditions in their organic structure suited for life is homeostasis. These five features of life things are merely the rudimentss to cognize what makes up living things.

Atomic Structure of Living Thingss

The basic unit of affair is the atom. Atoms are highly little, in fact, if you placed 100 million atoms in a row one after the other, it would be one centimetre long. Even though the atom is little it consists of even smaller atoms, called subatomic atoms. Scientists believe that there is at least 200 subatomic atoms. The three chief subatomic atoms are the neutron, proton, and negatron.

In the center of the atom there is a karyon. The karyon makes up 99.9 per centum of the atoms weight even though it is a 100 times smaller than the atom itself. The nucleus contains two different sort of subatomic atoms, the neutron and the proton. The proton has a positive charge and the neutron is a electrically impersonal subatomic atom. Both are about equal in mass, 1 amu ( atomic mass unit ) .

Another subatomic atom in the atom is the negatron. It is negatively charged and it & # 8217 ; s mass is about 2000 times smaller than that of a neutron or negatron. Normally the figure or negatron in an atom is the same as the figure of protons. So, normally the atoms have non a positive nor negative charge, but they are impersonal.

Electron are non in the karyon like the protons and neutrons are. They travel at really high velocities throughout the atom in energy degrees. The energy degrees are like orbits that surround the karyon.

The figure of protons that are in the karyon of an atom is called the atomic figure. The atomic figure identifies the atom because no two atoms have the same figure of protons in there nucleus. For illustration, H has the atomic figure of 1, that means all atoms that have one proton in its karyon is H.

The atomic mass figure is the figure of neutrons and protons in the karyon. To happen the figure on neutrons in an atom, you must round the atomic mass figure to the nearest whole figure and so deduct the atomic figure. Remember the atomic figure is the same as the figure of protons in the atom. To happen out the figure or negatrons an atom contains, you merely necessitate to cognize the atomic figure because there is the same figure of protons as there is negatrons in atoms. For illustration, in Na, the atomic figure is 11, and the atomic mass figure is 22.98977. This means that Na contains 11 protons, 11 negatron, and 12 neutrons. ( See Figure 1 )

Substances known as elements are made up of entirely on type of atom. Scientists have discovered 109 elements, 90 were found in nature, and 19 were unnaturally made in research labs by scientists. Each component is represented by a chemical symbol. Each symbol is made up of one or two letters, normally taken from the name of the component. The symbol of O is O, the symbol for P is P, and the symbol for Nitrogen is N. Most chemical elements are solid, like gold, Fe, bronze, and Ag to call a few. They are on the left 3/4 of the periodic tabular array. Some elements are gases, like O and C. They are on the right 1/4 of the periodic tabular array. Merely a few elements are liquids, quicksilver and Br are the most common. The baronial gases are located all the manner to the right on the periodic tabular array.

The atomic figure of an component is ever the same, this means that an component will ever hold the same figure of protons. However, the figure of neutrons in the karyon may differ from one atom to the following. For illustration, the typical H atom contains one proton and no neutrons inside the karyon. Another signifier of H is called heavy hydrogen. It contains one proton and one neutron in the karyon. The 3rd signifier of H is sometimes referred to as tritium. Tritium has on proton and two neutrons in the karyon of the atom. Even though the atomic mass figure may alter the atomic figure of H will be 1, and it will still hold one proton and one negatron. An isotope is an atom with the same figure of protons and negatrons but a different figure of neutrons from the same component. Isotopes are represented by seting a figure in forepart of the atomic symbol of that atom. The figure represents the atomic mass. Regular H is written 1H, heavy hydrogen is 2H, and tritium is 3H.

Compounds and Molecules

When elements combine to organize substances of dwelling of two or more atoms, chemical compounds are produced. A chemical compound deals with the combination of two or more atoms in definite proportions. Most stuffs in life things happen to be compounds, so they are really of import to us.

Chemical compounds are represented merely as elements are with chemical symbols. A chemical expression is made up of the chemical symbols that make the chemical compound. For illustration, H2O contains two H atoms and one O atom. The chemical expression would be H2O. Table salt is made from one Na atom and one Cl atom, so the chemical expression is NaCl.

Chemical compounds are formed by the interaction of atoms. Chemical bonding is the procedure in which atoms interact and combine. An of import factor in chemical bonding is the figure of negatrons in an atom & # 8217 ; s outermost energy degree. Each energy degree can merely keep a certain figure of negatrons. The innermost energy degree, or first energy degree can keep merely two negatrons. The 2nd energy degree can keep eight negatrons. The 3rd holds 18 negatrons, the 4th and 5th energy degrees hold up to 32 negatrons. The 6th energy degree can bear 18 negatron, the 7th energy degree can keep eight negatrons. The 8th and outmost energy degree can suit for a mere two negatrons. In order for there to be negatrons in outer energy degrees, the interior energy degrees must be full. There can & # 8217 ; t be 1 negatron on the first energy degree and five on the 2nd. It would hold to be two on the first energy degree and four negatrons on the 2nd. When the negatrons of an atom fill the outermost energy degree they are said to be stable, or unreactive. These atoms will non bond with other atoms to organize chemical bonds. In order for an atom to go stable, it will either hold to lose or derive negatrons to do it & # 8217 ; s outermost energy degree complete. There is one other manner an atom can be stable. It will be stable if it & # 8217 ; s outermost energy degree contains eight negatrons.

One type of bond to do atoms stable is called an ionic bond. An ionic bond is a bond that involves the transportation of negatrons. The name comes from the word ion. Ion means charged atoms. Ions are produced when ionic bonds occur. For illustration, Na has merely one negatron on its outermost energy degree and Cl has seven on its outermost energy degree. These two atoms want to bond in order to go stable. That means it wants to acquire rid of it to go stable. The loss of the one negatron makes a sodium ion ( Na+ ) , which is positively charged. It & # 8217 ; s positively charged because it lost one of it & # 8217 ; s negatively charged negatrons. Therefore, the negatrons and protons don & # 8217 ; t balance, because now there is one more proton than negatron, so the ion has a positive charge. The add-on of one negatron makes a negatively charged Cl ion ( Cl- ) . The two ions are oppositely charged and now have an intense attractive force to each other. The attractive force is caused by the transportation of negatrons that holds the ions together in an ionic bond. ( See Figure 2 )

A different type of bond is called a covalent bond. A covalent bond is formed when atoms portion negatrons in order to go stable. The shared negatrons are located in the outermost energy degrees of both atoms. This forms a strong bond that is in many living things. Covalent bonds can be in the signifier of individual bonds, dual, or three-base hit. The bond between two H atoms and O atom ( H2O ) , forms a individual bond. A individual brace of negatron is shared between the two H atoms and the O atoms. ( See Figure 2 ) On the other manus, the compound that forms C dioxide ( CO2 ) , forms a dual bond. The C atom portions two braces of negatrons, four sum with the two O atoms.

In covalent bonds the combination of atoms that are caused from sharing signifier molecules. A molecule is the smallest atom of a covalently bonded compound. Besides H2O and C dioxide that were already mentioned, sugar ( C6H12O6 ) and ammonium hydroxide ( NH3 ) are compounds.

Organic compounds are compounds that contain C. Carbon is a alone component because of its ability to organize covalent bonds that are exceptionally strong and stable. The C atom has two negatrons in the first energy degree and four in the 2nd energy degree. There are four unfastened places in C & # 8217 ; s outermost energy degree, leting it to organize four individual covalent bonds. Carbon can easy bond with H, O, N, P, and S atoms. Carbon besides has the extraordinary ability to organize long ironss with other C atoms. The bonds between C can be individual, dual, or ternary covalent bonds. No other component has this rare ability. ( See Figure 2 )

Cell Structures

Cells from a populating thing come in many different sizes and forms. Even though cells differ in size and form, certain parts of the cells are the same. The cells of animate beings, workss, and other beings have three major but basic constructions in common: the cell membrane, the karyon, and the cytol.

The cell membrane acts as the cell & # 8217 ; s outer wall and protects it from it & # 8217 ; s milieus. It besides moderates what goes in, and what comes out of the cell. The cell membrane is made up of several different types of molecules. The most of import of these is lipoids. Most of the cell membrane is made up of a dual bed of lipoids. The cell membrane is besides made up of proteins and saccharides.

In workss the cell membrane is surrounded by the cell wall of the works. The cell wall helps protect and back up the works. The cell wall lets H2O, O, and C dioxide base on balls through easy. The cell wall is made up of three beds which are highly porous.

In the bulk of cells there is a dark construction we know as the karyon. Not all cells have nuclei though. Bacteria and other little unicellular beings don & # 8217 ; Ts have a karyon. These are said to be procaryotes, or cells without karyon. Cells that do hold a karyon are called eucaryotes. The karyon is really of import to the cell, it is the information centre and contains DNA. DNA sto

RESs familial information that is passed to one coevals to the following. The Deoxyribonucleic acid in a cell is attached to particular proteins. These proteins are called chromosomes. Chromosomes contain familial information that is passed through coevalss.

The karyon of a cell tend to be approximately two to five microns in diameter. Surrounding the karyon there are two membranes called the atomic envelope. The atomic envelope contains tonss of little pores, through which molecules move in and out of the karyon.

In most nuclei, there is a little part called the nucleole. It is made up of RNA and proteins. In the nucleole, ribosomes are made. Ribosomes are of import because they help out with the productions or proteins in a cell.

The infinite inside of a cell can be divided into two parts, the karyon and the cytol. The cytol is the country between the karyon and the cell membrane. The cytol contains other of import constructions in the cell. Structures inside the cell are called cell organs. An cell organ is a bantam construction in the cell that preforms a particular map within the cell.

The chondriosome is greatly of import to the cell. In animate beings, the chondriosome changes the stored chemical energy from nutrient into more utile energy for the cell. In workss, an cell organ called the chloroplast alterations energy from sunshine to energy that can be used by the cell. The chondriosome is found in both the cells of workss and animate beings, where as the chloroplast is merely found in workss.

Ribosomes are the constructions in which proteins are produced. They are made out of protein and RNA. Some ribosomes in a cell are attached to membranes, while some are free in the cytol. Ribosomes are one of the smallest cell organs in a cell.

Many cells are filled with a web of channels we call the endoplasmic Reticulum. The endoplasmic Reticulum conveyances through the interior of the cell. There happens to be two different types of endoplasmic Reticulums. The smooth endoplasmic Reticulum has channels that are smooth. In some cells particular enzymes and chemicals are stored within the smooth endoplasmic Reticulum. The other type of endoplasmic Reticulum is called the unsmooth endoplasmic Reticulum. It is called rough because it has ribosomes that are attached to the surface doing it look unsmooth. Many proteins that are released are transported from the cell in the unsmooth endoplasmic Reticulum.

The freshly formed proteins are frequently first moved into particular compartments known as the Golgi setup. In the Golgi apparatus the proteins are modified and so releases it. The Golgi setup & # 8217 ; map is to modify, collect, bundle, and eventually administer molecules made in one location to another location.

When foreign stuffs that are excessively large to travel in the cell acquire into the cell, the cell membrane forms a pocket around it. Then the lysosomes come in and digest, so interrupt down the atom. Lysosomes are little constructions that contain chemicals and enzymes that aid interrupt down and digest foreign atoms in the cell. Lysosomes are made in the Golgi setup, and workss don & # 8217 ; Ts have lysosomes.

Vacuoles are sac-like constructions in a cell that shop H2O, salts, proteins, and saccharides. Plants besides have a construction besides the vacuole called the plastid. The plastid besides shops nutrient every bit good as pigments for the works.

The cytoskeleton in a cell is the frame work that holds the cell together and gives it their form. The cytoskeleton is made from fibrils and fibres. One of the chief parts in a cytoskeleton is a constituent called microtubules. They are made out of hollow tubules made from proteins. They help travel cell organs throughout the cell. ( See Figure 3 )

The Cell As a Living Thing

Populating things are made up of cells and they grow in size. In most cases, a living thing grows because it produces more and more cells. Cells in an grownup homo are no bigger that cells in a human babe, there is merely more of them.

In a cell, H2O, O, and nutrient enter the cell through the cell membrane, and waste merchandises exit the cell. The clip it takes to interchange these stuffs depends on the surface country of the cell. How rapidly nutrient and O is used, and how rapidly waste merchandises are produced depends on the volume of the cell.

As a cell gets bigger, the volume increases faster than the rate of its surface country. This can be a job for the cell. If the diameter of a cell increases 5 times, the surface country would increase 25 times, and the volume would increase 125 times. The bigger the cell is the harder clip it has acquiring the foods and O it needs in order to back up it & # 8217 ; s monolithic volume.

Cell growing is controlled in multicellular beings. Cells in parts of the organic structure like the bosom and liver seldom divide. These cells are unlike skin cells that divide quickly through a individual & # 8217 ; s life-time. Controls on cell growing can be turned on and off like a light switch. If a bone or tegument is broken, cells divide in order it repair the harm that needs to be fixed.

Uncontrolled cell growing can be really harmful to multicellular beings. Cancer is a upset when cells have lost the ability to command their growing. Cancer cells keep turning and turning until the supply of foods shuts away. Cancer is a really serious disease that shows the importance of controls on cell growing.

Eukaryote cells divide in order to decelerate down cell growing. Cell division is the procedure in which a cell divides to organize two girl cells. The first phase of cell division is called mitosis. Mitosis is the procedure when the karyon of a cell is divided into two karyons, and both have the same figure and type of chromosomes as the parent cell. Mitosis can be split into four parts.

Interpahse occurs before mitosis can get down. It is the period in between cell division and is the longest portion of the cell rhythm. The cell rhythm is the procedure when a cell grows, prepares for division, divides, and begins a new cell rhythm. Interphase itself is divided into three stages: G1, S, and G2. G1, called growing 1, or spread 1, is the phase in which a cell grows. The S phase is called the DNA synthesis phase. During this phase of interphase the Deoxyribonucleic acid is replicated in DNA reproduction. Proteins are besides synthesized in the S stage. G2, or growing 2, takes topographic point when the S phase is finished. During G2 the synthesis or cell organs and other stuffs happens moreover fixing the cell for division. While interphase is taking topographic point the karyon is busy in synthesising courier RNA to direct all the stairss.

The first stage in mitosis is called prophase. Prophase takes the longest clip in mitosis, devouring 50-60 % of the clip it takes mitosis to happen. In prophase the chromosomes in a cell condense and spiral up, doing them more seeable. The centrioles separate and travel to opposite sides of the cell. Centrioles are little constructions in the cytol that contain tubulin, a microtubule protein. Plant cells don & # 8217 ; t contain centrioles. The condensed chromosomes become attached to fibres in the spindle. The spindle is a mesh-like construction that helps travel the chromosomes apart. At the terminal of prophase the chromosomes condense tighter, the nucleolus disappears, and the atomic envelope begins to interrupt down.

Metaphase is the 2nd stage of mitosis, and is the shortest every bit good. During this stage the chromosomes line up across the centre of the cell.

Anaphase is the following stage in mitosis. It begins when the sister chromatids split. Chromatids are the indistinguishable parts that form the chromosome. The chromatids become single chromosomes and go on to divide until they reach the opposite poles. Anaphase ends when the new chromosomes stop moving.

Telophase is the 4th and concluding phase of mitosis. The chromosomes begin o uncoil into a tangle of chromatin. Chromatin is the stuff that makes up chromosomes and itself is made from protein and DNA. All of this takes topographic point where the two new girl cells are taking form. Two atomic envelopes begin to re-emerge around the chromatin. The spindle Begin to interrupt apart and the nucleolus signifiers around the karyon of the girl cells. Mitosis is over but there is still one more measure.

Cytokenesis follows rapidly after mitosis is finished. In cytokenesis the cytol of the parent cell splits into two to organize the girl cells. In animate beings, the cell membrane moves together and pinches the cells, giving doing the girl cells have their ain karyon and cell organs. In workss the cell home base appears and forms a barrier between the two girl cells. The cell home base so forms into a cell membrane, so the cell wall develops. ( See Figure 4 )

Tissues and Variety meats

In multicellular beings, cells are organized in specialised groups, known as tissues. A tissue is a group of similar cells that preform similar maps. Different tissues form many different undertakings. For illustration, a sort of tissue is made up of cells that produce digestive enzymes in the pancreas, and the cells in an oculus respond to visible radiation. Most multicellular beings have four chief types of tissues: musculus, epithelial, nervus, and conjunction.

Some undertakings in the organic structure are excessively complicated to be preformed by merely one type of tissue. So, variety meats preform these responsibilities. An organ is a group of tissues that work together to preform a specific map. Many types of tissues may be used to organize one organ. For illustration, a musculus in an being is classified as an organ because non merely musculus tissue makes up the musculus. There is nerve tissue, connective tissue, every bit good as a particular tissue that connects the musculus with certain parts of the organic structure. All the tissues in an organ work together to preform one common map.

Sometimes non merely one organ can finish one undertaking, so an organ system is needed. An organ system is a group of variety meats that work together to preform one map. There are many organ systems in our organic structure. We have a muscular system, skeletal system, nervous system, and circulatory system.

Multicellular Organisms

A multicellular being is a living thing that is made up of more than one cell. These beings can incorporate 100s, 1000s, even one million millions of cells or more. We see multicellular beings mundane: people, workss, and house pets.

To depict a multicellular being, we have to set them into degrees of organisation. The degrees of organisation in multicellular beings include cells, tissues, variety meats, and organ systems. The first degree is cells, the 2nd is tissues, following is the variety meats, and eventually the 4th degree is the organ system.

Multicellular beings start off with one basic unit, the atom, and construct up to do bigger things. Atoms combine to organize compounds which so form cell organs. Organelles so come together to do a cell. Cells so organize tissues, which could so do variety meats. After variety meats are formed, so organs can be in an organ system.

Eagle

The bird of Jove is sometimes referred to as the & # 8220 ; male monarch of flight & # 8221 ; because of the power it shows while in flight. The bird of Jove has been a symbol or strength and bravery since antediluvian times. In 1782, Congress chose the American bald bird of Jove to be the symbol of our state. The national seal was the bird with its wings spread outward. It holds an olive subdivision in one claw and pointers in the other. The bird of Jove appears in many topographic points today in the United States.

Merely two species of bird of Joves are found in North America today: the American bald bird of Jove, and the aureate bird of Jove. The bald bird of Jove is more common than the aureate bird of Jove. This extraordinary bird has white tail plumes and white plumes on its caput and cervix. The bald bird of Jove lives in unfastened countries, or woods, near H2O. The bald bird of Jove is normally 35-40 inches in length, and have a wingspread of 7.5 pess. The female bald bird of Jove is more fierce than the male, and is a couple inches larger. A barefaced bird of Jove migrates merely if the H2O it feeds in freezings in the winter months. It returns every twelvemonth to the same nest and the same mate. The nests are built in trees or on drops, and sometimes on the land. The bird of Jove adds to it every twelvemonth, doing it bigger and bigger as clip goes on. The nests can weigh up to one 1000 lbs. The nests are made from sticks, weeds, and soil. Bald eagles eat carrion, water bird, and particularly fish.

The aureate bird of Jove was more common than the bald bird of Jove when colonists foremost came here, but this is non the instance today. It & # 8217 ; s found in the western part of North America, from Alaska, south to Mexico. The aureate bird of Jove is about the same size as a bald bird of Jove. It & # 8217 ; s plumes are much darker than that of its celebrated opposite number. There are plumes on the caput and the cervix of the bird that shine like gold when they & # 8217 ; rhenium in the Sun. The toes and claws of the aureate bird of Jove are feathered, where as the bald bird of Jove has no plumes on its legs. With their claws, aureate bird of Joves eat squirrels, prairie Canis familiariss, and coneies. The aureate bird of Jove is really courageous and can assail big animate beings such as cervid, but can & # 8217 ; t carry them off. They build nests in trees and bouldery drops with sticks. The aureate bird of Jove has been known to support its nest up to 75 square stat mis.

As you can see, the two types of bird of Joves in North America are similar and different in many ways. Both of the bird of Joves are really powerful birds. One thing is for certain, the bird of Jove is a really beautiful bird that is highly interesting. ( See Figure 5 )

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