Biology Notes

1 January 2017

Four major classes: Carbohydrates (made of simple sugar/glucose), Lipids (Glycerol and Fatty Acids), Proteins (Amino Acids) and Nucleic Acids (Nucleotides) * Condensation reaction/dehydration synthesis: a reaction that creates a covalent bond between two interacting subunits.

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Removal of H from one functional group and an OH from the other, and the H come together to form a water molecule (H2O). Anabolic process because it results in the construction of large molecules from smaller subunits * Hydrolysis reaction: a catabolic process in which a water molecule is used to break a covalent bond.

Combustion) * Entropy (S) is the measure of randomness and disorder in energy (or collection of objects), like playing cards. It increases when: Solids become liquids/gasses, Liquids become gasses, Fewer moles of reactant form more moles of product, Complex become simpler molecules (polymer to monomer, glucose to CO2 and H2O), Solutes move from area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration, Diffusion. * Exothermic, increase in entropy= spontaneous * Endothermic, decrease in entropy= not spontaneous * Otherwise, spontaneity depends of temperature Gibbs’ Free Energy * Free energy (Gibbs’ Free Energy) (G) is Energy that can do useful work. Spontaneous if its negative. Water moves, creating heat.

This is showing the energy being lost as heat * The entropy of the universe increases with any changes that occur (second law of thermodynamics) * Activities in the body increase order in the universe through anabolic processes. This is contradicting the second law of thermodynamics. They couple these reactions with catabolic processes that counteract them completely, which will increase entropy in the universe (ex. Lifting potato chip into mouth) * Energy in muscles * More potential * Less entropy * Increases in cellular respiration and digestions by breaking down molecule * Increases in the sun as photosynthesis creates order. This disorder will eventually burn out the sun, as there will be no free energy.

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