Bipolar Disorder Cause Of Great Madness Or
Bipolar Disorder: Cause Of Great Madness Or Great Genius? Essay, Research Paper
Is bipolar upset the cause of great lunacy or great mastermind? The symptoms of this mental unwellness may besides be considered as the drive forces behind some of the most talented and gifted people to decorate our society. Although persons with this unwellness may hold some obstructions to get the better of, it can be accomplished. With all of the intervention plans that are widely available, people have many options and methods to turn to for aid.
Bipolar upset, besides referred to as frenzied depression, is a temper upset. A individual with bipolar upset will hold utmost temper displacements between passion, a province of extremely elevated euphoric feelings, and depression, a province of despondence and desperation. These displacements can take hebdomads, yearss, or even proceedingss to go on. The period between displacements will change for each person, depending on the badness of the upset ( Williams & A ; Wilkins, 1999, pp. 5-35 ) .
Approximately two per centum of grownups have this mental unwellness, and about 15 per centum of those grownups will try suicide. Bipolar upset affects both work forces and adult females and the affected rates are similar between different civilizations and states. Most people with bipolar upset experience their first temper episode in their mid-twentiess, although it is non uncommon to see the first episode during childhood or in late life ( Bi-polar Disorder: Advanced Research in Health, 2000 ) .
Bipolar upset is non a curable upset, although it is treatable. Bipolar is & # 8220 ; among the most treatable of the psychiatric unwellnesss & # 8221 ; ( Manic-Depressive/Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) . It is of import for people who believe that they may necessitate aid to seek it every bit shortly as possible because the earlier that bipolar upset can be diagnosed the earlier interventions can get down.
Even after sing an episode, even after feeling that something may be incorrect, persons who seek aid may non ab initio receive the right diagnosing from a medical professional. Because of the similarity of symptoms, bipolar upset may ab initio be misdiagnosed as panic upset, schizophrenic disorder, or attending shortage upset ( Bi-polar Disorder: Advanced Research in Health, 2000 ) . Bipolar may besides be hard to name because the individual seeking aid may non be stating the physician everything the physician needs to cognize to right place the job. Medical professionals may merely name a individual as holding depression because they have no cognition of the inordinate enthusiasm that the patient feels. It is of import for persons seeking medical aid to be accurate and thorough in depicting their feelings or symptoms ( Manic-Depressive/Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) .
A individual sing a frenzied episode may hold increased energy and/or rushing ideas. Feelingss of euphory and/or an increased force per unit area to speak may besides be symptoms. A individual in this phase of the unwellness may hold uncharacteristically hapless opinion and/or may be involved in some type of bad behaviour, such as unmanageable disbursement flings, accustomed reckless driving and/or take parting in unusual sexual brushs and behaviours. Normally the single denies that anything is incorrect when in a frenzied province ( Manic-Depressive/Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) .
A individual sing the depression province of bipolar upset may hold feelings of ineptitude and/or guilt. Decreased energy and/or loss of involvement in one time enjoyable activities may besides be symptoms of clinical depression. A down individual may hold problem concentrating and/or have problem devising determinations. Depression may besides go forth persons contemplating self-destruction ( Manic-Depressive/Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) .
There are two categorizations for bipolar upset, bipolar II and bipolar I ( Williams & A ; Wilkins, 1999, pp. 5-35 ) . The combination and grade of passion and depression find the type of bipolar unwellness. It is besides determined by how long each phase lasts and the clip frame of euthymia, holding normal tempers, between phases. The cycling of phases may overlap, which is referred to as a assorted episode. The diagnostic system that is presently being used by mental wellness professionals is the & # 8216 ; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders & # 8217 ; volume four, besides known as DSM-IV ( Manic- Depressive/Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) .
A patient diagnosed as holding bipolar II upset has or has had at least one episode of major depression and is sing or has experienced one or more episodes of hypomania. Hypomanic episodes have the same symptoms of passion merely to a lesser grade. It is of import for intervention to get down now, to try the upset from developing into bipolar I disorder ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) .
Bipolar I disorder is the most terrible signifier of bipolar upset. Patients with bipolar I have fully fledged episodes of passion and experience major depressive provinces. These patients besides have mixed episodes. In add-on, some bipolar I patients may see psychotic episodes. The symptoms of bipolar I badly affect the patients & # 8217 ; societal and/or occupational operation ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) .
There are legion intervention options for people with bipolar upset. The patient and the patient & # 8217 ; s physician decide which intervention or interventions are best ( Bipolar intervention, 2000 ) . The options are chosen based on the grade of the upset and the current fortunes environing the patient ( Manic-Depressive/Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) .
The most prevailing signifier of intervention is through psychopharmacology ; the usage of drugs that affect the patient & # 8217 ; s the temper and behaviour ( What is Bipolar, 2000 ) . Temper stabilizers, which are anti-depressants, anti-anxieties, and anti-psychotics, may be used entirely or in combination to accomplish and keep a degree of mental stableness for the patient ( Psychopharmacology Tips by Dr. Bob, 1999 ) . These medicines can significantly better the patient & # 8217 ; s temperament and demeanour ( What is Bipolar, 2000 ) .
Anti-depressants, used to handle clinical depression, come in two different chemical compounds, selective 5-hydroxytryptamine re-uptake inhibitors, known merely as SSRIs, and monoamineoxidase inhibitors, besides referred to as MAOs. SSRIs include the medicines Zoloft and Prozac while MAOs include the medicines Nardil and Parnate. Other anti-depressants are lithium ( JAMA, 1999, v.281 pp. 23-32 ) and Depakote ( Psychopharmacology Tips by Dr. Bob, 1999 ) .
Some patients may see unnatural apprehensivenesss, in which an anti-anxiety drug may be needed to stamp down the unnatural trepidation felt by the patient. Ativan and Valium are two of the most common anti-anxiety medicines that are presently being prescribed to these patients ( Psychopharmacology Tips by Dr. Bob, 1999 ) .
In terrible cases, normally patients diagnosed as holding bipolar I disorder, an anti-psychotic medicine such as Haldol or Risperdol may be needed. These medicines help to command the inordinate paranoia, edginess, and mistrustfulness that some bipolar patients feel ( Psychopharmacology Tips by Dr. Bob, 1999 ) .
Patients typically respond good to drug therapy. Psychopharmacology may be used entirely or in concurrence with other interventions. One of these other interventions that may be used in combination with psychopharmacology, or used independently as intervention, is psychotherapeutics.
There are three major types of psychotherapeutics. They are insight therapies, cognitive therapies, and behavior therapies. Mental wellness therapy, by definition, is & # 8220 ; the professional application of techniques intended to handle psychological upsets and cut down emphasis & # 8221 ; ( Rubin, Peplau & A ; Salovey, 1993, p.492 ) .
Insight therapies involve acquiring patients to discourse jobs they are holding and emotions they are experiencing, which are thought to be the cause of their psychological quandary ( Rubin, Peplau & A ; Salovey, 1993, p.494 ) . One such insight therapy is psychoanalytic therapy, developed by Sigmund Freud, which helps patients detect their unconscious motivations and develop penetrations about how to set to them ( Psychotherapy, 1990 ) .
Cognitive therapies takes Freud & # 8217 ; s therapy method one-step further. These therapies focus non merely on what patients think, but besides centre on how and why patients think the manner they do ( Psychotherapy, 1990 ) . Albert Ellis, a clinical psychologist, developed one type of cognitive therapy known as rational-emotive therapy. This therapy focuses on the irrational beliefs of patients and the techniques used to replace those beliefs with more realistic 1s ( Rubin, Peplau & A ; Salovey, 1993, pp. 501-502 ) .
Behavior therapies help the patients place and alter inappropriate behaviours ( Psychotherapy, 1990 ) . Systematic desensitisation, a type of behavior therapy, seeks to replace negative ideas with positive ideas in relation to a specific fright or anxiousness ( Rubin, Peplau & A ; Salovey, 1993, p. 502 ) .
Psychotherapy may be conducted in private Sessionss, group Sessionss, or household Sessionss. Private Sessionss involve the patient and the physician, group Sessionss include the patient and his/her equals, and household Sessionss are comprised of the patient and his/her loved 1s. The benefit of any type of therapy T
reatment and/or any type of therapy session is the relationship that is created between physician and patient. This relationship is built on trust, therefore leting the patient to experience more comfy about discoursing future jobs or issues that may originate ( Psychotherapy, 1990 ) .
Hospitalization may be an component of intervention needed for patients under peculiar fortunes. Patients may be sing a terrible turn of depression or a fully fledged frenzied episode. In these cases, hospitalization may be required to explicate the patient & # 8217 ; s needed medicine, adjust current doses of medicines and/or to keep the patient in a secure environment to minimise the opportunity of self-injury ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) .
Another method of intervention is through self-help This is when the patient enterprises in groups or research, outside of a physicians attention, which help the patient maintain or even better his/her mental status. There are many support groups worldwide for people enduring from bipolar upset, every bit good as an about infinite figure of resources available through local libraries or over the Internet. Self-help interventions are going more widely available because of the convenience of nearby support groups, updated libraries and personal computing machines ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) .
Persons with bipolar upset may besides turn to several alternate therapies for intervention. Some of these methods, while non openly discussed by mental wellness professionals, have statistical findings, which may take patients to see as useable methods of intervention. These methods include, but are non limited to, the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and magnet therapy.
One survey compared omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oils, with an olive oil placebo in persons diagnosed with bipolar upset. The preliminary findings indicated that patients having the fish oils & # 8220 ; had longer periods of remittal and performed better than the patients having placebos & # 8221 ; ( Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999, 56: pp. 407-416 ) . This survey is proclaimed to be a & # 8220 ; landmark effort in drug development & # 8221 ; ( Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999, 56: pp. 407-416 ) .
Harmonizing to a double-blind survey at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, findings indicate that & # 8220 ; magnetic stimulation of the encephalon eases terrible depression & # 8221 ; ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) . Magnet therapy for mental unwellness can now be & # 8220 ; backed up by scientific grounds & # 8221 ; ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) . Magnetic stimulation of the encephalon is capable of decreasing the grade of depression in patients and & # 8220 ; may go an alternate to electroconvulsive intervention ( ECT ) , which causes painful paroxysms and memory damage & # 8221 ; ( Bipolar Treatment, 2000 ) .
ECT is one of the most controversial interventions in psychopathology. The nature of the intervention itself is compounded with its history of maltreatment, damaging media presentations, and powerful testimonies of former patients, giving it a negative repute. This signifier of intervention is non administered lightly. The determination to offer ECT to a patient is based on his/her badness of upset and nonresponsiveness to other signifiers of intervention. Although ECT does hold some terrible side effects, such as memory loss and individuality confusion, it may still be an effectual and needful signifier of intervention in some bipolar patients ( Electroconvulsive Therapy BackGround Paper, 1988 ) .
Another intervention method, psychosurgery, is besides considered controversial. Psychosurgeries of the yesteryear included leukotomies, which bring to mind images of post-operative patients in an inanimate province of being. & # 8220 ; The psychosurgery of today bears small resemblance to the grossly destructive technique & # 8221 ; ( Psychosurgery redux, 2000 ) that was one time used in processs such as leukotomies. One of the processs performed today, known as cingulotomy, uses a tool referred to as a stereotactic frame. With this new tool, sawboness can accurately fire away targeted encephalon tissue, doing & # 8220 ; neither cognitive loss nor distressing personality alterations & # 8221 ; ( Psychosurgery redux, 2000 ) to the patient. Diagnosed bipolar patients, who have non responded good to other signifiers of intervention and/or those patients who are considered at high hazard for self-destruction, may be campaigners for psychosurgery ( Psychosurgery redux, 2000 ) .
Science and engineering have made important progresss since the times of the ancient Greeks, when depression was thought to be caused by inordinate black gall and passion to be caused by inordinate yellow gall ( Mondimore, 1999, p. 61 ) . Today & # 8217 ; s bipolar patient may have proper and expedient intervention and may do usage of any figure of intervention options. Diagnosing bipolar upset has become easier with the usage of medical manuals such as the DSM-IV. Various intervention options have become more widely accepted since medical surveies have provided convincing statistical findings. Today & # 8217 ; s universe provides bipolar patients with the chance to hold long, productive, originative and happy lives.
Peoples diagnosed with frenzied depression and those who suffer from it but have non yet been diagnosed, can be found in any societal position and in any topographic point. They may be a president, an creative person, a housewife, an histrion, a homeless individual, an writer, or a neighbour. The simple fact is that they are all people. Peoples with emotions, people who experience highs and depressions, people merely like every other individual on the planet.
These people may hold more troubles get bying with their milieus. They may necessitate aid and support through medicines, therapies, household, and/or friends. However, most of all, they need to be appreciated for their individualism, generativity, and creativeness that they can offer to the universe.
Two of the many productive and originative persons enduring from bipolar upset are George, a former pupil at Fernwood & # 8217 ; s Devereux Center ( Brandywine Programs Case Studies, 2000 ) , and Joy, a housewife, poet, and webmaster ( Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) . These persons have had to get the better of many obstructions in their lives, but they have prevailed. They are now both basking happy, productive and originative lives.
George was sent to Fernwood, an all boys plan, after being expelled from school for destructive behaviour. An appraisal found George to be enduring from bipolar upset. At first he was frightened about the diagnosing, but now George educates others about bipolar, is involved in the community, and works at the local YMCA ( Brandywine Programs Case Studies, 2000 ) . He is merely one illustration of a bipolar patient taking a productive life.
A all right illustration of a originative bipolar patient is Joy. She is the Godhead of a web site entitled Bipolar, which can be found at www.frii.com/~parrot/bip.html. Joy has educational stuffs, every bit good as merriment facts and poesy, on her web site. She uses her originative side to assist educate others about her unwellness ( Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) .
There are besides a figure of celebrated people with bipolar upset. Edgar Allen Poe, Vincent Van Gogh, Abraham Lincoln and Marilyn Monroe, and all had bipolar upset ( Bipolar Disorder, 2000 ) . These people are thought of as being extremely gifted and talented. Millions of people, across the universe, would likely hold that these bipolars have decidedly left their grade on the universe.
Who & # 8220 ; upon a midnight dreary? would sit and chew over? weak and weary & # 8221 ; but Edgar Allen Poe. What would the eventides be like without Vincent Van Gogh & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Starry Night? & # 8221 ; Where was freedom and equality born? The reference is Gettysburg ; the adult male of the house is Abraham Lincoln. When & # 8220 ; Gentlemen Prefer Blondes & # 8221 ; , they look to Marilyn Monroe. Why so, could anyone inquiry Aristotle when he said, & # 8220 ; No great mastermind has of all time existed without some touch of lunacy & # 8221 ; ?
ReferencesBipolar Disorder. Joy Ikelman. Aug. 2000. 15 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.frii.com/~parrot/bip.htmlBi-Polar Disorder: Advanced Research in Health. Synergy Group of Canada. 17 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.truehope.com/bi-polar/bi-polar1.htmBipolar Treatment. Mental Health Net & A ; CMHC Systems. 18 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: /www.mentalhelp.net/disorders/sx20t.htmBrandywine Programs Case Studies. 15 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.devereux.org/devereux/centers/beneto/case2.htm # 5Electroconvulsive Therapy Background Paper. By Research-able Inc. Mar. 1988. 16 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ect.org/resources/cmhs.htmlFriedrich, M. J. & # 8220 ; Lithium: Proving Its Mettle for 50 Years. & # 8221 ; Journal of American Medical Association 281 ( 1999 ) : 25-32
Manic-Depressive/Bipolar Disorder. American Psychiatric Association. 17 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.psych.org/public_info/manic.htmlModimore, Francis Mark. Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Patients and Families. John Hopkins U. P. , 1999
Psycopharmacology Tips by Dr. Bob. Robert Hsuing, M.D. May 1999. 7 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uhs.bsd.uchicago.edu/~bhsuing/tips/tips.htmlPsychosurgery redux. 7 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/971103/surg.htmPsychotherapy. Annenburg/CPB Collection. Boston: WGBH, 1990.
Rubin, Peplau & A ; Salovey. Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993.
What is Bipolar? Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development. 2 Aug. 2000 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bipolar.com/whatisbpd/whatisBPDFrame.htmWilliams & A ; Wilkins. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Baltimore: MD, 1996.