Biz Strategy Maybank
Maybank is the largest bank in Malaysia, operating with 374 domestic branches, 90 international branches and employing over 10,000 people (Maybank Annual Report 2009) The Malaysia retail banking industry is primary dominated by few competitors, including major player such as Maybank, Public Bank and CIMB that possess a market share of 75% and small chain of international commercial banking, Citibank, HSBC and Standard Chartered with a further 25%. Porter’s five forces model is used to identify the potential threats and opportunities confronting a bank (Maybank) that is entering or positioning into the banking industry. Hence, the model focuses on five meticulous forces which consist of competitive rivalry of the central focus that is surrounded by the threat of potential entrants and substitute, with bargaining power of buyers and suppliers as shown in Figure 1 (Porter 1980).
In Porter’s model, threats of new entrants impose the possibility that new firms may enter the industry and depends on the extent of barriers to entry (Johnson, Scholes, & Whittington, 2008). The capital and fixed cost that are required to get into this industry is high which regulated by Central Bank of Malaysia, anticipate a minimum of 300 million market capitalisation for bank (The Edge Malaysia 2009). Thus, the bank legislation had been restricted by Central Bank of Malaysia that criteria judgement on case to case basis (BAFIA 1989).
Also, the banking industry that had reached the maturity cycle which denial competitors into the banking industry (The Edge Malaysia 2009). Moreover, it is difficult to create a brand image in banking industry and customer will not easily fall into new bank offer although the bank offers same or higher interest rate than other existing banks. Clients want to save their money in the bank that can be trusted. In addition, new entrants might get problem with government regulation to get into banking industry.
It infers that the barriers to entry are high with the regulation requirement endorsed by the Central of Bank Malaysia and the threats of new entrants are low. The threat of substitutes is in relation to product or services that offer similar benefits with different process (Johnson 2008). Maybank face the substitution of financial institution (non banking government), Employees Provident Funds (EPF) that offer the clients with higher interest rate compare to fixed deposit offered from Maybank.
This illustrate to elderly citizen that reluctant to retrieve their maturity saving (55 years old) in EPF by putting the money into the bank with lower interest rate. In addition, the financial service substitution offered by the private money lender which the loan process does not required official individual supporting document and guarantor which compare to the bank requirement are much more stringent. Moreover, substitute of financial institution (non banking government), Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC) that provide grant for small medium enterprise business.
This substitute can reduce Maybank competitiveness and medium business loan market share for targeted clients and it infers that the threats of substitute is high The power of buyers is the impact that customers have on a buying process of the products from the banking industry. If a client has a house loan, car loan, and credit card with a particular bank, it can extremely tough for that individual to switch to another bank. In attempt to entice in clients, banks try to lower the price of switching, which Maybank tries to offer product value and convenience to customers.
However, in banking industries hardly sustain with differentiation strategy which due to others banks will follow to imitate the product and services offered. This implies that for the bank to survive profitably in the industry, it needs to provide a premium product value to the clients (Kotler, 1991). Maybank has corporate with Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) by offering the TNB clients to pay their bills via online (M2U), with an average monthly value of payment to TNB via M2U is over 25 million (M2U,29 Jan 2009).
It is therefore urged that from the high buyer bargaining power portray high threat towards Maybank because the clients have variety of banks to choose from to save, transact and invest their money with low switching cost. The core business of the banking industry is mainly ‘service’ which the supplier for the industry are tangibles. It includes cheque books, funds, human capital and others. In banking industry, Central Bank of Malaysia is the only fund supplier that facilitates the fund availability to Maybank. Hence, this is relation to concentrated suppliers where the supplier has more power over buyers (Johnson 2008).
Relatively, Maybank face a high treat towards the only fund supplier, however the power of supplier for others such like cheque books and human capital are low which relation that portray low treat towards Maybank because these suppliers are competitive in the market. The three main factors directly affecting the degree of competitive rivalry in relation to industry banking which are industry growth rate, high exit barriers and low product differentiation. The banking industry life cycle is reaching at the maturity stage which the low differentiation become a niche strategy to compete in local.
Thus, the low switching cost offered from one bank to other bank reflects the industry maturity stage. Whenever one bank comes out with our new product or service, it cannot stand for long period as other banks will follow its products and services. In addition, Maybank facade high exit barrier forces to linger in the retail banking industry even when the business venture is not profitable. The contribution factor of banking industry life cycle maturity causes the low industry growth rate and product standardisation.
The statistic loan growth in banking industry year to date 2009 is 6%. Thus, Maybank and others rivalry are competing with each other to provide the lowest and attractive interest rate to the clients. The above Porter’s Forces analysis evaluated the banking industry profit potential and sources of competitive intensity which portray high barrier to entry, high supplier and buyer power, competitive degree of rivalry and threats of financial institution substitute. From the above analysis, it infers that the banking industry is not attractive enough. . 0 Johnson (2008) prevail that strategies capabilities are related to the resources and competences of an organisation to compel a competitive advantage over the individual firm rivals. Hence by using the value chain analysis to discover the core competency of Maybank over their rivals and provides the studies of Maybank internal value chain strength that yields customer value. It explores the role and contribution of organization’s resources corresponding to primary and support activities in a cost-effective way to gain cost advantage.
In this essay, it emphasis the value chain of the Maybank primary activities which are inbound logistic, outbound logistic, sales, marketing, and product and the support activities which involves human resource and technology development (Figure 2). Inbound logistic is relation to the activities concern with receiving from the supplier to the firm. Maybank and other banking rivals main supplier is Central of Bank Malaysia which provide cash funds. The banking industry is toward service activities oriented.
Hence, the operation opportunity that enable the service task such as opening hours on every weekdays and provides 24 hours customer service helpline. These inbound logistic and operation are categories as standardised value chain across others bank rivals as it does impart Maybank strategic core competence and value against their rivals. Further to value chain analysis of outbound logistic stage is concerned with delivering the product or services to the clients (Viljoen & Dann 2003). Bank provides delivery channel service through ATM machine and internet banking facilities. Maybank is the market leader in online banking in Malaysia with 3. million customers (54% market share) and the highest number of web-based product offering online (Maybank 2009 Annual Report) compare to its rivals. Moreover, Maybank awarded “World Best Internet Banks” by the Global Finance with evaluation criteria towards competence of Maybank capable to shaping e-business in their market and globally (M2U, 19 August 2002). Marketing and sales in value chain analysis scrutinize the services and product offered to the clients through the distribution channel, advertising, branding and effective customer service that the bank undertaken (Johnson 2008).
Maybank promote and sell their products and services through distribution sales channel (branches) which each product will be lead by individual divisions such as, credit card, insurance, loans, and others. Maybank has the edge of strategic capabilities over the rivals with its successfully established 450 branches compare to CIMB of 366 branches. Consequently, with the established branches to serve widely customer, Maybank successfully lured customer base approximately 8 million clients compared to CIMB with 7 million customer base (CIMB, 2009; Maybank2u, 2009).
Maybank stand an edge of their branding capabilities among their rivals by become the third consecutive year sponsorship for “Maybank Malaysian Open 2009” which the tournament prized out the most domestic prestigious reward of US2 million and earned an international reputation ( Maybank Malaysia Open 2009). The human resource management involve in motivating, empowering, recruiting, training, retain and develop a pipeline of emergent talent (Hittm, Ireland, & Hoskisson 2005). In banking industry, the human resource manager outsources the recruitment to the head hunter and implements the employee referral scheme.
By outsourcing the talent recruitment, Maybank has capable to obtain and retain highly talented people from their competitive rivals and with the experience and skilled employees which will dominate the expertise value services to their clientele. Maybank advocate employees training and life-long learning programmes which emphasis knowledge and skill improvement for greater personal performance and organisational success, which in line with Maybank objective to retain employee rate. Maybank achieved retain employees’ rate when they hosted the “Long Service Awards” to their 471 employees within 20-30 years service (M2U, 29 October 2001).
Banking industry provides their employee with finance benefits such as lower loan rate, insurance coverage and others. Maybank has higher staff strength of 39,000 employees compared to CIMB with 36000 employees. This is relation to Maybank has wide branches operation which provide employment contribution and enhance the customer service with the high employee rate that able to cater for customer value (CIMB, 2009; Maybank2u, 2009). Moreover, Maybank was awarded “Malaysian Outstanding HR Achievement 2006” which in line with commitment to develop human talent in banking industry (M2U, 15 September 2006).
Technology development value chain analysis emphasis on capability to provide new innovative product solution that anticipate client needs (Johnson 2008). Maybank had leveraged on its market leader in electronic delivery channels range of services via the largest electronic network which grant strategic capability advantage among the rivals. This including ATMs machine as well as cash and cheque deposit machine, which Maybank had landmark 2000 units of automated teller machine (ATM) domestically which stand the largest ATM network in Malaysia (M2U, 11 Sept 2007).
In addition, 91 off-bank ATMs were also installed at location such as petrol outlets and shopping malls to serve the clients. Moreover, Maybank had succeeded to be the market leader in internet banking and consumer business through continuous improvement of Maybank2u and Maybank2e. net that offer customer value and convenience to their clientele. Maybank2e. net portal is an enterprise cash management solution that provides services of e-dividend, SOCSO, EPF, and other payment facilities for enterprise customer, and hence Maybank was the first to implement these facilities to the consumer (M2U, 24 February 2004).
These had brought Maybank into another edge of success when Maybank2u was awarded Best Brand for Banking Online (The Edge Malaysia 2006). From the above value chain analysis, it had identified Maybank core competency and resources that provide Maybank strategic competitive among their rivals. It infer that Maybank stands strategic capability of their core competency that have the highest market capitalisation which allow Maybank to invest tremendously in human capital by operating large dominated branches that enhance the direct customer service value to their clientele.
In addition, capable to invest of delivery channels such as ATMs which Maybank succeed their rivals with providing at 2000 units domestically to serve their clientele daily needs. Hence, Maybank technology development in online banking portray the edge of strategic capabilities that overwhelmed theirs rivals which conquer about 3. 8 million registered users with Maybank2u portal. Generic strategies are characterised by an individual banking response to the industry structure.
Hence, this essay emphasis on Maybank strategic choices that uses the cost leadership strategy by offering its product and services to a specific market at the lowest rate (Porter 1980). This strategy will be based on Maybank ability to control their operating cost so well that they are able to price their products competitively and able to generate high profit margins. Maybank is capable to implement cost leadership as they stand as the market leader with the highest market capitalisation about RM41. 05 billion compare to CIMB (RM32. 60 billion) and Public Bank (RM31. 43 billion) (The Edge Malaysia 2009).
Moreover, it appears reasonable that Maybank largest shareholder is national investment agency which is Permodalan National Berhad (PNB). In addition, with the operating lower margin that Maybank capable to conquer a greater sales volume than their rivalry. The strategic cost leadership adopted by Maybank provide suitability to the environment and also feasible because the market trend for banking industry is stagnant whichever other rivals will imitate the products, hence Maybank has the capabilities to deliver the strategy in long term with sustainability compare to others lower rivals without strong capitalisation.
Maybank financial profit had marked increase net profit of 54% at RM882 million and total deposits from consumer grew at rate of 8. 6% to RM218. 8 million which portray the acceptability from the stakeholder (M2U, 12 November 2009). However, strategy frameworks and structuring tools are the key to assessing the business situation and providing value added and reduces risk. From the generic strategy discussed above, Maybank implemented duo strategy with primary market objectives which focus on market development through strategic alliance and consolidation through merger & acquisition.
Maybank had been focus defensively on their current market and current products with relation to consolidation strategic direction (Johnson 2008), which banking and finance contributing 86. 5% of their overall business segmental (Malaysian Business Magazine 2008). Hence, to achieve the strategic direction, Maybank had acquired the weaker banking rivals in year 2000 and gain the market power and increase overall efficiency. The acquisitions involve rivals as such Pacific Bank Berhad (TPBB) and Phileo Allied Bank Berhad (Maybank 2000).
These strategic choices is feasible and acceptable when Maybank acquire 3 regional bank with total about 11. 2billion in straight year 2008 and one of the biggest acquired which is “Banking Internasional Indonesia” portray an annualised loan growth landed at 12. 1% (M2U, 12 November 2009). Further to strategic direction of Maybank pursuing, it focused on market development through strategic alliance which is part of the key factor for Maybank to achieve competitive among their rivals. Maybank had launched its first internet banking business (maybank2u) since year 2000 (M2U, 9 June 2000).
In relation to the market development strategic direction, Maybank continuous develop strategic alliance milestone with Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) by providing TNB clients with online bill payment through Maybank internet banking service (maybank2u). This strategic alliance milestone anticipate Maybank2u transaction to TNB alone about 25million a month and TNB benefits continuously improve its bill collection channels and provide greater convenience to their clients which claim reached 7 million ( M2U, 29 Jan 2009).
These strategic choices espoused by Maybank had portrayed the success assessment of acceptability, feasibility and suitability to their stakeholders and environment. Maybank had implement alliance with the domestic large company such as Tenaga National Berhad (TNB), Telekom, Dewan Bandaraya Ipoh (DBI), Amanah Saham National (ASN) and others which both organisation had integrate resource and consumer benefits by using Maybank online porter (Maybank2u & Maybank2e. net).
In 2008, Maybank had started going foreign with big acquired of 3 foreign banks which are An Binh Bank, PT Banking International(BII), and MCB Bank Ltd, whereby BII is the highest stake acquired by Maybank with 100% stake of value of RM 8. 6 billion (The Edge Malaysia 2009). The acquisition stakes with foreign bank will helps to increase the external knowledge competence that can transfer across the local industry market. The above essay conducted and evaluates the competitive analysis among the domestic banking industry.
The above analysis portray Maybank is competing in maturity stage of banking industry whereby differentiation strategy no longer capable to sustain the business strategy in a long term plan (The Edge Malaysia 2006). Hence, in a rapidly changing business environment with a high competitors’ pressure, Maybank have to adopt new expansion strategies or innovate the existing in order to sustain its leading market position in an already established banking industry.
Moreover, banks are targeted business player in service sector, hence the strategy formulation should therefore be deemed as a process of continuous learning, which includes learning about the goals, the effect of possible actions towards these goals and how to implement and execute these actions which benefits and provide value to their clientele. The objectives can be achieved through strategic alliance strategy with other organisations to create mutual knowledge and benefit sharing to achieve and stand ahead the competitive concentrated market.