Blindness Essay Research Paper The term blindness

9 September 2017

Blindness Essay, Research Paper

The term sightlessness implies total or

partial loss of vision affecting both eyes. The exact

degree of vision defined as sightlessness, nevertheless,

varies in different states because of differing

legal or societal demands. In the United States,

sightlessness is defined as unimprovable vision of

20/200 ( 6/60 ) or worse. This means that an

person is by and large considered blind who, even

with the usage of ordinary spectacless, can see no

better at 20 foot ( 6 m ) than a individual with normal

vision can see at 200 foot ( 60 m ) . On the other manus,

the World Health Organization ( WHO ) Program

Advisory Group on the Prevention of Blindness

lists the vision degree suggested every bit sightlessness as a

ocular sharp-sightedness of less than 10/200 ( 3/60 ) , which is

twice every bit low as the U.S. definition. The WHO

degree of ocular sharp-sightedness is besides described as the

inability to number fingers in daytime at a distance of

10 foot ( 3 m ) , because in many parts a great

figure of people can non have formal oculus

scrutinies but may be tested by unspecialised

forces. From informations available in the mid-1980s,

the figure of individuals worldwide who have a

ocular sharp-sightedness of less than 10/200 is estimated as 28

million. This degree of disability precludes an

single from working efficaciously in the

community without particular aid and

rehabilitation ( see BLIND, EDUCATION OF

THE ) . Were the definition of sightlessness alternatively

taken as 20/200, as is done in a figure of

industrialised states besides the United States,

the entire figure of unsighted individuals in the universe

would be about 42 million. The prevalence and

causes of sightlessness vary harmonizing to the

geographical location and economic position of a

part. Therefore in developing states in tropical

countries, the figure of unsighted individuals may make at

least 21 million ( utilizing the WHO definition ) . This

high figure is due to the monolithic prevalence of

such oculus diseases as TRACHO

MA,

river blindness ( RIVER BLINDNESS ) , and the

NUTRITION-DEFICIENCY DISEASES

keratomalacia and xerophthalmus. In add-on, few

oculus physicians are present in such parts to handle

CATARACT or inadvertent oculus hurts. In other

developing states where oculus attention is non easy

available and the presence of untreated cataract

and undetected GLAUCOMA is besides critical, the

figure of unsighted individuals may make 5.5 million. In

developed states with advanced medical

services, on the other manus, most curable

sightlessness is treated. Thus although many individuals

may hold vision jobs, the exact figure of

blind persons may be less than 2 million. The

chief causes of sightlessness in such states are

age-related cataract, glaucoma, DIABETES, and

macular devolution ( see EYE DISEASES ) . In

the United States about 1 million cataracts are

removed each twelvemonth and vision improved with

either an intraocular plastic lens, a contact corneal

lens, or a cataract glass. Several million Americans

are besides being treated for glaucoma, which if

caught in its early phases can normally be dealt with

by medicine or surgery. PAUL HENKIND,

M.D. Bibliography: Dobree, J. H. , and Boulter,

Eric, Blindness and Visual Handicap: The Facts

( 1982 ) ; Faye, E. E. , Clinical Low Vision ( 1976 ) ;

Henkind, Paul, Priest, R. S. , and Schiller, G. ,

Collection of Ophthalmology ( 1983 ) ; Kirchner,

Corinne, Data on Blindness and Visual Impairment

in the U. S. A. ( 1985 ) ; Koestler, Frances, The

Unobserved Minority: A Social History of Blindness in

the United States ( 1976 ) ; Lewis, Vicky,

Development and Handicap, 3d erectile dysfunction. ( 1987 ) ;

Monbeck, Michael E. , The Meaning of Blindness

( 1973 ) ; Naumann, G. O. , and Apple, D. J. ,

Pathology of the Eye ( 1986 ) ; Sommer, Alfred,

Nutritional Blindness ( 1982 ) ; Warren, David,

Blindness and Early Development ( 1977 ) ; Wilson,

John, World Blindness and Its Prevention, 2 vols.

( 1980-84 ) .

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