Blood Pressure

8 August 2016

What supports the diagnosis of chronic renal failure instead of acute renal failure? Give reasons from George’s history; his signs/symptoms. The terms acute and chronic are terms used by medical specialist to describe the amount of time that the illness as lasted. Chronic meaning a long time such as a month or longer while acute means a short period of time from days up to a couple of weeks. So the fact that George began noticing issues with his blood pressure being harder to control then normally lasting over a month indicates that is when the renal issues began.

One of the function of the kidneys is to regulate blood volume and pressure. With this information the diagnosis of Chronic renal failure was warranted. Which of the blood test results are abnormal? Why would chronic kidney failure cause these abnormal results? The test results that are abnormal are the RBC and Hgb. George’s test results for RBC were 3. 8 million cells/mcL but the normal results for an adult male would be between 4. 2 and 5. 9. His results for Hgb was 11. 0 gm/dL but the normal for an adult male is 13. 5.

Blood Pressure Essay Example

With both hemoglobin and RBC being low this would indicate anemia which is a indication that the kidneys are not producing enough erythropoiten which causing decrease production of the red blood cells. Module 06 Written Assignment 3 Which of the urine test results are abnormal? Why does chronic kidney failure cause these abnormal results? The GFR results for George were 45 mL/min/1. 73m but the normal range is 90-130. This test measures how well the kidneys are handling waste. Also George’s creatine results were 3g/24hr but the normal is 102g/24.

The protien levels for George were 3g/24hr but the normal range is trace-0 -150mg/24hr. This would indicate that George is in stage three kidney failure. Increase urine creatinine and protein in the urine signifies damage to kidney’s filtration units. (kidney)(stress) (Gould, B. E. , pg 196-197, 2011) If George was in the second stage of chronic renal failure, what percent of his nephrons have been lost? What changes will be seen in the GFR; urination; and percent of nephrons lost when George reaches end-stage renal failure?

The amount of nephrons that would be lost if George was in the second stage of chronic renal failure would be about 75% loss. At the end stage of chronic renal failure there would be a loss of more then 90% of nephorons and his GFR levels would be so low that they would not be readable. Blood would become toxic due to fluid, electrolytes and wastes are retained causing an impact on all body systems. Marked oliguria (scant) to none (anuria) would develop. (Gould, B. E. , pg. 460, 2011).

At this point due to the fluid, wastes, and electrolytes being built up the blood would turn toxic and then impact all the systems of the body. George’s kidneys will fail and without transplant or dialysis on a regular basis, his life would be in danger. Module 06 Written Assignment 4 How will George’s condition be treated? Is it curable? First the doctor would focus on lowering George’s blood pressure as this is a stress on the kidneys. The doctor would then focus on decreasing the progression of the chronic renal failure. He would be given a blood pressure medication and implement lifestyle changes.

Some of these changes would be diet, exercise, and measures to reduce stress such as education about blood pressure and possibly encouraging taking some time off of work. For the anemia the doctor folic acid, iron, and B12. He would also encourage George to eat foods rich in these minerals. As for is this curable, no it is not but it can be treated. Which Electrolyte? Which electrolyte balance was diagnosed? Which lab results support this diagnosis? Is there anything else in Betty’s history that would support this diagnosis?

Normal Magnesium levels range from 0. 7 to 1. 1 mmol per liter. Betty’s levels were 3 mEq/L which would indicate she has Hypermagnesemia. Neuromuscular toxicity is the most consistently observed complication of hypermagnesemia. Increased magnesium decreases impulse transmission across the neuromuscular junction producing the “pins and needles” feeling Betty has been experiencing in her legs. What foods would the doctor recommend Betty eat? Why? The doctor may advise limiting certain foods: most nuts and nut butters; soybeans, tofu, lentils, kidney Module 6 5

beans and pinto beans; collard greens, kale, spinach, avocados and potatoes with the skin on; millet, brown rice, bran, wheat germ, oatmeal and whole wheat bread; dried apricots, raisins and bananas; and milk, yogurt, chocolate and cocoa powder. The doctor would advice Betty to eat grains that are highly refined or boiled are typically low in magnesium, such as boiled macaroni, boiled white rice, white flour products and pastries. Many fruits are low in magnesium, including raspberries, cantaloupe, cherries, strawberries, plums, peaches, oranges, pineapple, grapefruit, apples, pears, cranberries, and grapes.

Boiled vegetables including peas, broccoli, cauliflower, and potatoes without the skin are encouraged, as well as carrots, mushrooms, onions, eggplant, lettuce, tomatoes, cucumber and asparagus. Finally, lean meats such as roast pork, grilled lamb, ham, and roast beef are good protein sources. (Wyman 2013) What medication/supplement might the doctor prescribe? Why would it probably only be needed for a short period of time? Calcium may be given by the doctor because of the effects that high levels of magnesium can have on the heart and the fact the Betty is a heart patient.

But because her levels are not currently high and at the lower end of the spectrum the doctor would not keep her on this medication for a long period of time. Why is it important for Betty to be on furosemide for her Congestive Heart Failure? What does this drug do? Furosemide is a diuretic used to keep fluid from building up around the heart. Betty suffers from congestive heart failure which is caused by fluid build up surrounding the heart. So it is very Module 6 6 important that Betty remains on the Furosemide to prevent this from happening.

If Betty asks you why this electrolyte is important, what would you tell her? Electrolytes maintain the electric voltage throughout your cells so that signals can pass easily. Several bodily functions are dependent on this electrical communication that electrolytes help carry. They include regulating nerve and muscle function, acidity levels and fluid levels. An imbalance of electrolytes have dire consequences. For example, bicarbonate is an electrolyte that is responsible for regulating muscles like the heart. Insufficient levels of bicarbonate would result in irregular heart beats, which may be fatal.

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