Blowing Smoke Essay Research Paper Blowing SmokeIn
Blowing Smoke Essay, Research Paper
In the United States today, more than forty six million Americans are addicted to coffin nails. More people have died due to cigarette smoking than from narcotic drugs, World Wars I and II, and the Vietnam War combined ( Bailey 1 ) . The one-year decease toll for coffin nail smoke is more than four-hundred 1000 Americans a twelvemonth, and is the number-one preventable cause of decease in the United States. If Americans are cognizant of the deadly effects of smoke, why is it still so popular? Guy Smith, a Phillip Morris Tobacco Company executive, claims that their research shows that advertisement is the top ground people start smoking ( Bailey 34 ) . Most people will reason that this is non true because the bash non wish to be & # 8220 ; sold & # 8221 ; and do non like to acknowledge advertisement affects them. Despite their claims, more Americans buy trade name name and to a great extent advertised merchandises than any other state in the universe ( Bailey 33 ) . Smoking in the mass media is advertised and portrayed in such a manner that it is attractive to the public but does non warn about its harmful effects. The media besides targets kids and adolescents with sketch advertizements and by seting them in countries that are attractive you immature heads.
Tobacco companies recognize the harmful effects of their merchandises, but deny that their advertizements play any portion in making a desire to smoke. William Hobbs, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Chief Executive Officer, explains, & # 8220 ; Advertising played no portion in promoting people to smoke, so hence I have no duty to press them non to smoke & # 8221 ; ( Bailey 205 ) . Phillip Morris Tobacco Company uses a & # 8220 ; friendly acquaintance & # 8221 ; gambit to pull tobacco users and portrays smoking as a socially acceptable pattern. In their advertizements, people can be seen express joying and smoke in a crowded eating house, but Phillip Morris claims they have ne’er created the thought that smoke is a merriment or popular thing to make ( Bailey 207 ) .
A major issue today in baccy advertizement is the contention over ads aiming kids and adolescents. The two companies under the most fire for their advertizements are Marlboro and Camel. Marlboro uses a fictional & # 8220 ; Marlboro Man, & # 8221 ; while Camel uses a high peal and sophisticated sketch character, Joe Camel. Camel has been attacked by several Tobacco-free organisations as a major influence on kids. Dr. Lonnia Bristow of the American Medical Association comments, & # 8220 ; To kids, sketch characters mean that the merchandise is harmless, but coffin nails are non harmless. They have to cognize that their ads are act uponing kids under 10 to get down smoke, but choose non to halt making them & # 8221 ; ( Thomas ) . Research workers have conducted surveies that show six twelvemonth olds recognize Joe Camel every bit good as they recognize Mickey Mouse. Every industry denies that their advertisement end marks people under 21, and they claim their end is to merely advance trade name shift and trade name trueness ( Breo ) . Jeff Pearlman sums up the attitude of the baccy and advertisement industries by stating, & # 8220 ; Is the usage of a sketch character in an ad cogent evidence that you are & # 8216 ; aiming kids & # 8216 ; ? If so, what about the Pink Panther selling insularity or Snoopy advancing insurance? & # 8221 ; ( Bill Clinton & # 8230 ; ) .
The media and the amusement industries have a major impact on smoke. With the aid of films and telecasting, smoking seems & # 8220 ; ice chest & # 8221 ; than of all time. In the popular film, & # 8220 ; My Best Friend & # 8217 ; s Wedding, & # 8221 ; superstar Julia Roberts & # 8217 ; smoking wont seems glamourous and appealing to the viewing audiences and, in past coevalss, smoke was & # 8220 ; romantic & # 8221 ; when Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart smoked together ( Trillin 2 ) . Smoking in the films is non merely seen as glamourous and romantic, but it is besides associated with emphasis decrease, or a restful activity ( Bailey 39 ) . The high rate of smoke in movie has been the consequence of baccy companies paying manufacturers to put their trade name of coffin nails in their films since the 1930 & # 8217 ; s ( Bailey 39 ) .
In 1967, the & # 8220 ; Fairness Doctrine & # 8221 ; required equal clip for smoking and anti-smoking advertizements on telecasting. During this clip, the sum of smoke in the United States went down well and Americans became more cognizant of wellness issues. In January of 1971, all wireless and telecasting baccy advertizements were banned from the air passages. Since the anti-smoking advertizements had to go forth the air every bit good, smoking Numberss rose once more, turn outing that advertisement is effectual. The prohibition went every bit far as the Supreme Court, and at that place was ruled constitutional for the benefit O
f the public’s wellness ( Bailey 40 ) . On August 10, 1995, President Clinton directed the FDA ( Food and Drug Administration ) to follow regulations to halt gross revenues and selling of coffin nails and smokeless baccy ads to bush leagues. This new regulation would necessitate sellers to analyze cogent evidence of age before selling baccy merchandises to bush leagues, baccy hoardings would non be allowed near schools or resort areas, featuring events would non be sponsored by the trade name name of baccy, and giveaways and other selling catchs affecting baccy would be out. Finally, the baccy industry would be required to pay one hundred 50 million dollars per twelvemonth for an educational run including anti-smoking ads ( Bill Clinton… ) .
Despite the advertisement prohibition in 1971, advertizements can still be seen on most televised athleticss events. Tobacco sponsorships of featuring events entire about eighty four million dollars a twelvemonth with hoarding advertizements that can be seen on telecasting in about every sporting event ( Bailey 41 ) . Having advertizements on professional sporting events creates the thought that smoke is associated with being athletic ; or if baccy is used, athletic ability and art will follow. None of the advertizements reference that smoke, in fact, hinders athletic ability and causes disenabling diseases.
Another country where baccy ads are to a great extent used are in magazines. Research workers from Harvard University conducted a hunt of 36 different magazines published from 1986 to 1994, 15 of which were youth magazines. These surveies found that baccy advertizements made up 60 seven per centum of all ads placed in the young person magazines. This same group of research workers interviewed 25 teens between the ages of 15 and 17. When these teens were asked why they started smoking, they gave two chief grounds. They wanted to & # 8220 ; be a portion if a equal group & # 8221 ; and to & # 8220 ; make out and rebel. & # 8221 ; Two of the young person magazines where baccy ads were the most outstanding, Spin and Rolling Stone, represent rebelling, independency, credence, and felicity. These are all things that immature people desire, and by holding ads in these magazines, the fire for teenage smoke as farther fueled ( Thomas ) .
When advertisement became a popular agencies of selling a merchandise, the baccy industries target audience was adult females and today it is kids. The mean age that kids start smoking today is twelve. In fact, 90 per centum of all grownup tobacco users said that they lit up for the first clip as adolescents. The most powerful force behind wheedling them into smoke is publicizing ( Bailey 51 ) . Statistics show three million kids under 18 fume in America today. Three 1000 teens start smoking each twenty-four hours intending that one point one million start each twelvemonth ( Trillin 2 ) . To no 1 & # 8217 ; s surprise, adolescents smoke the most to a great extent advertised coffin nail trade names. Marlboro, Camel, and Newport are the three top Sellerss and the three most advertised trade names. The most advertised trade name is ever the most smoked by teens, turn outing that advertisement influences them to smoke a peculiar trade name ( Bailey 129 ) . An extended survey done by professor Richard Pollay besides found that when a company & # 8217 ; s advertisement budget increased, its market portion increased merely three per centum for grownups but over nine per centum for adolescents ( Bailey 131 ) . But what do these companies advertise- non statistics of the harmful effects smoking creates or the figure of deceases related to coffin nails.
The baccy companies target the immature coevals for a ground. Since smoke is one of the prima causes of decease, many tobacco users die prematuraly because of its harmful effects. The industry must & # 8220 ; replace & # 8221 ; these lost tobacco users, so they target kids and adolescents. Surveies have shown that 90 per centum of new tobacco users are teens, turn outing that most lifetime tobacco users start smoking at a immature age. Parents today should warn kids about the harmful effects of baccy and the advertisement tactics the baccy companies would utilize to pull them into this harmful dependence.
Bailey, William E. The Invisible Drug. Houston: Mosaic Publications, 1996.
& # 8220 ; Bill Clinton vs. Joe Camel. & # 8221 ; U.S. News and World Report. ( September 2, 1996 ) 12.
Breo, Dennis L. & # 8220 ; Kicking Butts-AMA, Joe Camel and the & # 8216 ; Black Flag & # 8217 ; war on tobacco. & # 8220 ; The Journal of the American Medical Association. ( October 29, 1994 )
& # 8220 ; Geting the Message Straight. & # 8221 ; Behavioral Health Management. ( July, 2000 ) 20:48.
Trillin, Alice. & # 8220 ; Blowing Smoke. & # 8221 ; The Nation ( July 19, 1999 ) 269:6.