Cartilage
Serves as a cushion
Ligament
Dense, regular connective tissue/bone to bone
Tendons
Dense, regular connective tissue/ bone to muscle
Osteocytes
Separated by an extracellular matrix hardened by deposits of calcium salts Diaphysis
Long shaft of compact bone
Compact bone
Solid and dense, found on the surface of the femur
Central cavity

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Yellow marrow
Made up of fat
Periosteum
Tough membrane made up of dense irregular connective tissue covering the outer surface of the bone Epiphyses
Enlarged ends
Spongy bone
Lattice-like, resembles a sponge. Found on the inside of the femur Red bone
marrow
Major site for blood cell production
Articular cartilage
Covers the epiphysis and helps to cushion joints
Epiphyseal disc
Layer of cartilage within the epiphysis. Site of bone elongation.

EXERCISE 1– Long bone structure

Identify the labeled parts of the long bone.
A.
Central cavity
B.
Compact bone
C.
Periosteum
D.
Yellow marrow
E.
Spongy bone containing red marrow
F.
Articular cartilage
G.
Epiphyseal disc
H.
Epiphyses
I.
diaphysis
J.
epiphyses

Which architectural form of bone tissue is harder per unit volume? Compact bone, much harder

When comparing pieces of equal size, which from of bone tissue weighs less?
Spongy bone

B. Microscopic Bone Structure

Define the following terms.
Haversian canals
Brings blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fibers from the periosteum into the bone tissue Lacunae
Small chambers
Canaliculi
Forma transportation network through the hard bone matrix connecting the osteocytes to the nutrient supply in the blood Lamellae
Separate the rings of osteocytes
Haversian system
The structural unit of compact bone

EXERCISE 2 – Haversian system

Identify the labeled parts of the Haversian system.
A.
Canaliculi
B.
Haversian canal
C.
Haversian system
D.
lucuna
E.
Osteocyte
F.
Lamellae
G.
Periosteum
H. c
Compact bone
I.
Spongy bone
J.

Where are the living osteocytes found?
lacunae

Haversian systems are continuously being broken down by the action of osteoclast cells and built up by action of osteoblast cells. What role might this play in bone fracture healing? The cells needed to break down the broken fragments and to make a new bone.

C. Joints

Define the following terms.
Joint
Junction between 2 bones
Fibrous joints
Bones connected my fibrous cartilage; connect the bones of the skull in adults Cartilaginous joints
Bones with a disc of cartilage between them and held together by ligaments; joints between vertebrae Synovial joints
Bones held together with ligaments where the joints are lined by a synovial membrane

EXERCISE 3 – Joints

Identify the types of joints on the articulated skeleton
A.
Fibrous
B.
Cartilaginous
C.
Synovial
D.
Cartilaginous
E.
synovial
F.

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